Most of the edible fats described below are solid or semisolid at room temperature and most are from animal sources. A small number of plant fats are also naturally solid or semisolid at room temperature. Plant fats that are usually liquid at room temperature can be transformed into a solid fat if they undergo a process called hydrogenation in which hydrogen is added to the plant oil. This changes the chemical characteristics of the oil, making it solid at room temperature. The process also creates trans-fatty acids, which transforms the healthy plant oils, composed largely of unsaturated fat, into less healthy solid fats containing a high level of saturated fat.
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- Types of Edible Solid Fats
- WO2011080580A2 - Low-fat spread made with vegetable fats and phytosterols - Google Patents
- Structuring Fat Foods
- Emulsions: making oil and water mix
- Crystallization modifiers in lipid systems
- Replacements for Trans Fats—Will There Be an Oil Shortage?
- Functions, Classification And Characteristics Of Fats
- TECHNICAL AREA OF APPLICATION
Types of Edible Solid FatsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Creamy Vegetable Pasta Recipe
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Vegetable oils in food technology Zeen Cindy.
Vegetable oils in food technology. Hamilton A series which presents the current state of the art in chosen areas of oils and fats chemistry, including its relevance to the food and pharmaceutical indus- tries. Written at professional and reference level, it is directed at chemists and technologists working in oils and fats processing, the food industry, the oleo- chemicals industry and the pharmaceutical industry, at analytical chemists and quality assurance personnel, and at lipid chemists in academic research laboratories.
Each volume in the series provides an accessible source of information on the science and technology of a particular area. Hamilton and J. Hamilton and W. Gunstone and R. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval sys- tem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act , without the prior permission of the pub- lisher.
This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. Good health rests, in part, on an adequate and balanced supply of these components.
This book is concerned with the major sources of lipids and the micronutrients that they contain. Supplies and consumption of oils and fats are generally described in terms of seventeen commodity oils, four of which are of animal origin and the remainder of which are derived from plants.
This selection of oils does not include cocoa butter with an annual production of around 1. Nor does it include oils consumed in the form of nuts. The production and trade data that are available and are detailed in the Wrst chapter relate to crops either grown and harvested for the oils that they contain e. Annual production and consumption of oils and fats is about million tonnes and rising steadily at a rate of 2—6 million tonnes per year.
This is required to meet the demand, which also grows at around this rate, partly as a consequence of increasing population but more because of increasing income, especially in developing countries. These facts provide the framework for this book. After the Wrst chapter on production and trade, there follow ten chapters covering thirteen oils.
These chapters are followed by chapters on the two lauric oils coconut and palmkernel , cottonseed oil, groundnut pea- nut oil, olive oil, corn oil and three minor but interesting oils sesame, rice bran, and Xaxseed.
For each of these, information is provided on component triacylglycerols, fatty acids, minor components phospholipids, sterols, tocols, carotenoids, etc. It should therefore be of special value to food producers requiring up-to-date information on their raw materials, which will probably already have been processed, at least in part. The editor thanks the authors for their efforts to convert his concept into a reality and for their patience and willing cooperation, and he acknowledges the generous help and advice that he has received from the publisher, Dr Graeme MacKintosh, and his colleagues.
Mag Consulting Inc. WANG 2. LIN 3. MAG 4. GUPTA 5. Gunstone 1. Oils such as palm and olive, on the other hand, are pressed out of the soft fruit endosperm. Seeds give oils in different proportions. Some oils, such as virgin olive oil, are used without further treatment but most are refined in some measure before use. The refining processes remove undesirable materials phospholipids, monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, free acids, colour and pigments, oxidised materials, flavour components, trace metals and sulfur compounds but may also remove valuable minor components which are antioxidants and vitamins such as carotenes and tocopherols.
These pro- cesses must therefore be designed to maximise the first and to minimise the second. Some of the useful minor components can be recovered from side streams to give valuable products such as phospholipids, free acids, tocopherols, carotenes, sterols and squalene. Because of the changes that occur, it is always important to note whether compositional data relate to crude or refined oil. Details of the levels of these in the various seed oils are given in appropriate chapters in this volume see also Gunstone Extraction and refining processes have been described by Fils and by De Greyt and Kellens respectively.
