The importance of biofuels in greening the transport sector in the future is unquestionable, given the limited available fossil energy resources, the environmental issues associated to the utilization of fossil fuels, and the increasing attention to security of supply. This comprehensive reference presents the latest technology in all aspects of biofuels production, processing, properties, raw materials, and related economic and environmental aspects. Presenting the application of methods and technology with minimum math and theory, it compiles a wide range of topics not usually covered in one single book. It discusses development of new catalysts, reactors, controllers, simulators, online analyzers, and waste minimization as well as design and operational aspects of processing units and financial and economic aspects. The book rounds out by describing properties, specifications, and quality of various biofuel products and new advances and trends towards future technology. Riazi www.
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Tracking TransportVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Energy 101: Electricity Generation
Electric vehicles EVs are an important part of meeting global goals on climate change. They feature prominently in mitigation pathways that limit warming to well-below 2C or 1.
However, while no greenhouse gas emissions directly come from EVs, they run on electricity that is, in large part, still produced from fossil fuels in many parts of the world. Energy is also used to manufacture the vehicle — and, in particular, the battery. Here, in response to recent misleading media reports on the topic, Carbon Brief provides a detailed look at the climate impacts of EVs.
In this analysis, Carbon Brief finds:. There are also large uncertainties around the emissions associated with electric vehicle battery production, with different studies producing widely differing numbers. As battery prices fall and vehicle manufacturers start including larger batteries with longer driving ranges, battery production emissions can have a large impact on the climate benefits of electric vehicles. Around half of the emissions from battery production come from the electricity used in manufacturing and assembling the batteries.
Producing batteries in regions with relatively low-carbon electricity or in factories powered by renewable energy, as will be the case for the batteries used in the best-selling Tesla Model 3 , can substantially reduce battery emissions. It also engendered pushback from electric vehicle advocates, with articles in Jalopnik and Autoblog , as well as individual researchers rebutting the claim.
Other recent studies of electric cars in Germany have reached the opposite conclusion. These differences arise from the assumptions used by researchers. These include which specific vehicles are being compared, what electricity grid mix is assumed, if marginal or average electricity emissions are used, what driving patterns are assumed, and even the weather. The figure below, adapted from an analysis by the International Council for Clean Transportation ICCT , shows an estimate of lifecycle emissions for a typical European conventional internal combustion engine car, the hybrid conventional car with the best available fuel economy a Toyota Prius Eco , and a Nissan Leaf electric vehicle for various countries, as well as the EU average.
The exception is in countries — Norway or France, for example — where nearly all electricity comes from near-zero carbon sources, such as hydroelectric or nuclear power. However, while the carbon emitted from burning a gallon of petrol or diesel cannot be reduced, the same is not true for electricity. Lifecycle emissions for electric vehicles are much smaller in countries such as France which gets most of its electricity from nuclear or Norway from renewables.
The chart above bases electric-vehicle emissions on the current grid mix in each country. However, if the climate targets set in the Paris Agreement are to be met, electricity generation will become significantly less carbon-intensive, further increasing the advantage of electric vehicles over conventional ones. The central estimate of battery-manufacturing emissions in the ICCT analysis is the same as in the ifo study. The Nissan Leaf analysed here has a 30 kilowatt hour kWh battery, while the Tesla Model 3 has both 50kWh or 75kWh options a 62kWh option was previously available, but has been discontinued.
The long-range 75kWh model is used for this analysis, to mimic the approach in the ifo study; battery-manufacturing emissions from the mid-range 50kWh model would be around a third smaller. Under these assumptions, a Tesla Model 3 would have higher lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions than the best-rated conventional car, but would still be better for the climate than the average vehicle. However, the fact that the Tesla batteries are, in fact, manufactured in Nevada makes a big difference to this calculation.
Lifecycle emissions estimates for batteries produced in the US tend to be notably lower than those produced in Asia, as discussed later in this article. Taking manufacturing conditions into account, a Model 3 with a 75kWh battery from the Nevada Gigafactory results in notably smaller emissions — and has a lifecycle climate impact similar to the estimate for the Nissan Leaf.
