The relatively low investment and the natural, gradually increasing size of a flock may make sheep ideal for the beginning small and part-time farmer, according to Dr. Clair E. An animal breeding specialist, Terrill has been watching the economics of sheep production for years. Terrill, who retired from the U.
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- Saanen goat price in pakistan
- sheep farming equipment
- Afghanistan’s goat farmers find luxury niche in cashmere
- Intensive animal farming
- Sheep: A Small-Scale Agriculture Alternative
- Goat farming
- Dairy Goat Production
- Current status, challenges and the way forward for dairy goat production in Europe
- Table of Contents
Saanen goat price in pakistanVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How to become full time sheep farmers I Automatic sheep factory I Sheep farming in China I Goat farm
Small ruminants sheep and goats are essential components of the mixed farming systems in the hills of Nepal, and are found in all parts of country.
They are mainly kept for meat, although wool sheep , fibre goats and manure are also important products from these animals. In the present subsistence farming system of the hills, farmers have little surplus agricultural produce to sell and so depend upon the sale of livestock and their products as a source of income. However, because of their inherent ability to utilize mountain terrain, unsuitable for crop farming, a high proportion of sheep and goats are found in the hills. Resource-poor farmers of the hills, who cannot invest large sums of money in cattle and buffalo, prefer sheep and goat husbandry which has no social, religious or cultural taboos, or caste restrictions.
Small ruminants, in the hills of Nepal, are reared either under a sedentary or a migratory system. Sedentary flocks may be stall-fed, semi-stall-fed or completely grazed, whilst the migratory flocks are reared under an extensive management system. Many efforts have been made over the past three decades to increase production from sheep and goats, and this chapter will describe the existing sheep and goat resources, their management systems and the various efforts employed in trying to improve their production.
Table 1: Total population 's of small ruminants in Nepal by region during the year — Goats are more common in the hills, whereas sheep are almost equally distributed between the hills and mountains. The distribution of cattle and buffaloes displays a similar trend to goats. The proportion of the different livestock species in different regions of the country is presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Ratio of different livestock species compared to sheep in different regions of Nepal. Tables 1 and 2 reveal that a comparatively higher proportion of sheep are found in the mountains than in other regions and that the highest number of livestock are found in the hills. Tables 3 and 4 show the trend in sheep and goat populations respectively in different regions of the country over the past five years.
Tables 3 and 4 indicate that the overall population of sheep and goats in the country is increasing at an annual rate of 2. However, population growth of small ruminants is not constant in all regions of the country. Sheep and goat populations are almost static in the high mountains, whereas in the Terai, the growth rate is high, especially for sheep. Although the rate is not so pronounced in the hill regions as in the Terai, there is still a positive trend in population growth.
The distribution of sheep and goats in relation to human population in different parts of the country is presented in Table 5. Table 5 shows that the highest human per capita sheep and goat populations are found in the high mountain region of the country followed by the hills, with the Terai the lowest. These population distributions indicate the importance of sheep and goat husbandry in hill and mountain regions compared to the Terai.
Population distribution shows that small ruminant husbandry is popular in the hills of Nepal. The reasons for their popularity in these less-favoured hill regions are as follows. Sheep and goats contributed 2. Goats are the second largest producer of meat. The meat production trend from sheep and goats in Nepal over the past five years is presented in Table 6.
Figures in parentheses indicate the percentage contribution to total meat production in the country. Goat meat is the most popular in Nepal, and is accepted by every ethnic community. Goats are the main source of animal protein for certain ethnic castes which do not consume buffalo meat, chicken or pork.
There is no prejudice against the slaughter of sheep and goats, and indeed, their sacrifice is essential for certain religious festivals. Wool produced by sheep, and fibre by goats are the main raw materials for the production of warm garments such as sweaters, blankets and radi. Most of the wool and fibre produced in the country is used locally in the hill villages, for the production of various woollen goods by many different ethnic groups.
Very little of it is utilized by the carpet manufacturing industry based in the larger towns. The carpet industry relies almost entirely on the importation of large quantities of wool, mainly from New Zealand and Tibet. The total wool production of Nepal is presented in Table 7.
The increase in wool production can be explained by an increase in the sheep population see Table 3 , rather than by an increase in animal productivity. Woollen goods including carpets are a major source of foreign currency, and the carpet industry has grown rapidly over the past few years. The export of carpets alone was equivalent to Rs.
In the same year, the export of other woollen goods realised the equivalent of Rs. Carpets are the single most valuable commodity exported from Nepal. Sheep and goats play an important role in maintaining soil fertility, particularly in the hills, where the use of chemical fertilizer may be prevented either by unavailability or cost, or may still be unknown to the farmers. Nepalese farmers consider goat and sheep manure to be superior to that of other ruminants, and this concept is supported by laboratory analysis, in which sheep and goat manures were found to contain 0.
