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Abstract This paper presents the first environmental life cycle analysis for a range of different confectionery products. A proposed Life Cycle Assessment LCA approach and multi-criteria decision analysis MCDA was developed to characterise and identify the environmental profiles and hotspots for five different confectionery products; milk chocolate , dark chocolate , sugar, milk chocolate biscuit and milk-based products.
Overall, it was found that sugar confectionery had the lowest aggregated environmental impact compared to dark chocolate confectionery which had the highest, primarily due to ingredients. As such, nine key ingredients were identified across the five confectionery products which are recommended for confectionery manufacturers to prioritise e. Furthermore, the general environmental hotspots were found to occur at the following life cycle stages: raw materials, factory, and packaging.
An analysis of five improvement strategies e. Surprisingly, the role of product reformulations was found to achieve moderate-to-low environmental reductions with waste reductions having low impacts. Overall, this research provides many insights of the environmental impacts for a range of different confectionery products, especially how actors across the confectionery supply chain can improve the environmental sustainability performance. It is expected the findings from this research will serve as a base for future improvements, research and policies for confectionery manufacturers, supply chain actors, policy makers, and research institutes towards an environmentally sustainable confectionery industry.
Environmental management of confectionery products: Life cycle impacts and improvement strategies. Miah, A. Griffiths, R. McNeill, S. Halvorson, U. Schenker, N. Espinoza-Orias, S. Morse, A. Yang, J. This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript.
The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. Griffiths c, R. McNeill d, S. Halvorson e, U. Schenker f, N. Espinoza-Orias f, S. Morse b, A. Yang g, and J. Sadhukhan b. This paper presents the first environmental life cycle analysis for a range of different confectionery products.
A proposed Life Cycle Assessment LCA approach and multi-criteria decision analysis MCDA was developed to characterise and identify the environmental profiles and hotspots for five different confectionery products; milk chocolate, dark chocolate, sugar, milk chocolate biscuit and milk-based products.
Surprisingly, the role of product reformulations was found to achieve moderate-to-low environmental reductions with waste reductions having negligible impacts. Over the past few decades, improving the sustainability of food production and consumption has become a key priority for the food industry, governments and civil society FAO, ; WRAP, ; Notarnicola et al, However, due to the diversity and complexity of the food system - from local to global - there are unprecedented challenges to transition towards a food system which is healthy, nutritious and environmentally sustainable Wolf et al, ; Tukker et al, For example, some of the environmental challenges includes climate change, resource efficiency, water scarcity, and land availability UN, ; FAO, ; Ewert et al, In the confectionery sector, these challenges are amplified across the nutrition, health and environmental sustainability nexus due to the fast moving nature of consumption and consumer preference for different confectionery products.
Due to the volume of consumption, confectionery products has formed part of the normal diet for. Eutrophication Photochemical ozone creation Freshwater aquatic eco-toxicity Terrestrial eco-toxicity Human toxicity Ozone layer depletion Depletion of abiotic resources. Overall, based on the disparity of existing studies, there are inevitably major gaps in developing a full and holistic overview of the environmental sustainability of the confectionery industry.
Such analysis is important to critically guide the confectionery industry towards a high performance of environmental sustainability. Some of these gaps in knowledge are defined by the following research questions:. What are the comparative environmental impacts across the different confectionery product groups? What other environmental impact categories can provide a balanced overview of environmental impacts? How do functional units affect the environmental analysis of various confectionery products?
What improvement strategies can deliver effective environmental impact reductions across product categories and the confectionery industry? In this paper, these research questions are addressed by presenting a comprehensive analysis of the environmental impacts and improvement actions from cradle-to-grave for different confectionery products which are sugar, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, chocolate biscuit and milk based.
The confectionery products are manufactured by Nestle, a multi-national food company at their confectionery factory in the North East of England. The functional unit is defined as the 'production of 1 kg of packaged confectionery product'. The results and discussions of the environmental impacts, functional units and improvement actions for different confectionery products are presented in Section 3.
Lastly, the conclusions and future work are provided in Section 4. A transdisciplinary process involving both Nestle practitioners and academics from the University of Surrey was adopted for the development and application of the LCA methodology for confectionery products Miah et al, a. In comparison to previous studies Recanati et al, , Vesce et al, ; Jungbluth and Konig, , the novel features of the proposed LCA methodology adopted are:.
This is important because current studies do not provide environmentalimpact of all the main confectionery groups. By analysing the full system boundary provides a genuine life cycle analysis rather than specific parts of the supply chain. The food waste generated represents inefficiencies where environmental resources are utilised to manufacture.
GHG emissions, land use etc. The methodology and assumptions are described in more detail. The key differences between the confectionery products are the ingredients and. Figure 1: Life cycle stages for milk chocolate confectionery, milk chocolate biscuit confectionery, dark chocolate confectionery, sugar confectionery and milk-based confectionery products.
The main purpose is to enhance flavour and extend shelf-life. Beckett et al, The ingredients used for the various confectionery products including milk crumb, milk chocolate and dark chocolate are shown in Table S1 in supplementary with country of origin and source of Life Cycle Inventory LCI data.
For the packaging, the environmental impacts involve the conversion of raw materials to packaging components and print format which is used for the final packaging material for the confectionery products. All the primary and secondary packaging has only been considered for the final packaged confectionery product where the packaging conversion process has been assumed and selected from the databases of Ecoinvent v.