Hamm has discussed the major differences in extrac- tion and refining procedures between Europe and North America as a conse- quence of the size of the industrial plant and of the differing oilseeds to be handled. With only a limited number of oils and fats available on a commercial scale, it is not surprising that these are sometimes inadequate to meet the physi- cal, nutritional, and chemical properties required for use in food products.
Over a century or more, lipid technologists have designed and used proce- dures for overcoming the limitations of a restricted range of natural products. These have been classified Gunstone and into technological and biological procedures according to the procedures listed in Table 1. The procedures most relevant to this book are fractionation, hydrogenation, and modification of fatty acid composition, either by conventional seed breed- ing or by genetic engineering; examples are detailed in appropriate chapters.
For example, the usefulness of both palm oil and palmkernel oil are greatly extended by fractionation. Hydrogenation is applied mainly in one of two ways. A very light hydrogenation is applied, particularly to soybean oil and rapeseed oil, to reduce the level of linolenic acid in these oils and to extend shelf life.
This is called brush hydrogenation. More extensive, but still partial, hydrogenation is applied to unsaturated liquid oils to produce semi-solid fats that can be used in margarines and spreads.
As a consequence of this pro- cess, the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids are markedly reduced, saturated acid content rises slightly, and there is a considerable rise in monounsatu- rated acids, including some with trans configuration.
The trans acids have higher melting points than their cis isomers, thereby contributing to the desired increase in solid acids. Unfortunately these changes have undesirable nutritional consequences.
In the following chapters, examples are cited where fatty acid composition has been modified by biological methods—both traditional and modern.
Well- known examples include low-erucic acid rapeseed oil canola oil and high- oleic sunflower oil, but attempts to develop oils with modified fatty acid are being actively pursued in many counties—in both academic and industrial laboratories—and substantial developments are likely in the next five to ten years.
Some of have been described by the author Gunstone and others are cited in the following chapters of this book. The remainder are from vegetable sources and the following chapters of this book cover all these except castor oil, which is used solely for industrial purposes. The state- ments made in this section are supported by the detailed information in the accompanying Tables.
Cotton and corn are grown primarily for fibre and for cereal respectively and the oil is a byproduct. The demand for soybeans is driven sometimes by one of these and sometimes by the other. It could also be argued that peanuts groundnuts should also be included, since only about one half of the crop is crushed for oil and meal and the rest is consumed as nuts.
Palm, palmkernel, coconut and olive oils are obtained from trees that have to be planted and mature before they give a useful crop. Once this stage is reached, the trees continue to provide crops for 25—30 years, in the case of palm, and longer than that for olive. These crops cannot be changed on a yearly basis. The third category are annual crops such as rape, sun- flower and linseed. Appropriate decisions have to be made annually by the farmer or planter concerning which crops to grow.
The choice is usually between oilseed crops and cereals, and the decision is based on agricultural and economic factors. Another distinction that is sometimes made is between oilseed crops and those vegetable oils which come from the endosperm soft fleshy fruit. Palm and olive belong to this category. However, some equatorial crops like palm and coconut are harvested through all the twelve months of the year, though there is some minor seasonal variation in quantity.
These are discussed below and illustrated in Table 1. Examples include Malaysia, Argentina, Canada and Australia. These countries need to feed their own large populations but are still significant exporters. Examples are the US, Brazil and Indonesia. China and India and other highly populated counties in Asia belong to this category.
They produce, consume, import, and export these commodities. Table 1. That is a period of forty years. The order of citation in the above Table is that used in the reference publication. This book does not include the four animal fats nor castor oil. The reference publication does not provide figures for cocoa butter but this has an annual production of about 1.
The production levels of virtually all the commodities have increased during the past 20 years and further increases are expected in the coming years. However they have not all increased equally; some have lost market share and four have become increasingly dominant.
