To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Syed Farman Ali Shah.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
Food Science and Processing
The demand for fossil derivate fuels and chemicals has increased, augmenting concerns on climate change, global economic stability, and sustainability on fossil resources. Therefore, the production of fuels and chemicals from alternative and renewable resources has attracted considerable and growing attention.
Ethanol is a promising biofuel that can reduce the consumption of gasoline in the transportation sector and related greenhouse gas GHG emissions. Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising feedstock to produce bioethanol cellulosic ethanol because of its abundance and low cost. Since the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol is complex and expensive, the cellulosic ethanol price cannot compete with those of the fossil derivate fuels.
A promising strategy to lower the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is developing a biorefinery which produces ethanol and other high-value chemicals from lignocellulose. The selection of such chemicals is difficult because there are hundreds of products that can be produced from lignocellulose. Multiple reviews and reports have described a small group of lignocellulose derivate compounds that have the potential to be commercialized.
Some of these products are in the bench scale and require extensive research and time before they can be industrially produced. This review examines chemicals and materials with a Technology Readiness Level TRL of at least 8, which have reached a commercial scale and could be shortly or immediately integrated into a cellulosic ethanol process.
Over six decades ago, petroleum was the indisputable source of energy that kept the world working and growing. Nonetheless, at the beginning of the s, the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC proclaimed an oil embargo aimed to control the production and, therefore, the price of petroleum [ 1 ].
In addition to subsequent oil crises, the increasing evidence of the links between climate change and greenhouse gas GHG emissions has renewed the interest in alternative energy sources [ 3 ]. Thus, the emphasis today is to develop renewable energy sources that reduce our oil dependency and GHG emissions. The transportation sector, which consumed Thus, a promising way of reducing our environmental impact and dependency on petroleum is through the substitution of gasoline and diesel with environmentally friendly fuels [ 6 ].
Ethanol produced from biomass, named bioethanol, is by far the most widely used biofuel in the transportation sector worldwide. As a result, the number of countries with renewable energy policies in the transportation sector increased from 56 in to 66 by [ 7 ].
Similarly, the annual world production of bioethanol increased from Despite these efforts, Brazil and the USA are the only countries that produce large quantities of bioethanol, 7. Bioethanol is currently produced from sugar- or starch-containing feedstocks. A general 1G bioethanol process is shown in Fig.
To achieve competitive costs and increase production, the supply of cheap raw materials is required. In agreement with the 1G bioethanol definition, bioethanol produced from lignocellulose is named second-generation 2G bioethanol or cellulosic ethanol [ 11 ].
Process diagram to produce bioethanol from sugar and starch feedstocks, and lignocellulose including biochemicals and biomaterials with potential to be produced alongside bioethanol red lines. Considering that one ton of glucan, galactan, or mannan yields 1.
After years of research and development, various cellulosic ethanol pilot and demonstration plants have started operations [ 16 ]. In , Beta Renewables started up operations at the first industrial cellulosic ethanol plant in the world. By , the 40 MMgy plant, located in Crescentino, Italy, was reported to operate on a daily basis, shipping cellulosic ethanol to Europe [ 17 ].
However, Beta Renewables was sold in to pay off debts from its bankrupt parent company, Mossi Ghisolfi Group [ 18 ]. While DuPont continued building commercial relationships with feedstock growers and producing cellulosic ethanol [ 19 ], in , DowDuPont announced that it intends to sell its cellulosic biofuels business and its first commercial cellulosic ethanol plant in Nevada, USA.
However, in , after experimenting financial difficulties, Abengoa declared its cellulosic bioethanol plant in bankruptcy [ 21 ]. In contrast, in , Raizen started up operations at its 40 MMgy cellulosic ethanol plant [ 22 ]. While Raizen reported plans to export cellulosic ethanol to Europe, the company announced reductions in its cellulosic ethanol investment due to low gasoline prices [ 24 ].
However, the plant suspended operations in due to technical difficulties in the pretreatment stage and resumed operations in [ 25 , 26 ].
The cellulosic ethanol facility was set to produce 20 MMgy of ethanol and then ramp up to 25 MMgy [ 28 ]. In , the company achieved a major breakthrough by announcing that Project Liberty was running pretreatment at 80 percent uptime. Moreover, POET-DSM announced the construction of an on-site enzyme manufacturing facility and ramped up biomass purchasing in anticipation of increasing production levels for [ 29 ]. Regardless of all these efforts, the global new investment in biofuels continues to decline.
Thus, to boost the investment on cellulosic ethanol, technologies that reduce the production costs must be developed and industrially demonstrated. The biorefinery concept, in which biomass is converted to biochemicals and biomaterials, such as benzene, microfibrillated cellulose, toluene, xylene, styrene, or cumene [ 30 ], is a promising strategy to reduce production costs.
