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- Pennsylvania Custom Modular Home Manufacturer
- Building material
- 10 Eco Building Materials Revolutionizing Home Construction
- Lumber-Based Mass Timber Products in Construction
- Wisconsin Historical Society
- Commercial wood building first to meet passive house energy standards
- Modular building
- Lumber choices for wood frame construction - choosing timber for framing & building homes
Pennsylvania Custom Modular Home Manufacturer
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay , rocks, sand , and wood , even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacturing of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry , insulation , plumbing , and roofing work.
They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes. In history there are trends in building materials from being natural to becoming more man-made and composite ; biodegradable to imperishable; indigenous local to being transported globally; repairable to disposable; chosen for increased levels of fire-safety, and improved seismic resistance.. These trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological, energy, and social costs of building materials.
Initial economic cost of building materials is the purchase price. This is often what governs decision making about what materials to use. Sometimes people take into consideration the energy savings or durability of the materials and see the value of paying a higher initial cost in return for a lower lifetime cost.
For example, an asphalt shingle roof costs less than a metal roof to install, but the metal roof will last longer so the lifetime cost is less per year. Some materials may require more care than others, maintaining costs specific to some materials may also influence the final decision.
Risks when considering lifetime cost of a material is if the building is damaged such as by fire or wind, or if the material is not as durable as advertised. The cost of materials should be taken into consideration to bear the risk to buy combustive materials to enlarge the lifetime. It is said that, 'if it must be done, it must be done well'.
Pollution costs can be macro and micro. The macro, environmental pollution of extraction industries building materials rely on such as mining, petroleum, and logging produce environmental damage at their source and in transportation of the raw materials, manufacturing, transportation of the products, retailing, and installation. An example of the micro aspect of pollution is the off-gassing of the building materials in the building or indoor air pollution.
Red List building materials are materials found to be harmful. Also the carbon footprint , the total set of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the life of the material. A life-cycle analysis also includes the reuse , recycling, or disposal of construction waste. Two concepts in building which account for the ecological economics of building materials are green building and sustainable development.
The long term energy cost is the economic, ecological, and social costs of continuing to produce and deliver energy to the building for its use, maintenance, and eventual removal. The initial embodied energy of a structure is the energy consumed to extract, manufacture, deliver, install, the materials.
Social costs are injury and health of the people producing and transporting the materials and potential health problems of the building occupants if there are problems with the building biology.
Globalization has had significant impacts on people both in terms of jobs, skills, and self-sufficiency are lost when manufacturing facilities are closed and the cultural aspects of where new facilities are opened.
Aspects of fair trade and labor rights are social costs of global building material manufacturing. Brush structures are built entirely from plant parts and were used in primitive cultures such as Native Americans and  pygmy peoples in Africa  These are built mostly with branches, twigs and leaves, and bark, similar to a beaver 's lodge. These were variously named wikiups , lean-tos, and so forth. An extension on the brush building idea is the wattle and daub process in which clay soils or dung , usually cow , are used to fill in and cover a woven brush structure.
This gives the structure more thermal mass and strength. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques. Snow and occasionally ice,  were used by the Inuit peoples for igloos and snow is used to build a shelter called a quinzhee. Ice has also been used for ice hotels as a tourist attraction in northern climates. Clay based buildings usually come in two distinct types.
One being when the walls are made directly with the mud mixture, and the other being walls built by stacking air-dried building blocks called mud bricks. Other uses of clay in building is combined with straws to create light clay , wattle and daub , and mud plaster. Wet-laid, or damp, walls are made by using the mud or clay mixture directly without forming blocks and drying them first.
The amount of and type of each material in the mixture used leads to different styles of buildings. The deciding factor is usually connected with the quality of the soil being used. Larger amounts of clay are usually employed in building with cob , while low-clay soil is usually associated with sod house or sod roof construction.
Rammed earth is both an old and newer take on creating walls, once made by compacting clay soils between planks by hand; nowadays forms and mechanical pneumatic compressors are used. Soil, and especially clay, provides good thermal mass ; it is very good at keeping temperatures at a constant level.
Homes built with earth tend to be naturally cool in the summer heat and warm in cold weather. Clay holds heat or cold, releasing it over a period of time like stone.
People building with mostly dirt and clay, such as cob, sod, and adobe, created homes that have been built for centuries in western and northern Europe, Asia, as well as the rest of the world, and continue to be built, though on a smaller scale.