The latter are soybean oil, palm oil and palmkernel oil , rapeseed oil, and sunflowerseed oil. The percentage share of world production of these oils is summarised in Table 1.
Palm oil and palmkernel oil are combined in this Table. Although palmkernel oil is a minor oil, it is produced from the same source as palm oil and it is therefore appropriate to combine these for this discussion. In the past 20 years both palm oil and rapeseed oil have increased considerably to take up positions two and three in order of production level. It is considered that palm oil production will exceed that of soybean oil towards the end of the forty-year period.
Typical among oils which have lost market share over the past twenty years are cottonseed oil, which has fallen from 5. In Tables 1. The earlier date relates to the harvest of the northern hemisphere and the later figure to that of the southern hemisphere. Oils and fats come from oilseeds, fruits, and from animal sources and Table 1.
Butter is made from the butterfat of milk, whereas modern margarine is made mainly of refined vegetable oil and water. In some places in the United States, it is colloquially referred to as oleo , short for oleomargarine. Due to its versatility, margarine can be used as an ingredient in other food products, such as pastries, doughnuts, cakes and cookies. In , the German structural chemist Wilhelm Heinrich Heintz analyzed margaric acid as simply a combination of stearic acid and the previously unknown palmitic acid.
WO2011080580A2 - Low-fat spread made with vegetable fats and phytosterols - Google Patents
Food Industry. Food fat provides taste, consistency, and helps us feel full. Fat is a major source of energy for the body, and aids in the absorption of lipid soluble substances including vitamins A, D, E, and K. Dietary fat is essential for normal growth, development, and maintenance, and serves a number of important functions. Increasing evidence indicates that fatty acids and their derived substances may mediate critical cellular events, including activation and expression of genes, and regulation of cellular signaling [ 1 ].
Structuring Fat Foods
Dairy Processing and Quality Assurance, Second Edition describes the processing and manufacturing stages of market milk and major dairy products, from the receipt of raw materials to the packaging of the products, including the quality assurance aspects. The book begins with an overview of the dairy industry, dairy production and consumption trends. Next are discussions related to chemical, physical and functional properties of milk; microbiological considerations involved in milk processing; regulatory compliance; transportation to processing plants; and the ingredients used in manufacture of dairy products. The main section of the book is dedicated to processing and production of fluid milk products; cultured milk including yogurt; butter and spreads; cheese; evaporated and condensed milk; dry milks; whey and whey products; ice cream and frozen desserts; chilled dairy desserts; nutrition and health; sensory evaluation; new product development strategies; packaging systems; non-thermal preservation technologies; safety and quality management systems; and dairy laboratory analytical techniques.
Lacto- and egg proteins in ice cream in particular fulfil texturing functions in addition to giving a possibly desired taste. All said types of ice have in common that in addition to animal or vegetable fats, they also contain lactoprotein and lactose. Many people have an intolerance to milk products or other animal ingredients so that they should avoid consuming milk or cream ice. For this group of consumers, there is so far no alternative to milk-containing ice cream having a comparable enjoyment value. For the enjoyment value during the consumption of ice cream, the creaminess is particularly important. The creaminess is determined by the fat fraction and its binding into the overall matrix. In addition, the viscosity of the melt determines the creaminess of the ice. A higher-viscosity melt is perceived as creamier in the mouth than a melt having a low viscosity. In addition, the melting behaviour determines the organoleptic sensation during the enjoyment of the ice. An ice cream having a slow uniform melting behaviour is perceived as more pleasant that an ice cream having a heterogeneous and partly very rapid melting behaviour.
Emulsions: making oil and water mix
Introduction Never before has there been such a choice of fats in the chiller compartment of the supermarket. A recent survey found 20 different varieties ranging from traditional butter with Between these there are polyunsaturated spreads based on sunflower, canola spreads with omega-3 fatty acids, monounsaturated olive oil spreads, spreads with and without any dairy products, reduced fat spreads of all varieties and for those who read labels some spreads very low in trans fatty acids. Recent introductions to the spreads market have included two brands containing plant sterols to aid in cholesterol management, a reduced fat butter and a spread based on a mixture of avocado and olive oils.
