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Aerospace Acronym and Abbreviation GuideVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Onanon, custom connector & cable assembly high speed manufacturing, company overview
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The national information infrastructure NII is envisioned as having several components: an interconnected web of networks; information content, consisting of technical and business databases, video and sound recordings, library archives, and images; the software applications necessary for users to access and manipulate these stores of information; and the network standards that promote interoperability between networks and guarantee the security of information transmission.
This infrastructure will potentially connect the nation's businesses, schools, health care facilities, residences, and government and social service agencies through a broadband, interactive telecommunications network capable of transmitting vast stores of data at high speed. Because information is a crucial commodity in an increasingly global service economy, the NII is of critical importance to the competitiveness and growth of the United States.
The cable television industry is providing a significant part of the technological infrastructure needed to make this telecommunications network a reality. This white paper discusses trends, predictions, and barriers surrounding the deployment of an advanced cable television network architecture over the next 5 to 7 years.
This discussion lays the foundation for the subsequent consideration of the trends, projections, and barriers to the deployment of new services over that advanced cable architecture. New technological developments within the cable industry are transforming the existing cable architecture into a state-of-the-art, interactive conduit for the NII. These developments are outlined in detail below.
Cable television reached its current form during the mids when the technology was developed that allowed cable customers to receive satellite transmissions via the cable architecture that had evolved from its beginnings as Community Antenna Television. This new delivery system enabled cable companies to offer customers more channels than standard terrestrial broadcasting companies.
Cable then surpassed its original mandate to bring television reception to rural or obstructed areas and became a means for delivering new types of programming through specialty channels for sports, news, movies, home shopping, weather, and so on, and through pay-per-view channels.
Cable television is a major video service provider, with 63 percent of all U. TV households subscribing to cable. As significant, 97 percent of U. Cable television historically operated through the technology of coaxial cable, implemented in a "tree and branch" architecture. Video signals, in analog format, from satellites, broadcast transmissions, and local television studios are received or generated at the cable facility's headend, which serves as the point of origination for the signals to be distributed to subscribers via coaxial cable.
A trunk cable carries the signal from the headend to the feeder cable that branches from the trunk into local neighborhoods. Signal amplifiers are placed into this. Finally, a drop cable is run from the feeder cable into a subscriber's home and is attached to the television set. Channel capacity for cable systems has grown from an average of 12 channels, mostly retransmission of broadcast signals, to an average of over 40 channels today.
The number of cable subscribers served by systems with 30 channels or more has doubled from Channels provided now include satellite delivered cable programming, and a variety of new educational, shopping, and entertainment networks. Using this same architecture as a platform, cable companies are currently exploring their role in the NII by initiating new applications and offering access to other networks and resources, such as the Internet.
The expansion of cable's role in the NII requires building on the foundation that was laid over the last 20 years. Cable companies have installed fiber-optic trunk lines to replace these major arteries of the cable architecture with wider bandwidth higher capacity links.
Optical fiber is constructed from thin strands of glass that carry light signals faster than either coaxial cable or twisted pair copper wire used by telephone companies. It allows signals to be carried much greater distances without the use of amplifiers, which decrease a cable system's channel capacity, degrade the signal quality, and are susceptible to high maintenance costs.
Therefore, a broadband cable network that is capable of delivering more channels as well as high-quality voice, video, and data can be created without replacing the feeder and drop lines with fiber optic technology. This is the reason that the cable industry is perhaps the best positioned industry to deliver on the promise of the NII with a reasonable and prudent amount of investment. Cable companies began widespread installation of fiber technology into the trunk of the cable architecture during the late s.
This use of fiber improved signal quality and lowered maintenance costs. In effect, fiber upgrades paid for themselves in terms of immediate cost reductions and service quality improvements. At the same time, the installed base of fiber served as a platform for further deployment of fiber to serve new business objectives. In the early s, cable further pioneered the installation of "fiber trunk and feeder" architecture in some of its markets. This approach runs fiber deeper into the network, segmenting an existing system into individual serving areas comprising roughly customers.
