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Produce plant radio communication, broadcasting and television antennas

Produce plant radio communication, broadcasting and television antennas

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Broadcast towers and health

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Jump to navigation. Index click on topic below. Electromagnetic radiation consists of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together i. Taken together, all forms of electromagnetic energy are referred to as the electromagnetic "spectrum. They are collectively referred to as "radiofrequency" or "RF" energy or radiation. The RF waves emanating from an antenna are generated by the movement of electrical charges in the antenna.

Electromagnetic waves can be characterized by a wavelength and a frequency. The wavelength is the distance covered by one complete cycle of the electromagnetic wave, while the frequency is the number of electromagnetic waves passing a given point in one second.

The frequency of an RF signal is usually expressed in terms of a unit called the "hertz" abbreviated "Hz". One Hz equals one cycle per second. One megahertz MHz equals one million cycles per second. Different forms of electromagnetic energy are categorized by their wavelengths and frequencies. The RF part of the electromagnetic spectrum is generally defined as that part of the spectrum where electromagnetic waves have frequencies in the range of about 3 kilohertz 3 kHz to gigahertz GHz.

Microwaves are a specific category of radio waves that can be loosely defined as radiofrequency energy at frequencies ranging from about 1 GHz to 30 GHz. Back to Index. This process can produce molecular changes that can lead to damage in biological tissue, including effects on DNA, the genetic material of living organisms.

This process requires interaction with high levels of electromagnetic energy. Those types of electromagnetic radiation with enough energy to ionize biological material include X-radiation and gamma radiation. Therefore, X-rays and gamma rays are examples of ionizing radiation.

The energy levels associated with RF and microwave radiation, on the other hand, are not great enough to cause the ionization of atoms and molecules, and RF energy is, therefore, is a type of non-ionizing radiation. Other types of non-ionizing radiation include visible and infrared light. Often the term "radiation" is used, colloquially, to imply that ionizing radiation radioactivity , such as that associated with nuclear power plants, is present.

Ionizing radiation should not be confused with the lower-energy, non-ionizing radiation with respect to possible biological effects, since the mechanisms of action are quite different. The most important use for RF energy is in providing telecommunications services.

Radio and television broadcasting, cellular telephones, personal communications services PCS , pagers, cordless telephones, business radio, radio communications for police and fire departments, amateur radio, microwave point-to-point links and satellite communications are just a few of the many telecommunications applications of RF energy. Microwave ovens are an example of a non-telecommunication use of RF energy.

Radiofrequency radiation, especially at microwave frequencies, can transfer energy to water molecules. High levels of microwave energy will generate heat in water-rich materials such as most foods. This efficient absorption of microwave energy via water molecules results in rapid heating throughout an object, thus allowing food to be cooked more quickly in a microwave oven than in a conventional oven.

Other important non-telecommunication uses of RF energy include radar and industrial heating and sealing. Radar is a valuable tool used in many applications range from traffic speed enforcement to air traffic control and military surveillance. Industrial heaters and sealers generate intense levels of RF radiation that rapidly heats the material being processed in the same way that a microwave oven cooks food.

These devices have many uses in industry, including molding plastic materials, gluing wood products, sealing items such as shoes and pocketbooks, and processing food products. There are also a number of medical applications of RF energy, such as diathermy and magnetic resonance imaging MRI. An RF electromagnetic wave has both an electric and a magnetic component electric field and magnetic field , and it is often convenient to express the intensity of the RF environment at a given location in terms of units specific to each component.

Another commonly used unit for characterizing the total electromagnetic field is "power density. Power density is defined as power flow per unit area. With respect to frequencies in the microwave range, power density is usually used to express intensity of exposure. In the case of exposure of the whole body, a standing ungrounded human adult absorbs RF energy at a maximum rate when the frequency of the RF radiation is in the range of about 70 MHz. This means that the "whole-body" SAR is at a maximum under these conditions.