Some of these buildings have remained habitable for hundreds of years. Mud-bricks , also known by their Spanish name adobe are ancient building materials with evidence dating back thousands of years BC. Compressed earth blocks are a more modern type of brick used for building more frequently in industrialized society since the building blocks can be manufactured off site in a centralized location at a brickworks and transported to multiple building locations.
These blocks can also be monetized more easily and sold. Structural mud bricks are almost always made using clay, often clay soil and a binder are the only ingredients used, but other ingredients can include sand, lime, concrete, stone and other binders.
The formed or compressed block is then air dried and can be laid dry or with a mortar or clay slip. Sand is used with cement , and sometimes lime , to make mortar for masonry work and plaster.
Sand is also used as a part of the concrete mix. An important low-cost building material in countries with high sand content soils is the Sandcrete block, which is weaker but cheaper than fired clay bricks. Rock structures have existed for as long as history can recall.
It is the longest lasting building material available, and is usually readily available. There are many types of rock throughout the world, all with differing attributes that make them better or worse for particular uses. Rock is a very dense material so it gives a lot of protection too; its main drawback as a material is its weight and awkwardness.
Its energy density is also considered a big drawback, as stone is hard to keep warm without using large amounts of heating resources. Dry-stone walls have been built for as long as humans have put one stone on top of another.
Eventually, different forms of mortar were used to hold the stones together, cement being the most commonplace now. The granite -strewn uplands of Dartmoor National Park, United Kingdom, for example, provided ample resources for early settlers. Circular huts were constructed from loose granite rocks throughout the Neolithic and early Bronze Age , and the remains of an estimated 5, can still be seen today. Granite continued to be used throughout the Medieval period see Dartmoor longhouse and into modern times.
Slate is another stone type, commonly used as roofing material in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world where it is found. Stone buildings can be seen in most major cities; some civilizations built entirely with stone such as the Egyptian and Aztec pyramids and the structures of the Inca civilization. Thatch is one of the oldest of building materials known, Thatch is another word for grass; grass is a good insulator and easily harvested. Many African tribes have lived in homes made completely of grasses and sand year-round.
In Europe, thatch roofs on homes were once prevalent but the material fell out of favor as industrialization and improved transport increased the availability of other materials. Today, though, the practice is undergoing a revival. In the Netherlands, for instance, many new buildings have thatched roofs with special ridge tiles on top. Wood has been used as a building material for thousands of years in its natural state.
Today, engineered wood is becoming very common in industrialized countries. Wood is a product of trees , and sometimes other fibrous plants, used for construction purposes when cut or pressed into lumber and timber, such as boards, planks and similar materials. It is a generic building material and is used in building just about any type of structure in most climates. Wood can be very flexible under loads, keeping strength while bending, and is incredibly strong when compressed vertically.
There are many differing qualities to the different types of wood, even among same tree species. This means specific species are better suited for various uses than others. And growing conditions are important for deciding quality. Raw wood a log, trunk, bole becomes timber when the wood has been "converted" sawn, hewn, split in the forms of minimally-processed logs stacked on top of each other , timber frame construction, and light-frame construction.
The main problems with timber structures are fire risk and moisture-related problems. In modern times softwood is used as a lower-value bulk material, whereas hardwood is usually used for finishings and furniture. Historically timber frame structures were built with oak in western Europe, recently douglas fir has become the most popular wood for most types of structural building.
Many families or communities, in rural areas, have a personal woodlot from which the family or community will grow and harvest trees to build with or sell. These lots are tended to like a garden. This was much more prevalent in pre-industrial times, when laws existed as to the amount of wood one could cut at any one time to ensure there would be a supply of timber for the future, but is still a viable form of agriculture.
Bricks are made in a similar way to mud-bricks except without the fibrous binder such as straw and are fired "burned" in a brick clamp or kiln after they have air-dried to permanently harden them.
Kiln fired clay bricks are a ceramic material. Fired bricks can be solid or have hollow cavities to aid in drying and make them lighter and easier to transport. The individual bricks are placed upon each other in courses using mortar. Successive courses being used to build up walls, arches , and other architectural elements. They require more energy to create but are easier to transport and store, and are lighter than stone blocks. Romans extensively used fired brick of a shape and type now called Roman bricks.