Assuming that 1. This is equivalent to Rs. The in-situ manuring system, practised by hill farmers in Nepal especially migratory sheep flocks has been shown to increase subsequent crop production by This increase in production was attributed to the nutrients supplied by sheep urine which contains 1. The role of urine as a fertilizer is confirmed by Joshi et al , who reported an Not all the goat skins produced in the country are marketed, and in many parts of the country goat skin is consumed as part of the carcass.
However, about 1. Sheep and goats make very effective use of a variety of different grazing lands, including rocky mountain terrain and alpine pastures, which cannot be utilized by other domestic animals.
They convert relatively inaccessible low quality forage to high quality meat, wool and fibre. By their hardy nature, they can adapt to different climatic conditions and, depending on the availability of pasture land and the cropping pattern of an area, can also be stall-fed, semi-stall-fed, or grazed.
Goats can survive and produce satisfactorily on vegetation which is not consumed by any other species of domestic livestock. The economic value of sheep and goats is an important factor in their popularity with smallholder farmers. The financial investment required for their husbandry is small, and capital investment for the purchase of animals, equipment and buildings is low.
Most of the equipment and buildings can be constructed from locally available raw materials, so that even a poor farmer can invest. Due to the high turnover, they give a good return per unit of capital invested, and so provide an economically profitable enterprise. In addition, small ruminants provide farmers with a ready source of cash. In the hills, crop production is often insufficient to meet family requirements and cannot be sold, but small ruminants are in high demand, and can be readily disposed of for cash.
Family meat consumption can be curtailed for more urgent necessities which may arise, so that sheep and goats are therefore regarded as a symbol of wealth. Farmers in the villages are engaged as shepherds and in wool spinning work. Available time in the morning or evening is utilized by village women in wool spinning and weaving, which is also a source of additional income.
An estimated , additional people are involved in informal employment associated with the carpet industry, undertaking washing, carding, spinning, dyeing and weaving of wool on a household or cottage industry basis LMP, In the hills of Nepal, sheep and goat husbandry, like that of other livestock is an integral component of the subsistence mixed farming system. The husbandry practised is influenced by the location, topography, and cropping pattern of an area, the availability of waste land, communal grazing land and forest areas, and by market prospects.
The existing husbandry system can be broadly classified into sedentary and migratory. This is the usual system of raising sheep and goats, and is practised in the low and mid-hills, the lower valleys and the Terai. Animals are kept in one area throughout the year and are penned at the homestead at night time. They may be stall-fed, semi-stall-fed or completely grazed.
In cities, towns and peri-urban areas, goats are more common than sheep. In such a system, only one or two goats are kept per family, and are maintained principally for meat production.
Though they are often provided with a concentrate supplement, complete stall-feeding is practised by very few families, and semi-stall-feeding is the more common practice. Under the latter, goats are let loose for a certain period of the day, but due to limited availability of grazing land and fodder, these animals are normally supplemented at the stall with roughage grasses, straw, fodder tree leaves and in some cases, food grains as concentrate.
However, the majority of the sedentary goat and sheep flocks are maintained under an extensive management system, where the animals are driven to the pasture land or forest for grazing during the day, and are not supplemented at the stall. Farmers in the mid-hills and valleys follow a specific traditional grazing management, in which the available grazing land is utilized in a rotational manner.
Animals are moved to a new area each day completing the rotation in four to six days. Farmers believe that this system allows adequate regrowth of grasses and vegetation inbetween grazing. However, availability of grass in a grazing area directly influences this practice, and pasture areas with good grasses are grazed more frequently than those that are less productive. The grazing of animals in a limited area throughout the year leads to the development of a heavy parasitic burden, so that associated parasitic diseases are a major constraint upon the productivity of this system.
Moreover, these sheep and goats have to compete for forage with cattle and buffaloes maintained under a similar system. Goat breeds reared under this system are the Khari in the hills, and the Terai goat in the Terai.
A few Sinhal goats are kept in the high hill villages throughout the year. Among sheep, the Kage breed is found in the hills, valleys and some parts of the Terai. The number of goats and sheep raised by a single family, is very variable and is influenced by the availability of free pasture or forest resources, and by the availability of family labour. For goats, in the mid-hills, the number of animals per family can vary from one to twenty with an average flock size of seven Oli and Gatenby, The average flock size is similar for sheep, with a range from one or two animals per family, up to flocks of 20 to 50 animals Pradhan, On the whole, sheep are found in small localised areas, and are generally less abundant than goats.