It still has lifetime emissions similar to the most efficient conventional cars in Germany and the US, but is, in all cases, a substantial improvement over the average conventional vehicle. Emissions from electricity generation will also vary within countries, with some regions having much cleaner generation mixes and correspondingly larger climate advantages for EVs than others. The figures shown above adjust emissions for both conventional and electric vehicles to reflect real-world driving conditions rather than test-cycle numbers.
This is important, as official fuel economy estimates can differ widely from real-world performance, with large knock-on impacts for the comparison between conventional and electric vehicles. The ifo study provides an example of the potential pitfalls of using test-cycle fuel economy values instead of real-world performance. The study compared the lifetime emissions from a Mercedes C to the new Tesla Model 3, taking into account emissions associated with vehicle production.
In other words, despite the headlines it generated, even ifo found that EVs ranged from being slightly better to somewhat worse than a diesel vehicle. The study assumed a fuel economy of 52 miles per gallon mpg for the Mercedes, which is significantly higher than the average car in the US 25mpg for petrol vehicles , but similar to average fuel economy in the UK 52mpg for petrol vehicles and 61mpg for diesel vehicles.
However, different fuel-economy testing procedures produce quite different results. Using more realistic estimates of fuel economy for the conventional vehicle would have a large effect on the results of the ifo analysis, making the EV option preferable to the conventional vehicle. IVL examined studies published between and , and concluded that battery manufacturing emissions are likely between and kg CO2-equivalent per kWh of battery capacity.
The IVL study also noted that battery technology was evolving rapidly and that there is great potential for reduction in manufacturing emissions. Carbon Brief undertook its own assessment of the literature to find recently published estimates of lifecycle emissions from battery manufacturing. The figure below shows data from 17 different studies, including seven published after the IVL estimate. It divides studies based on the region in which the batteries were produced: Asia in red , Europe light blue , US dark blue and reviews that examine multiple regions grey.
Most of the studies published in recent years show lifecycle emissions smaller than those in the IVL study, with an average of around kg CO2 per kWh for those published after Manufacturing emission estimates are generally higher in Asia than in Europe or the US, reflecting the widespread use of coal for electricity generation in the region.
A number of studies break down emissions into mining, refining and other material production that happens off-site, as well as the actual manufacturing process where the battery is assembled. These tend to find that about half the lifecycle emissions are a result of off-site material production and half result from electricity used in the manufacturing process. This is shown in the table below, taken from the IVL report, which breaks down lifecycle emissions by component and manufacturing stage.
Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from battery manufacture by component and manufacturing stage in kg CO2-equivalent per kWh battery capacity. As the IVL study notes:. Nevada has phased out nearly all of its coal-based power generation over the past two decades, as shown in the figure below. Nevada electricity generation mix from through , from the New York Times.
Tesla Gigafactory solar roof installation in-progress as of 18 April Image from Teslarati. The Gigafactory was also built with a focus on energy efficiency, employing material reuse when possible. However, it is unclear what the actual energy use and emissions associated with battery production at the site are as Tesla has not released any figures.
Given the lower lifecycle manufacturing emission estimates of studies in recent years — and the location of the manufacturing facility in a state with a relatively low-carbon electricity generation mix — Carbon Brief provides a conservative estimate of 88kg CO2-equivalent per kWh. FFE found that if batteries were produced using renewable energy, as is the goal for the Nevada Gigafactory, emissions would fall down to 62kg CO2-equivalent per kWh. The climate benefit of EVs depend not only on the country where an EV is used, but also what region of the country it is used in.
In the US, for example , there is a wide variation in how electricity is generated, with much cleaner electricity in places such as California or New York than in the middle parts of the country. How the emissions from electricity generation are calculated is also important. It would be more accurate to use marginal emissions, Michalek says. This reflects emissions from the power plants turned on to meet new demand from EV charging.
He explains:. What changes, at least in the short run, is primarily that coal and natural gas plants will increase generation in response to this new load. The marginal grid mix typically has higher emissions intensity than the average.