This was due to lower costs with increases in brick  manufacturing and fire-safety in the ever crowding cities. The cinder block supplemented or replaced fired bricks in the late 20th century often being used for the inner parts of masonry walls and by themselves.
Structural clay tiles clay blocks are clay or terracotta and typically are perforated with holes. Cement bonded composites are made of hydrated cement paste that binds wood, particles, or fibers to make pre-cast building components. Various fiberous materials, including paper , fiberglass , and carbon-fiber have been used as binders.
Your historic house was constructed in a very different way than modern houses. When you plan a rehabilitation project, make repairs and do maintenance on your house, you are likely to make fewer costly mistakes if you are able to identify the building methods and materials used to construct your historic house. The building products sold today at big lumberyards are intended primarily for new construction and remodeling , not historic rehabilitation. Most of these products will not adapt well to your historic house.
New Society Publishers Amazon. Alex Wilson , Mark Piepkorn. New Society Publishers , 1. The most comprehensive directory of green building products available--now in its third edition. Obsah Sitework Landscaping.
10 Eco Building Materials Revolutionizing Home Construction
Modular buildings and modular homes are prefabricated buildings or houses that consist of repeated sections called modules. Installation of the prefabricated sections is completed on site. Prefabricated sections are sometimes placed using a crane. The modules can be placed side-by-side, end-to-end, or stacked, allowing a variety of configurations and styles. After placement the modules are joined together using inter-module connections, also known as inter-connections.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: This Swiss Builder uses NO INSULATION...
Framing lumber, also known as structural wood, is the grade of wood used for house framing studs, Larsen Trusses for Double-Stud walls , headers, roof trusses and floor joists, etc. Its technical characteristics make it perfectly suitable when large spans are necessary. The list below outlines the different types of wood used as framing lumber most commonly used for house construction and increasingly in timber frames for multi-family low to mid-rise construction throughout the US and Canada. A constant source of confusion amongst DIY Home builders is lumber sizes, as commercially available 2x4" is actually 1. The general rule of thumb: any width listed as 2" will actually be 1. The reason for this is planing; some true dimensions can be found at lumber yards, referred to as 'rough' lumber or "rough sawn" as they are unplaned wood. Here's another confusing anomoly when looking at choosing wood for framing, Canadian Lumber Standard timber commonly referred to as CLS wood timber became popular in Canada for building strong and durable timber-framed homes but is rarely referred to as CLS lumber in North America. This timber is usually manufactured from kiln-dried fir, pine, or spruce.
Lumber-Based Mass Timber Products in Construction
Popular Mechanics. Popular Mechanics inspires, instructs and influences readers to help them master the modern world. Obsah Staying alive on two wheels.
United States. Committee on Appropriations. Strana Obsah Wednesday March Department of Housing and Urban Development. Environmental Protection Agency. Wednesday April 17 Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation.
Wisconsin Historical Society
This chapter provides information related to commonly used wood construction methods i. It briefly discusses the manufacturing of four major lumber-based mass timber products i. The discussion also addresses primary lumber products, such as dimension lumber, machine stress-rated lumber, and finger-joined lumber, which are the building blocks from which mass timber products are manufactured. Advantages of using wood in construction are illustrated by examples largely from North American practices. The life cycle assessment concept is also introduced. Timber Buildings and Sustainability. Prior to the availability of rolled steel and reinforced concrete, wood was the primary structural material in North America and other timber-rich regions of the world [ 1 ]. However, the raw material resources keep changing in more recent times, e.
Commercial wood building first to meet passive house energy standards
Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Old-House Journal. Jul-Aug pages Vol. Old-House Journal is the original magazine devoted to restoring and preserving old houses.
Well worth a read and full of good information for other lift industry people, always good to be up to date with Energy efficiency and ensuring lift installations are sustainable. Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search.
Lumber choices for wood frame construction - choosing timber for framing & building homes
Imagine waking up to find that the walls around you have disappeared, replaced by desecrated crumbles of concrete, slats of wood, and a seemingly endless horizon of destruction. A natural disaster has struck, and you are suddenly homeless.
Signature Building Systems is a modular home manufacturer founded in by experts in systems built housing. We are a manufacturing leader in custom designed pre-site built homes. Signature Building Systems has built over 4, quality homes that provide exceptional value and savings to residential and commercial buyers.
В сердцах он швырнул трубку на рычаг. - Черт! - Фонтейн снова схватил трубку и набрал номер мобильника Стратмора.