Even so, the large number of possible combinations of feedstock, pretreatment options, conversion technologies, and downstream processes, makes difficult the evaluation of these technologies.
Various authors have reviewed promising chemicals that can be produced from lignocellulose. Nonetheless, most of the technologies behind these chemicals are under development and their commercial feasibility is uncertain.
Thus, this review focuses on the compelling analysis of commodity chemicals that can be produced alongside cellulosic ethanol and that are at a manufacturing level. Biomass is a renewable resource that is appropriate to produce ethanol and chemicals.
Lignocellulose is the most promising biomass feedstock because of its availability and lowcost [ 31 , 32 ]. In contrast to the production of bioethanol from starch, cellulosic biomass is not used as a food source. The primary drivers of ethanol prices are the cost of corn grain and the gasoline prices. When corn grain was relatively inexpensive and petroleum prices were increasing, ethanol was traded based on gasoline prices.
As ethanol began to consume a larger percentage of corn grain production, its price increasingly moved in sync with corn grain prices. The correlation between corn grain and ethanol prices is expected to decline once substantial volumes are produced from cellulosic feedstock [ 37 ]. Despite these advantages, the complex structure of lignocellulose makes its processing challenging and expensive.
Examples of lignocellulose include agricultural wastes corn stover, wheat or rice straw , sugarcane bagasse, wood hardwood or softwood , grass, municipal waste, and dedicated energy crops miscanthus and switchgrass [ 39 ]. Lignocellulose is composed of lignin, polysaccharides, such as cellulose and hemicelluloses, and pectin, proteins, ash, salts, and minerals [ 40 ].
These chains form crystalline microfibrils, which are highly recalcitrant to degradation, and amorphous domains, which are easily decomposed [ 41 , 42 ]. Unlike cellulose, hemicellulose is not chemically homogeneous as it is composed of polymerized monosaccharides glucose, mannose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, 4- O -methyl glucuronic acid, and galacturonic acid residues. Lignin, the third major component, acts as a binder between plant cells, and it is strongly resistant to biological degradation.
Lignin is an aromatic macromolecule with a complex and diverse structure, which monomer units appear to repeat randomly [ 45 ]. The proportion of these three components in lignocellulose varies substantially depending on the type of biomass and harvest time [ 40 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 ]. In contrast to the production of bioethanol from starch, cellulosic biomass is not used as food source.
The conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol is challenging, mainly due to the resistant nature of lignin to degradation, the inefficient breakdown of cellulose and hemicellulose, the variety of sugars released from the carbohydrate polymers, and the cost for storage, transport, and collection of low-density lignocellulosic feedstock [ 51 ].
The production of lignocellulosic ethanol starts with the collection and transportation of lignocellulosic feedstock to the plant site, where, depending on the feedstock, it is fed to a preprocessing step e. As shown in Fig. Within the cellulosic ethanol process, the conversion of biomass to sugars is the main barrier to achieve cost-effective production of cellulosic ethanol.
The polysaccharides are buried within ordered and tightly packed cellulose microfibrils, embedded in a matrix of hemicelluloses and lignin. Thus, the one major bottleneck to efficient enzymatic hydrolysis is the limited access of enzymes to the polysaccharides [ 54 , 55 ].
In addition, lignin non-specifically adsorbs and inhibits cellulases, the enzymes in charge of depolymerizing cellulose to glucose [ 49 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 ]. Thus, a pretreatment stage which exposes cellulose, increasing access to enzymes, is needed. Multiple pretreatment technologies, such as steam explosion SE , dilute sulfuric acid DA , organosolv, ammonia fiber expansion AFEX , and liquid hot water LHW , have been developed in the past years [ 60 ].
SE and DA pretreatments effectively hydrolyze a large portion of hemicellulose, as well as disrupt lignin, while increasing cellulose digestibility. The AFEX process pretreats biomass with anhydrous liquid ammonia at high pressure and moderate to high temperatures. In the AFEX process, the pressure is rapidly released, disrupting the biomass structure and resulting in the partial decrystallization of cellulose. The effectiveness of the pretreatment technologies and enzymatic hydrolysis depends on the type of lignocellulose and operating conditions used.
For example, the rate and extent of the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose decline with increasing pretreatment slurry concentration [ 62 , 63 ]. The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose is the main barrier to produce feasible 2G bioethanol. Enzymatic hydrolysis is advantageous when compared to acid hydrolysis, the chemical alternative, as it requires less energy, milder operating conditions, and it is less corrosive and toxic [ 64 , 65 , 66 ].
During enzymatic hydrolysis, cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes depolymerize cellulose and hemicellulose to hexoses mannose, glucose, and galactose and pentoses xylose and arabinose , respectively.