However, the marginal emissions are something of a short-term estimate of EV impacts. As the demand from more EVs is added to the grid, gas and coal resources that are currently not being utilised may increase their output, but over the longer term additional generation sources will come online. Michalek explains that the impact of EV adoption on future power plant construction is an area of active research.
The figure below shows their results. Each county in the country is colored red if the petrol vehicle has lower emissions and blue if the electric vehicle has lower emissions. Figure 2 in Yuksel et al They found that the Nissan Leaf EV is considerably better than a similar typical conventional vehicle outside of parts of the Midwest that rely heavily on coal for marginal emissions. However, when compared to the most efficient conventional vehicle, the climate benefits of the EV were near-zero or negative in large parts of the country.
This study examines the current mix of electricity generation, which will likely become less carbon-intensive over the lifetime of vehicles operating today. However, the authors caution that the relationship between average emission reductions and marginal emission reductions is not always clearcut. Because marginal emissions come primarily from fossil-fuel plants, emission reductions for EV charging will occur mainly when gas displaces coal at the margin, or when widespread EV adoption requires bringing new low-carbon electricity generation facilities online to meet demand.
In both the US and Europe, EVs represent a substantial reduction in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to the average conventional vehicle. This has been a consistent finding across the overwhelming majority of studies examined by Carbon Brief.
As electricity generation becomes less carbon intensive — particularly at the margin — electric vehicles will become preferable to all conventional vehicles in virtually all cases. There are fundamental limitations on how efficient petrol and diesel vehicles can become, whereas low-carbon electricity and increased battery manufacturing efficiency can cut most of the manufacturing emissions and nearly all electricity use emissions from EVs. A transition from conventional petrol and diesel vehicles to EVs plays a large role in mitigation pathways that limit warming to meet Paris Agreement targets.
However, it depends on rapid decarbonisation of electricity generation to be effective. Error bars reflect lifecycle battery manufacturing estimates ranging from 50 to kg per kWh used in the ICCT analysis , with a central estimate of kg per kWh. The Peugeot 1. Non-battery manufacturing emissions were assumed to be the same as those of the Nissan Leaf used in the ICCT analysis. The following studies were used by Carbon Brief in the battery lifecycle emissions literature review:.
Philippot, M. Regett, A. Messagie, M. Han, H. Romare, M. Wolfram, P. Wang, Y. Ambrose, H. Dunn, J. Ellingsen, L.
Kim, H. Peters, J. Nealer, R.
The facility's construction phase is slated to take place between and , and it will be located in the city of Zhangjiagang, Jiangsu Province, the BMW Group said Friday. Once up and running, the factory line will have the capacity to produce as many as , vehicles annually. Alongside the manufacture of vehicles, the joint-venture will also focus on the "joint development of battery electric vehicles", BMW said. The Mini Electric is already being built in Oxford, England. Worldwide electric car sales hit 1.
BYD plans to increase the production capacity for electric buses in India from currently 2, to 5, per year in cooperation with their partner Olectra. In addition, the order books for the T3 electric delivery van in India are to be opened soon. According to BYD, it intends to sell 10, units of the T3 in the next two to three years. Currently, orders for vehicles have already been logged, including 50 units ordered by fleet operator Eto Motors — with the prospect of a much larger follow-up order.
BMW and Great Wall Motor to build all-electric Mini cars in China
Published Apr 16, Updated Sep 16, Read more here. Electric vehicles EVs burn no gasoline and have no tailpipe emissions, but producing the electricity used to charge them does generate global warming emissions. The amount of these emissions, however, varies significantly based on the mix of energy sources used to power a region's electricity grid. For example, coal-fired power plants produce nearly twice the global warming emissions of natural gas-fired power plants, while renewable sources like wind and solar power produce virtually no emissions at all. Driving on electricity is cheaper than driving on gasoline. Driving an EV slashes oil consumption and saves thousands of dollars in fuel costs over the lifetime of the vehicle.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Electron Transport Chain ETC Made Easy
Electric vehicles EVs are an important part of meeting global goals on climate change. They feature prominently in mitigation pathways that limit warming to well-below 2C or 1. However, while no greenhouse gas emissions directly come from EVs, they run on electricity that is, in large part, still produced from fossil fuels in many parts of the world. Energy is also used to manufacture the vehicle — and, in particular, the battery. Here, in response to recent misleading media reports on the topic, Carbon Brief provides a detailed look at the climate impacts of EVs. In this analysis, Carbon Brief finds:. There are also large uncertainties around the emissions associated with electric vehicle battery production, with different studies producing widely differing numbers.