Time Warner provided a "proof-of-concept" of this approach in Queens, N. This evolutionary step offered a number of benefits. Backbone or trunk fibers may carry a multitude of available cable channels out to fiber "nodes," and remaining coaxial cable to the home can carry a particular targeted subset of the available channels.
Thus, customers may be presented with more neighborhood-specific programming. Penetration of fiber deeper into the network also reduces the number of amplifiers, or active electronics, remaining between the subscriber and the headend.
In some designs, amplifiers may be entirely eliminated, resulting in a so-called "passive" network design. Removal of amplifiers considerably simplifies the use of the coaxial cable for return signals from the home or office back to the headend and beyond. The portion of bandwidth reserved for return signals, usually in the 5- to MHz portion of the spectrum, is often subject to interference and other impairments.
Any remaining amplifiers must be properly spaced and balanced, a labor-intensive process that must by performed on an ongoing basis. Other technical impairments are unique to the return path, and technical solutions must be optimized. These obstacles are the focus of current industry research and product development.
A Cable Television Laboratories CableLabs request for proposals issued in the fall of has spurred a number of technology companies to accelerate the refinement of technology to address return path issues. It appears that the full two-way capability of the coaxial cable, already installed to 90 percent of homes, will be fully utilized beginning in the next 12 to 18 months. Full activation of the return path will depend on individual cable company circumstances ranging from market analysis to capital availability.
There may be intermediate strategies employed by some of these companies to speed the deployment of two-way or interactive services. Such strategies might include alternative. Narrowband return-path options include wireless technologies such as personal communication service PCS or use of the public telephone network for Touch-Tone signaling or use of a narrowband modem.
Hybrid networks, then, are capable of delivering a variety of high-bandwidth, interactive services for a lower cost than fiber to the home, and still provide a graceful evolutionary path to full, two-way, broadband communications. Cable companies estimate that most subscribers will be connected to cable via fiber-optic technology by to Digital compression is another technological development that will vastly increase channel capacity in addition to fostering interactivity and advanced services via cable.
In contrast to current analog technology, which can collect noise such as shadows or snow during transmission over the air and through cable, digital compression technology delivers a signal sharply and clearly while employing a fraction of the bandwidth used by analog technology. Digital technology converts a video signal into a binary form that is stored in a computer, compressing signal information into a fraction of its original size while still permitting its easy transformation into video signals for transmission.
The result is that approximately 4 to 10 digital channels can be delivered over the same bandwidth historically required to deliver 1 analog channel.
Thus, compression technology will enable cable customers to have a greater diversity of programming options such as delivering niche programming to narrowly targeted audiences, expanded pay-per-view services that will rival the video rental market, multiplexing channels carrying a premium movie service on several different channels with varying starting times , and high-definition television.
Digital compression upgrades make economic sense for consumers as well, since the converters necessary to decompress digital signals will be provided only to those cable customers subscribing to these new services. The cable industry has led the development of digital compression technology, and standards for digital compression have been established.
The cable industry's innovative work with digital television was spearheaded by CableLabs' efforts with General Instrument Corporation and Scientific-Atlanta to form a cable digital transmission consortium, which emphasized cable's leadership role in the creation of digital transmission.
CableLabs has worked with the industry to foster convergence of digital coding and transmission for cable industry application, to provide technical support for the cable industry's work with the consumer, computer, home electronics, and entertainment software industries, and to cultivate awareness of digital compression technology.
The industry is working to encourage its vendors to accelerate development, and CableLabs recently invented a universal analog-digital demodulation technique to enable the use of equipment using different forms of modulation being used by different vendors.
The cable industry also has looked closely at the impact of deploying digital video compression technology in the real world. CableLabs conducted a 2-year digital transmission characterization study, to 1 determine how well cable systems can transmit high-speed digital data, 2 gauge the maximum bit rate that can reliably transmit compressed video and audio, both NTSC and HDTV, and 3 identify the optimum modulation techniques for achieving three goals: maximum data rates, minimum data errors, and minimum costs for terminal equipment.