The three major groups of cellulases involved in the hydrolysis reaction are as follows: endoglucanase endo 1,4- d- glucanase or E. Due to hemicellulose complexity and the large number of enzymes required to hydrolyze it, synergy studies have only identified a few interactions between hemicellulases and substrates [ 40 ]. Past studies have evaluated the hydrolytic efficiency of cellulases produced by various microorganisms [ 70 , 71 , 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 76 , 77 ].
Cellulases produced from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger are the most extensively studied [ 69 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 ]. Multiple compounds formed or released during the pretreatment and hydrolysis stage, such as 5-HMF and vanillin, inhibit the enzymatic hydrolysis. To improve the hydrolysis yield, the private sector and academia have studied the supplementation of chemicals, enzymes, and proteins to boost cellulases performance and inhibitors resistance [ 89 , 90 , 91 , 92 ].
Recent studies have focused on non-hydrolytic enzymes, such as polysaccharide monooxygenases LPMOs , which enhance hydrolysis by reducing enzyme supplementation [ ]. LPMOs are copper-dependent enzymes capable of breaking glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides, such as cellulose, xyloglucan, glucomannan, xylan, starch, and chitin [ ].
Despite the apparent advantages of LPMOs, aldonic acids which are produced during the oxidation of polysaccharides by LPMOs can inhibit enzymes and microbes [ ]. More research is needed to determine if LPMOs are advantageous for the production of bioethanol.
The next stage in the cellulosic ethanol process is the fermentation stage, in which sugars produced during enzymatic hydrolysis or solubilized during the pretreatment stage are converted to ethanol by microorganisms.
The lack of organism that efficiently converts all the hexoses glucose, galactose, and mannose and pentoses sugars xylose and arabinose to ethanol is another obstacle to the viable production of cellulosic ethanol.
Hence, fermentation research has focused on identifying wild or genetically engineered yeast and bacteria capable of fermenting both hexoses and pentoses at productive yields [ , , , , , ]. Despite the promising results obtained from engineered organisms, there are issues that need to be addressed, for example, incomplete pentose conversion, low reaction rates, and low microorganism tolerance to ethanol and inhibition by compounds produced during pretreatment [ 39 , ].
In the final stage of the process, ethanol is separated and concentrated to obtain fuel grade ethanol. Ethanol can be recovered from the fermentation broth by distillation, adsorption, or filtration using an entrainer, molecular sieves, or membranes [ , , , ].
The solid residue obtained from the distillation stage is normally proposed to be used as a solid fuel to produce heat and steam for the process [ 35 , , ]. However, these residues may be suitable to produce more valuable products [ , ]. The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation reactions can be inhibited by several compounds.
Inhibitors can be naturally present in biomass or can be formed during pretreatment. Plants deploy inhibitors to protect themselves against pathogens that utilize cellulases to gain access to the plant cells.
D-Glucose It is a natural sugar commonly called as dextrose in confectionery industry. Honey and fruits also contain glucose. The source of glucose for commercial manufacture is starch. D-fructose It is a hexose monosaccharide.
Sugar beet pulp
A large number of people today dream of starting something of their own and wish that they did not have to utilize their capabilities while making money for someone else. If you are one of the above, then this book could be the end of your search. The first few concerns while you start something of your own are the right choice of business and the associated investment requirement. This book places a full stop to your search for lucrative business that you can start from your home with low costs. It lists down more than 30 businesses that can give you good returns and can be operated from the comfort of your home. And are you, on the other hand, still struggling with the choice of business? Has that made you feel left out or indecisive or unconfident?
Res Adv Environ Sci 1 : This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and work is properly cited. It was reported that the non-sugar components of molasses were found to deactivate solid acid catalysts, resulting into low product yield and selectivity. However, mineral acid catalysts were not affected by the presence of non-sugar part of molasses, indicating the advantage of mineral acid over solid acid catalyst. However, the corrosive and unrecyclable properties of mineral acid catalysts make them unfavorable for future applications from the point of view of green chemistry. In view of the significantly negative impact of non-sugar part of molasses on solid acid catalyst, research efforts to develop simple and efficient pretreatment methods for removing non-sugar impurities should be encouraged when using solid acid catalyst for catalytic conversion of industrial molasses, in addition to focusing on developing high-activity solid acid catalysts and high-performance reaction solvent systems, Only by making progress in these fields can sustainable production of platform chemicals from molasses be achieved in the near future.