Global EV Outlook 2019
An electric vehicle , also called an EV , uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery , solar panels or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs first came into existence in the midth century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. Modern internal combustion engines have been the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles for almost years, but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types.
Before that, he worked as a resident engineer, an experimentalist and a consultant engineer in various fields of civil engineering. Since , he is working as a researcher in computational geoenvironment at the Computational Mechanics Chair at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences in Delft University of Technology. His main area of interest is in geothermal energy, CO2 geo-sequestration, multiphase flow in porous medium domains and wave propagation in layered systems. He developed several analytical, semi-analytical and numerical models for these fields. The main focus of his research work is the formulation of innovative mathematical models and the development of efficient computational procedures capable of simulating multi-physical processes occurring in complicated geometry using minimal computational efforts. Along this line, Dr. He is working in geothermics, subsurface and surface hydrology and integrated water resources management, and connected disciplines. Here, he assisted the country in evaluation and development of its huge low-enthalpy geothermal resources for power generation. In November , Prof.
India turns to electric vehicles to beat pollution
The Global EV Outlook is an annual publication that identifies and discusses recent developments in electric mobility across the globe. Combining historical analysis with projections to , the report examines key areas of interest such as electric vehicle and charging infrastructure deployment, ownership cost, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions and battery material demand. The report includes policy recommendations that incorporate learning from frontrunner markets to inform policy makers and stakeholders that consider policy frameworks and market systems for electric vehicle adoption. This edition features a specific analysis of the performance of electric cars and competing powertrain options in terms of greenhouse gas emissions over their life cycle. As well, it discusses key challenges in the transition to electric mobility and solutions that are well suited to address them. This includes vehicle and battery cost developments; supply and value chain sustainability of battery materials; implications of electric mobility for power systems; government revenue from taxation; and the interplay between electric, shared and automated mobility options. The number of charging points worldwide was estimated to be approximately 5. The evolution of well-to-wheel WTW greenhouse gas emissions from the EV fleet is determined by the combined evolution of the energy used by EVs and the carbon intensity of electricity generation — as the grid becomes less carbon intensive, so do EVs. Despite the comparative advantage of EVs in terms of GHG emissions, it is clear that the benefits of transport electrification on climate change mitigation will be greater if EV deployment takes place in parallel with the decarbonisation of power systems. Electric mobility is expanding at a rapid pace.
Огонь приближался к вершине. ТРАНСТЕКСТ стонал, его корпус готов был вот-вот рухнуть. Голос Дэвида точно вел ее, управляя ее действиями. Она бросилась к лестнице и начала подниматься к кабинету Стратмора. За ее спиной ТРАНСТЕКСТ издал предсмертный оглушающий стон. Когда распался последний силиконовый чип, громадная раскаленная лава вырвалась наружу, пробив верхнюю крышку и выбросив на двадцать метров вверх тучу керамических осколков, и в то же мгновение насыщенный кислородом воздух шифровалки втянуло в образовавшийся вакуум.
Сьюзан едва успела взбежать на верхнюю площадку лестницы и вцепиться в перила, когда ее ударил мощный порыв горячего ветра. Повернувшись, она увидела заместителя оперативного директора АНБ; он стоял возле ТРАНСТЕКСТА, не сводя с нее глаз. Вокруг него бушевала настоящая буря, но в его глазах она увидела смирение. Губы Стратмора приоткрылись, произнеся последнее в его жизни слово: Сьюзан.
Он знал, что этого времени у него. Сзади его нагоняло такси.
Сьюзан задержала дыхание и опустила палец на клавишу Ввод. Компьютер издал звуковой сигнал.
На пейджер, - повторил Джабба. - Я думал, что… - Ладно, не в этом .
Я хотел бы с ней покувыркаться. Ролдан сразу решил, что это подстава.