Because of this "resonance" phenomenon and consideration of children and grounded adults, RF safety standards are generally most restrictive in the frequency range of about 30 to MHz. For exposure of parts of the body, such as the exposure from hand-held mobile phones, "partial-body" SAR limits are used in the safety standards to control absorption of RF energy see later questions on mobile phones. Biological effects can result from exposure to RF energy.

Biological effects that result from heating of tissue by RF energy are often referred to as "thermal" effects. It has been known for many years that exposure to very high levels of RF radiation can be harmful due to the ability of RF energy to heat biological tissue rapidly.

This is the principle by which microwave ovens cook food. Exposure to very high RF intensities can result in heating of biological tissue and an increase in body temperature.

Tissue damage in humans could occur during exposure to high RF levels because of the body's inability to cope with or dissipate the excessive heat that could be generated. Two areas of the body, the eyes and the testes, are particularly vulnerable to RF heating because of the relative lack of available blood flow to dissipate the excess heat load. At relatively low levels of exposure to RF radiation, i.

Such effects, if they exist, have been referred to as "non-thermal" effects. A number of reports have appeared in the scientific literature describing the observation of a range of biological effects resulting from exposure to low levels of RF energy. However, in most cases, further experimental research has been unable to reproduce these effects. Furthermore, since much of the research is not done on whole bodies in vivo , there has been no determination that such effects constitute a human health hazard.

It is generally agreed that further research is needed to determine the generality of such effects and their possible relevance, if any, to human health. In the meantime, standards-setting organizations and government agencies continue to monitor the latest experimental findings to confirm their validity and determine whether changes in safety limits are needed to protect human health. Studies have shown that environmental levels of RF energy routinely encountered by the general public are typically far below levels necessary to produce significant heating and increased body temperature.

However, there may be situations, particularly in workplace environments near high-powered RF sources, where the recommended limits for safe exposure of human beings to RF energy could be exceeded. In such cases, restrictive measures or mitigation actions may be necessary to ensure the safe use of RF energy. Some studies have also examined the possibility of a link between RF exposure and cancer. Results to date have been inconclusive.

While some experimental data have suggested a possible link between exposure and tumor formation in animals exposed under certain specific conditions, the results have not been independently replicated. Many other studies have failed to find evidence for a link to cancer or any related condition. For many years, research into the possible biological effects of RF energy has been carried out in laboratories around the world, and such research is continuing.

Past research has resulted in a large number of peer-reviewed scientific publications on this topic. For many years the U. Government has sponsored research into the biological effects of RF energy. The majority of this work was initiated by the Department of Defense, due in part, to the extensive military interest in using RF equipment such as radar and other relatively high-powered radio transmitters for routine military operations.

In addition, some U. At the present time, other U. The WHO maintains a Web site that provides extensive information on this project and about RF biological effects and research www. The FDA, the EPA and other federal agencies responsible for public health and safety have worked together and in connection with the WHO to monitor developments and identify research needs related to RF biological effects. Exposure standards for radiofrequency energy have been developed by various organizations and governments.

Most modern standards recommend safe levels of exposure separately for the general public and for workers. Both the NCRP exposure criteria and the IEEE standard were developed by expert scientists and engineers after extensive reviews of the scientific literature related to RF biological effects. The exposure guidelines are based on thresholds for known adverse effects, and they incorporate prudent margins of safety.

For example, ICNIRP recommends somewhat different exposure levels in the lower and upper frequency ranges and for localized exposure due to such devices as hand-held cellular telephones. This is due to the finding discussed above that whole-body human absorption of RF energy varies with the frequency of the RF signal.

The most restrictive limits on whole-body exposure are in the frequency range of MHz where the human body absorbs RF energy most efficiently when the whole body is exposed. For devices that expose only part of the body, such as mobile phones, different exposure limits are specified see below , but these limits are based on the same underlying threshold level. The exposure limits used by the FCC are expressed in terms of SAR, electric and magnetic field strength and power density for transmitters operating at frequencies from kHz to GHz.