Crystallization of fats is a determinant physical event affecting the structure and properties of fat-based products. The stability of these processed foods is regulated by changes in the physical state of fats and alterations in their crystallization behavior. Problems like polymorphic transitions, oil migration, fat bloom development, slow crystallization and formation of crystalline aggregates stand out. The change of the crystallization behavior of lipid systems has been a strategic issue for the processing of foods, aiming at taylor made products, reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing the applicability and stability of different industrial fats. In this connection, advances in understanding the complex mechanisms that govern fat crystallization led to the development of strategies in order to modulate the conventional processes of fat structuration, based on the use of crystallization modifiers. Different components have been evaluated, such as specific triacyglycerols, partial glycerides monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols , free fatty acids, phospholipids and emulsifiers. The knowledge and expertise on the influence of these specific additives or minor lipids on the crystallization behavior of fat systems represents a focus of current interest for the industrial processing of oils and fats. This article presents a comprehensive review on the use of crystallization modifiers in lipid systems, especially for palm oil, cocoa butter and general purpose fats, highlighting: i the removal, addition or fractionation of minor lipids in fat bases; ii the use of nucleating agents to modify the crystallization process; iii control of crystallization in lipid bases by using emulsifiers. The addition of these components into lipid systems is discussed in relation to the phenomena of nucleation, crystal growth, morphology, thermal behavior and polymorphism, with the intention of providing the reader with a complete panorama of the associated mechanisms with crystallization of fats and oils. Lipids are represented by fatty acids and their derivatives, or functionally and biosynthetically substances related with these compounds.
Crystallization modifiers in lipid systems
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Vegetable oils in food technology Zeen Cindy. Vegetable oils in food technology. Hamilton A series which presents the current state of the art in chosen areas of oils and fats chemistry, including its relevance to the food and pharmaceutical indus- tries. Written at professional and reference level, it is directed at chemists and technologists working in oils and fats processing, the food industry, the oleo- chemicals industry and the pharmaceutical industry, at analytical chemists and quality assurance personnel, and at lipid chemists in academic research laboratories.
Replacements for Trans Fats—Will There Be an Oil Shortage?
The present invention relates to a spreadable product, with characteristics of low total fat content, low content of saturated fatty acids and low content of trans fatty acids, with the amount of plant sterol esters recommended to obtain a cardiovascular benefit. It is a product with plastic consistency but at the same time easy to spread to the temperature of use. The present invention has no phospholipids and is also a low fat product. US 6,, describes a high-cost spreadable made from olive oil as its majority component and which has low saturated and low trans contents. However, this spreadable unlike that of the present invention does not possess the proper balance of omegas 3 and 6 for a healthy diet and does not possess phytosterols. In addition, the present invention is not based on olive oil in its formulation. However, said document does not specify its content of trans or saturated fatty acids. In addition, the present invention does not use modified starches for.
Functions, Classification And Characteristics Of Fats
Due to dietary concerns, lard has gradually lost much of its former popularity. It is still extensively used, however, for:. Lard has a good plastic range, which enables it to be worked in a pie dough at fairly low temperatures try the same thing with butter!
TECHNICAL AREA OF APPLICATION
We also look at palm oil scores, animal rights, shine a spotlight on Arla and give our recommended buys. This is a product guide from Ethical Consumer, the UK's leading alternative consumer organisation. Since we've been researching and recording the social and environmental records of companies, and making the results available to you in a simple format.
Margarine : Is a spread used for spreading, baking, and cooking. Margarine is made mainly of hydrogenated or refined plant oils and water. While butter is made from fat from milk, margarine is made from plant oils and may also contain milk. In some locales it is colloquially referred to as "oleo", short for oleomargarine.
Tue 19 Feb O nce upon a time in a land far, far away, there grew a magical fruit. This fruit could be squeezed to produce a very special kind of oil that made cookies more healthy, soap more bubbly and crisps more crispy.