This system of animal keeping is followed in the high hills and mountains of Nepal. The flocks migrate from the lower hills —m asl up to the high alpine pastures —m asl and back again as the climate determines the availability of fodder and forage. Once arable cultivation begins, animals are forced to move higher up the hill, and they return later in the year after the crops have been harvested.
This transhumance system of animal keeping is considered to be one of the oldest forms of livestock husbandry, having evolved at the time when animals were domesticated Owen, The pattern remains unchanged in Nepal, due to heavy interdependency of crops and livestock in agriculture Karki, In migratory flocks, sheep and goats are run together, with the goats acting as the lead animals Karki, This characteristic habit of the goat is useful in protecting sheep from predators Pradhan, Baruwal sheep and Sinhal goats, both well known for their flocking tendency and hardiness, are the principle breeds of this system in Nepal.
The figures showed that the ratio of sheep to goats was A similar ratio was recorded in the flocks of Kaski and Lamjung Districts by Ghimire et al , but large variations between districts occur. A typical migratory flock consists of — animals Karki, , but the flock size can vary within the range of 50— animals.
Goat farming is the raising and breeding of domestic goats Capra aegagrus hircus. It is a branch of animal husbandry. Goats are raised principally for their meat , milk , fibre and skin. Goat farming can be very suited to production with other livestock such as sheep and cattle on low-quality grazing land.
sheep farming equipment
Afghanistan’s goat farmers find luxury niche in cashmere
HERAT, Afghanistan AP — Not so long ago, Afghan farmers collected the thick winter undercoat their goats shed every spring and threw it on the fire to heat their homes and cook their food. Some have since learned that the super-soft fluff that comes off in clumps as the weather warms up, once cleaned, refined and spun into yarn is cashmere — a luxury product that finds customers as far away as the United States, Britain and Europe. He has goats grazing the open spaces around an industrial park on the outskirts of the western city of Herat. At this time of year, most of the female goats have kids and shed the cashmere, which Amin pulls off in huge handfuls. Each animal yields up to grams 8. Agency for International Development, even though up to 95 percent of the animals could become part of the production chain. Most of the raw product is bought by traders who sell it to Chinese middlemen to feed the mills that produce affordable clothing for much of the world. While Afghan goat herders are among the poorest in the impoverished country, the precious fiber could transform their existence.
Intensive animal farming
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Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production , also known by its opponents as factory farming ,  is a type of intensive agriculture , specifically an approach to animal husbandry designed to maximize production, while minimizing costs. There is a continuing debate over the benefits, risks and ethics of intensive animal farming. The issues include the efficiency of food production; animal welfare ; health risks and the environmental impact e. Intensive animal farming is a relatively recent development in the history of agriculture , and the result of scientific discoveries and technological advances. Innovations from the late 19th century generally parallel developments in mass production in other industries in the latter part of the Industrial Revolution. The discovery of vitamins and their role in animal nutrition , in the first two decades of the 20th century, led to vitamin supplements, which allowed chickens to be raised indoors. Chemicals developed for use in World War II gave rise to synthetic pesticides. Developments in shipping networks and technology have made long-distance distribution of agricultural produce feasible. Agricultural production across the world doubled four times between and to ; to ; to ; and to to feed a global population of one billion human beings in and 6. In the s, 24 percent of the American population worked in agriculture compared to 1. The era of factory farming in Britain began in when a new Agriculture Act granted subsidies to farmers to encourage greater output by introducing new technology, in order to reduce Britain's reliance on imported meat.
Sheep: A Small-Scale Agriculture Alternative
The aim of this review is to show the evolution of the dairy goat sector in Europe from all perspectives. Starting from the current situation, the challenges and future potential of this livestock system are presented, as well as strategies to overcome the difficulties faced. Europe holds 1. The goat species plays a fundamental economic, social and environmental role in many regions of Europe. The wide diversity of production systems and autochthonous breeds makes the sector very heterogeneous.
Dairy Goat Production
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Current status, challenges and the way forward for dairy goat production in Europe
Forage Crops Lorann Stallones. Livestock Confinement Kelley Donham. Animal Husbandry Dean T. Stueland and Paul D.
Table of Contents
Use it out the back or just before they go on the truck. Teaser use has been proven to give higher lambing percentages as well as earlier and more condensed lambing.
Sustainability of sheep and goat production systems has been investigated in this chapter in terms of environmental, social, and economic sustainability. Strategies to reduce waste from animal husbandry activities and the negative impact of animal husbandry on environment have been described. Social sustainability has been analyzed in relation to animal welfare and human—animal relationship. Economic sustainability of sheep and goat production systems in the Mediterranean countries has been addressed in terms of animal management plans to improve animal health, quality of products, and increase profitability of animal production systems.