The applicable limits depend upon the type of sources e. The actual values can be found in our informational bulletin available in OET Bulletin It has jurisdiction over all transmitting services in the U. However, the FCC's primary jurisdiction does not lie in the health and safety area, and it must rely on other agencies and organizations for guidance in these matters. Under the National Environmental Policy Act of NEPA , all Federal agencies are required to implement procedures to make environmental consideration a necessary part of an agency's decision-making process.

Therefore, FCC approval and licensing of transmitters and facilities must be evaluated for significant impact on the environment. Human exposure to RF radiation emitted by FCC-regulated transmitters is one of several factors that must be considered in such environmental evaluations.

In , the FCC revised its guidelines for RF exposure as a result of a multi-year proceeding and as required by the Telecommunications Act of Facilities under the jurisdiction of the FCC having a high potential for creating significant RF exposure to humans, such as radio and television broadcast stations, satellite-earth stations, experimental radio stations and certain cellular, PCS and paging facilities are required to undergo routine evaluation for compliance with RF exposure guidelines whenever an application is submitted to the FCC for construction or modification of a transmitting facility or renewal of a license.

Failure to show compliance with the FCC's RF exposure guidelines in the application process could lead to the preparation of a formal Environmental Assessment, possible Environmental Impact Statement and eventual rejection of an application.

Low-powered, intermittent, or inaccessible RF antennas and facilities including many cell sites are normally "categorically excluded" from the requirement of routine evaluation for RF exposure. These exclusions are based on calculations and measurement data indicating that such transmitting stations or devices are unlikely to cause exposures in excess of the guidelines under normal conditions of use. It should be emphasized, however, that these exclusions are not exclusions from compliance, but, rather, only exclusions from routine evaluation.

Transmitters or facilities that are otherwise categorically excluded from evaluation may be required, on a case-by-case basis, to demonstrate compliance when evidence of potential non-compliance of the transmitter or facility is brought to the Commission's attention [see 47 CFR 1. However, studies are ongoing and key government agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration FDA continue to monitor the results of the latest scientific research on these topics.

Also, as noted above, the World Health Organization has established an ongoing program to monitor research in this area and make recommendations related to the safety of mobile phones. The FDA, which has primary jurisdiction for investigating mobile phone safety, has stated that it cannot rule out the possibility of risk, but if such a risk exists, "it is probably small. The Government Accountability Office GAO prepared a report of its investigation into safety concerns related to mobile phones.

Location, Location, Location. The tower has twelve gargoyles across the top to "guard" each entrance to Gotham City.

You can view the owner, tv station call sign, channel number, digital frequency and more. This is a list of broadcast television stations serving cities in the U. The following television stations broadcast on Digital television digital channel WKNX-TV in Knoxville, List of TV Stations in Tennessee Displays all TV stations available in or near Tennessee, and generates an antenna recommendation using a sophisticated algorithm which takes into account your exact location, TV stations power and frequency, antennas directionality and gain. Digital Television Stations.

List Of Tv Stations

In the middle of a Russian swampland, not far from the city of St Petersburg, is a rectangular iron gate. Beyond its rusted bars is a collection of radio towers, abandoned buildings and power lines bordered by a dry-stone wall. This sinister location is the focus of a mystery which stretches back to the height of the Cold War. Then the drone continues. Anyone, anywhere in the world can listen in, simply by tuning a radio to the frequency kHz.

Broadcast transmitter

List of television stations in the Philippines Metro Manila. There are over 80 digital channels available in the Dallas Fort Worth area. Columbia Television Stations. Firestick Cable Channels. The following is a list of channels carried by Rogers Cable, a cable television provider in Canada in the provinces of Ontario, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and a few cities in Quebec. By Cecilia Kang.