This information has been distributed to vendors so that they understand the world in which their equipment must perform. Cable's leadership in digital compression manifested early in the development of high-definition television. This form of advanced display technology allows cable companies to bring subscribers a television picture with greater clarity and definition than current transmission standards permit.
In the NII, new forms of. The Federal Communications Commission convened a committee in to develop a broadcast standard for high-definition video transmission. Although Japan's NHK-MUSE analog solution was favored owing to its early deployment in Japan, cable industry-led efforts proved that a digital solution was a better choice for reasons of flexibility and efficiency.
Since that time, cable industry representatives have worked with the FCC's Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Services to develop an industry digital compression standard.
The cable industry presently has the broadband capacity to transmit HDTV; in fact, several cable systems in the United States and Canada already have experimented successfully with the delivery of HDTV in several locations, and CableLabs is working on further testing of HDTV standards of transmission. An important architectural and economic component of cable's ongoing evolution is the construction of regional fiber optic networks to link headends and ''regional hubs," so that cable operators in the same region can share services with one another in order to eliminate headends.
Capital intensive network components, such as video storage, signal compression, or advertising insertion, may be shared among operators in a regional hub, thereby permitting operators to offer more services to customers. Beyond the economic benefits, regional hub designs allow cable operators to interconnect with other telecommunications services so that cable can provide video, audio, and textual data to homes and businesses from a variety of sources, and subscribers can request the delivery of specified services such as electronic newspapers, home shopping, or video teleconferencing.
Interconnection of cable headends with each other and with other types of networks raises issues of interoperability. Cable already has the incentive to work toward standards for video transmission and other services in order to link cable systems together.
Such standards must be extensible to other types of networks and have global compatibility as well. Both the cable industry and its competitors acknowledge that interoperability is critical to successful deployment of, and access to, the NII; thus, there is a great incentive for industries to cooperate to arrive at standards and otherwise foster open networks.
For example, CableLabs has tested the MPEG-2 Moving Picture Experts Group standard for compression and decoding of digital video and audio bitstreams, which allows software, hardware, and network components from different manufacturers to communicate with one another.
The MPEG-2 standard will likely be implemented in ATM refers to a cell switching technology featuring virtual connections that allow networks to efficiently utilize bandwidth. The cable industry views ATM as a technology with great long-term potential, and the ATM Forum is a useful venue to discuss interoperability specifications and promote industry cooperation.
And finally, CableLabs has taken a leadership role in the Digital Audio-Video Council DAVIC that was recently created to promote interoperability among emerging digital audiovisual applications, such as video on demand, particularly in the international marketplace. This interoperability among technologies will ensure that technological development will be less costly, that the free flow of information is promoted, and that the NII will be brought to consumers more quickly.
Cable is in the thick of communications and information technology convergence activity. As part of the ongoing development of cable technology applications, the cable industry is launching initiatives with the computer industry to combine high-capacity transmission with the latest developments in software technology. For example, software developments will enable cable carriers to provide the "road maps" customers will need to.
Other developments will allow cable to offer expanded services, such as teleconferencing, transaction processing, and home shopping. TCI , and Rogers Cablesystems of Canada, are working to create a cable delivery system that is capable of sending data to personal computers at speeds that are up to 1, times faster than today's modems. Intel is also developing services tailored to the cable market, including multimedia online services, personal travel planning, software distribution, and Internet access, which will allow the personal computer to become a powerful communications tool in the foreseeable future.
And Microsoft recently announced the demonstration of its server software architecture called Tiger for the delivery of continuous media, such as voice and video on demand. Tiger, which is deployed in a cable system's headend and in software for in-home receivers, is being tested by Rogers Cablesystems Limited in Canada and by TCI in Seattle.