The tertiary packaging components e. The data for the packaging of the confectionery products are shown in Table S2 in supplementary. The pre-processing stage only includes the processing and manufacture of intermediary materials utilised to manufacture a confectionery product. For milk chocolate confectionery and milk. For the dark chocolate confectionery product, this includes the manufacture of dark chocolate. The pre-processing stage takes place all in-house by the food company in the UK.
For the manufacturing stage, this involves the manufacture of the final packaged confectionery product utilising a diverse range of food and packaging technology at a confectionery factory in the UK.
The confectionery factory is a multi-product confectionery factory which employs a range of technologies to manufacture sugar, chocolate, chocolate biscuit and milk based products [Miah et al, b].
The LCI data for the confectionery factory is extracted from Miah et al The final packaged confectionery product is transported to a distribution centre located in York and stored at ambient room temperature. The storage time for confectionery products is assumed to be four weeks. From the distribution centre, the packaged product is transported to a retailer where the confectionery product is assumed to be stored in ambient room temperature for four weeks.
These assumptions are based on industrial practices. For the consumption stage, this involves the consumption of the confectionery product in a home environment. Since confectionery products are packaged in a ready-to-eat format there is no preparation required for consumption. As such, it is assumed that there are no environmental impacts associated with consumption apart from transportation to-and-from the retailer. This stage considers only the waste generated from the factory to the consumption stage.
The waste materials generated are from food waste and packaging. For food waste generated, see Table 2. For the packaging materials, the disposal includes primary and secondary packaging of the confectionery product only which consist of product packaging and the corrugated-board boxes used to pack the final products.
The packaging for other parts of the supply chain e. The disposal routes for the five different confectionery products are assumed to be recycling packaging materials only and incineration that occur in the UK. The LCI data for disposal have been sourced from the databases of Ecoinvent v2.
The environmental impacts associated with transport at different LCA stages are combined together as the impact from transportation for some stages is negligible.
The transport distances for each ingredient and packaging material have been determined based on existing suppliers to the confectionery factory. For some materials, not all transport distances are disclosed due to confidentiality. The distances between the distribution centre and retailer are assumed to be km. The distances between the retailer and consumer are assumed to be 5km.
The distances between the consumer and disposal routes are assumed to be 30km. These distances are based on current industrial practices. The transport assumptions are summarised in Table S4 in supplementary.
The LCI data for transport have been sourced from the databases of Ecoinvent v. Currently, five environmental impact indicators are taken into account by EcodEX, shown in Table 3. Overall, the indicators adopted in EcodEX are found elsewhere in food LCA applications either on their own or combined Fusi et al, , Rivera et al, , Roy et al,
The term "Cocoa," a corruption of "Cacao," is almost universally used in English-speaking countries to designate the seeds of the small tropical tree known to botanists as THEOBROMA CACAO, from which a great variety of preparations under the name of cocoa and chocolate for eating and drinking are made. The name "Chocolatl" is nearly the same in most European languages, and is taken from the Mexican name of the drink, "Chocolate" or "Cacahuatl. The Mexicans not only used chocolate as a staple article of food, but they used the seeds of the cacao tree as a medium of exchange. No better evidence could be offered of the great advance which has been made in recent years in the knowledge of dietetics than the remarkable increase in the consumption of cocoa and chocolate in this country. The amount retained for home consumption in was only 1,, pounds—about of an ounce for each inhabitant. The amount retained for home consumption for the year ending Dec.
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The overview of the types of nontraditional vegetative raw materials and its use in the food industry are presented. Classification nontraditional raw materials depending on its purpose and direction is given. Melon seeds, pumpkin, alfalfa, buckwheat, spirulina algae, Jerusalem artichoke, sea buckthorn seeds, sprouted wheat, flax seed oil, chitosan, obtained from the carapace of crayfish, etc. Technology uses food fibers Camecel FW for the production of bakery products with low content of digestible carbohydrates and food fibers Citri-Fi in production souffle, marshmallow, marmalade, accelerating the process of structure formation and allows stabilizing the process of storage products, is presented. Compositions of different groups of products prophylactic appointment with use of nontraditional raw materials, greatly extending the range of functional foods, have been considered. It is established that nontraditional vegetable raw materials changes technological characteristics of products and promotes their enrichment of valuable components. The article analyzes the chemical composition of flax seeds, determined a high concentration of the physiologically active components, essential structures exercising regulatory functions in the body. Conducted test baking of bakery products, in the formulation was replaced with wheat flour of first grade on flour flax LM variety. The resulting products had optimum organoleptic properties, have bright yellow-brown crust color and yellow crumb color, delicate taste with a nutty flavor, soft elastic crumb with a thin uniform porosity. Using the methods of mathematical modeling to optimize the qualitative and quantitative ingredient composition providing the specified level of nutritional value of the developed product, developed the bread formulation with the addition of modifications lentils products MLP and aromatic plants AP. For the design of formulations developed products with a specified chemical composition used the Solver package.
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Census of Manufactures, , Vol2: Industry Statistics. United States. Bureau of the Census.
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Table of contents for # 5-6 (353-354), 2016
Manufactures General report and analysis. Value of products and value added to materials by processes. Rank of states in manufacturing industries 56 Statistics showing local concentration of selected industries Summary of statistics by industries