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A television antenna , or TV aerial , is an antenna specifically designed for use with a television receiver TV to receive over-the-air broadcast television signals from a television station. Television antennas are manufactured in two different types: "indoor" antennas, to be located on top of or next to the television set , and "outdoor" antennas, mounted on a mast on top of the owner's house. They can also be mounted in a loft or attic, where the dry conditions and increased elevation are advantageous for reception and antenna longevity. Outdoor antennas are more expensive and difficult to install, but are necessary for adequate reception in fringe areas far from television stations. The most common types of indoor antennas are the dipole [1] "rabbit ears" and loop antennas , and for outdoor antennas the yagi , [1] log periodic , [1] and for UHF channels the multi-bay reflective array antenna. The purpose of the antenna is to intercept radio waves from the desired television stations and convert them to tiny radio frequency alternating currents which are applied to the television's tuner , which extracts the television signal. The antenna is connected to the television with a specialized cable designed to carry radio current, called transmission line. Earlier antennas used a flat cable called ohm Twin Lead. The standard today is 75 ohm coaxial cable , which is less susceptible to interference, which plugs into an F connector on the back of the TV. The boundaries of each band vary somewhat in different countries.

Taiwan Tv Antenna

Since Calearo Group has created advanced technologies for communication. Mission: our mission is to innovate, experiment and deliver technologies which are able to connect the world and improve the quality of life. Calearo Antenne was born together with the family formed by Alessio and Lucia Calearo. Those values, shared by all of our collaborators, are the respect for the stakeholder and their necessities.

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Figuring out the location of a TV station's broadcast tower is a very easy thing to do. A tower increases the height of radio antennas, TV units also, enabling them to station locations, AM, FM, microwave, pager and TV communication towers, and state-of-the-art greenhouse that produces “beyond organic” lettuces, herbs.

Knoxville digital tv stations

John Sarkissian does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. What really happened is just as dramatic as the movie, and needed two Australian dishes. Read more: How big is the Moon? Let me compare Our geographical location was ideal as US spacecraft would pass over Australia during their first orbit, soon after launch. Tracking facilities in Australia could confirm and refine their orbits at the earliest possible opportunity for the mission teams. To maintain continuous coverage of spacecraft in space as the Earth turned, NASA required a network of at least three tracking stations, spaced degrees apart in longitude. Since the first was established in the US at Goldstone, California, Australia was in exactly the right longitude for another tracking station. The third station was near Madrid in Spain.

COMPANY PROFILE

Broadcast towers are used for transmitting a range of communication services including radio and television. The tower will either act as an antenna itself or support one or more antennas on its structure, including microwave dishes. This fact sheet provides information about concern of adverse health effects arising from exposure to RF EME from broadcast towers. The ARPANSA Standard is based on scientific research that shows the levels at which harmful effects occur and it sets limits, based on international guidelines, well below these harmful levels. Broadcast towers supporting FM radio and TV antennas are placed on the highest point in an area so the transmitted signal has a clear path to receiving antennas. The transmitted signal is projected away from the tower almost horizontally so that as much area as possible is covered. This minimises the signal strength at ground level near the tower. However this may not be the case for AM radio sites where the tower itself acts as an antenna.

Free Antenna Tower

By using Vodafone. No thanks, I want to stay on Vodafone. Our mobile devices use radio waves to do all of these things. The radio waves used by mobile devices are part of the electromagnetic wave spectrum and travel at the speed of light.

Tv Tower Locations

Interference, defined as the presence of other signals interfering with TV reception, is only one potential cause of TV reception problems. It does not happen often. Most problems are caused by old or damaged antenna, cabling and equipment. Always check these first.

A broadcast transmitter is a transmitter used for broadcasting , an electronic device which radiates radio waves modulated with information content intended to be received by the general public. Examples are a radio broadcasting transmitter which transmits audio sound to broadcast radio receivers radios owned by the public, or a television transmitter , which transmits moving images video to television receivers televisions. The term often includes the antenna which radiates the radio waves, and the building and facilities associated with the transmitter.

Jump to navigation. Index click on topic below. Electromagnetic radiation consists of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together i. Taken together, all forms of electromagnetic energy are referred to as the electromagnetic "spectrum.

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  1. Arashilmaran

    Bravo, this idea is necessary just by the way

  2. Najar

    Excuse, the phrase is removed

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