The cost of media servers the digital storage devices that cable systems will use to handle simultaneous requests for data, voice, and video services to the home and of set-top boxes or home terminals that consumers will use to access multimedia and other digital services are relatively high at present, but will decline as production increases. Set-top boxes with digital decoders, which will bring such services as movies on demand and on-screen program guides to the home, are expected to be widely available in to
Wire rope slings have been used extensively for years and were once the industrial lifting sling of choice. Wire rope slings, sometimes referred to as wire cable slings are more robust and durable than nylon slings and also have higher temperature limits. Wire rope slings with an independent wire rope core IWRC can withstand contact and exposure temperatures up to degrees F. Wire cable slings with fiber cores should never be exposed to temperatures in excess of degrees F. Wire rope slings of all types should never be used at temperatures below degrees F.
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A heated element assembly and method of manufacturing heated element assemblies is provided. The heated element assembly including a first and second molded sections shaped to mate with each other is provided. A resistance heating element is secured between the first and second molded sections by an interference fit. The resistance heating element includes a piercable supporting substrate and a resistance wire sewn thereon. The resistance wire is disposed in a predetermined circuit path which is substantially encompassed by the first and second molded sections.
New frontiers for the materials genome initiative
The traditions of wedding dresses, desserts, music and flowers are still the cornerstones of a great wedding, but now they're being brought to life in a million different shades of amazing. This year, for the first time ever, in addition to The Knot Real Weddings Study, The Knot also conducted a survey with Generation Z 1 ages to understand how they view and plan for their future weddings. New traditions will pave the way as the younger generation continues to twist existing ones , merge cultural customs , or create new ones altogether for their future weddings. These timeless, heartfelt celebrations of love and commitment are here to stay for generations to come. Couples are rethinking conventional traditions and putting their own creative spins on long-standing wedding moments, like unity ceremonies and first dances," said Kristen Maxwell Cooper , editor in chief of The Knot.
Before your first ride, we'd love it if you provided us with a few things for your convenience and security. Easy to use polyolefin seals with heat gun or torch eliminating messy epoxies, tapes or mastics. The Splice is an elegant and architectural fitting suitable for Kitchens, Laundries, garages. Hey guys! I finally came up with a name for my TCG it's going to be called Splice. I hope you guys are enjoying it too,if you are, subscribe to the. They are equipped with splice holders, compatible with all standard types of heat shrink or crimp type splice protectors and provide enough space for storage and management of the excess fiber.
The internet consists of tiny bits of code that move around the world, traveling along wires as thin as a strand of hair strung across the ocean floor. Nearly , miles of cable already connect the continents to support our insatiable demand for communication and entertainment. Companies have typically pooled their resources to collaborate on undersea cable projects, like a freeway for them all to share. Getting it there is an exacting and time-intensive process. A foot ship named Durable will eventually deliver the cable to sea. But first, the cable is assembled inside a sprawling factory a few hundred yards away, in Newington, N. The factory, owned by the company SubCom, is filled with specialized machinery used to maintain tension in the wire and encase it in protective skin. The cables begin as a cluster of strands of tiny threads of glass fibers. Lasers propel data down the threads at nearly the speed of light, using fiber-optic technology. While most of us now largely experience the internet through Wi-Fi and phone data plans, those systems eventually link up with physical cables that swiftly carry the information across continents or across oceans.
Wire Rope Slings
Select what you want Select a class or Search within this page with your browser. Skip header and go to main content About us Jobs Contact us. Classification Resources. Toggle navigation. Class Number and Title. United States Patent and Trademark Office. Browse By Topic. About This Site. Federal Government.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The national information infrastructure NII is envisioned as having several components: an interconnected web of networks; information content, consisting of technical and business databases, video and sound recordings, library archives, and images; the software applications necessary for users to access and manipulate these stores of information; and the network standards that promote interoperability between networks and guarantee the security of information transmission. This infrastructure will potentially connect the nation's businesses, schools, health care facilities, residences, and government and social service agencies through a broadband, interactive telecommunications network capable of transmitting vast stores of data at high speed.
Rope Types. The following will give you an understanding of the different types and options used in most climbing ropes today. Bullivants Load Calculator. It has great shock resistance and elasticity.
Я преподаватель, а не тайный агент, черт возьми. И тут же он понял, почему все-таки Стратмор не послал в Севилью профессионала.