Bakery products Although starch is the major constituent of flours, the art of' bread baking depends to a large extent on the selection of flour with the proper gluten characteristics. Starch is used in biscuit making to increase volume and crispness. The use of dextrose in some kinds of yeast-raised bread and bakery products has certain advantages as it is readily available to the yeast and the resulting fermentation is quick and complete. It also imparts a golden brown color to the crust and permits longer conservation. Confectioneries Dextrose and glucose syrup are widely used as sweetening agents in confectioneries. In addition to this widespread use, starch and modified starches are also used in the manufacture of many types of candies such as jellybeans, toffee, hard and soft gums, boiled sweets hard candy, fondants, and Turkish delight. The principal use of starch in confectioneries is in the manufacture of gums, pastes, and other types of sweets as an ingredient and in the making of molds or for dusting sweets to prevent them from sticking together. Dextrose prevents crystallization in boiled sweets and reduces hygroscopicity in the finished product.
A review on commercial-scale high-value products that can be produced alongside cellulosic ethanol
The present invention relates to and utilize schizochytrium limacinum fermentation to produce DHA, be specifically related to cane molasses carries out pre-treating technology and fermentative production DHA technique as carbon source. Human body can only utilize the linolenic acid obtained in food to synthesize a small amount of DHA, cannot meet health nutritional needs, so obtain the common recognition that DHA has become people from diet. The main source of current DHA is marine products fish oil, and fish oil product exists that DHA content is not high, lipid acid composition complexity, purification difficult, the shortcoming such as have a fish like smell, and its quality is subject to the impact in the kind of fish, season, geographical position. Utilize thalassiomycetes schizochytrium limacinum Schizochytrium sp.
Contents - Previous - Next. The flour produced from the cassava plant, which on account of its low content of noncarbohydrate constituents might well be called a starch, is known in world trade as tapioca flour. It is used directly, made into a group of baked or gelatinized products or manufactured into glucose, dextrins and other products. Starchy foods have always been one of the staples of the human diet. They are mostly consumed in starch-bearing plants or in foods to which commercial starch or its derivatives have been added. The first starch was probably obtained from wheat by the Egyptians for food and for binding fibres to make papyrus paper as early as B. Starches are now made in many countries from many different starchy raw materials, such as wheat, barley, maize, rice, white or sweet potatoes, cassava, sago palm and waxy xaize. Althbugh they have similar chemical reactions and are usually interchangeable, starches from different sources have different granular structures which affect their physical properties.
NORCAL OPEN ACCESS PUBLICATION
The demand for fossil derivate fuels and chemicals has increased, augmenting concerns on climate change, global economic stability, and sustainability on fossil resources. Therefore, the production of fuels and chemicals from alternative and renewable resources has attracted considerable and growing attention. Ethanol is a promising biofuel that can reduce the consumption of gasoline in the transportation sector and related greenhouse gas GHG emissions. Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising feedstock to produce bioethanol cellulosic ethanol because of its abundance and low cost. Since the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol is complex and expensive, the cellulosic ethanol price cannot compete with those of the fossil derivate fuels.
Starch glucose syrup
Sugar beet pulp
Molasses varies by amount of sugar, method of extraction, and age of plant. Sugarcane molasses is primarily used for sweetening and flavoring foods in the United States , Canada, and elsewhere. Molasses is a defining component of fine commercial brown sugar. Sweet sorghum syrup may be colloquially called "sorghum molasses" in the southern United States.
Efficient lactic acid production from cane sugar molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 in batch fermentation process is demonstrated. Lactic acid fermentation using molasses was not significantly affected by yeast extract concentrations. Such a high concentration of lactic acid with high productivity from molasses has not been reported previously, and hence mutant Uc-3 could be a potential candidate for economical production of lactic acid from molasses at a commercial scale. Lactic acid can be used as a preservative, acidulant, and flavor in food, textile, and pharmaceutical industries.
Glucose, also known as dextrose, is a natural sweetener, which is obtained from starch containing plants such as corn, wheat, rice and cassava. Crystallization of glucose syrup produces dextrose anhydrate or monohydrate, which are used in foodstuff as a sweetening agent, and in medical applications. Starting out from starch milk, we design and supply plants for the production of liquid and crystalline types of glucose. Starch is processed into glucose, a high DE dextrose equivalent starch sugar, that can be further processed into other types of starch sugar and to biobased chemicals.
The low-conversion glucose syrup is to be characterized by a high viscosity, by a binding capability and anti-crystallization ability, by a low sweetness. The low-conversion glucose syrup can be applied in a confectionery production as an anti-crystallization agent, sweetness regulator, binding agent and foaming agent. Low glucose content allows reducing a hygroscopicity of confectionery articles and heightening their shelf life and that is especially important for boiled sweets. Appropriate binding properties of the low-conversion glucose syrup allow using it rather efficiently in a construction industry instead of phenol-formaldehyde resins by a forming of some types of construction materials.