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Production fabrication equipment and devices for heating

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Wafer Heat and Cool Stations

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HVAC systems are milestones of building mechanical systems that provide thermal comfort for occupants accompanied with indoor air quality. HVAC systems can be classified into central and local systems according to multiple zones, location, and distribution.

Primary HVAC equipment includes heating equipment, ventilation equipment, and cooling or air-conditioning equipment. Central HVAC systems locate away from buildings in a central equipment room and deliver the conditioned air by a delivery ductwork system.

Central HVAC systems contain all-air, air-water, all-water systems. Two systems should be considered as central such as heating and cooling panels and water-source heat pumps. Local HVAC systems can be located inside a conditioned zone or adjacent to it and no requirement for ductwork. Local systems include local heating, local air-conditioning, local ventilation, and split systems. HVAC System. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning HVAC system is designed to achieve the environmental requirements of the comfort of occupants and a process.

HVAC systems are more used in different types of buildings such as industrial, commercial, residential and institutional buildings. The main mission of HVAC system is to satisfy the thermal comfort of occupants by adjusting and changing the outdoor air conditions to the desired conditions of occupied buildings [ 1 ].

Depending on outdoor conditions, the outdoor air is drawn into the buildings and heated or cooled before it is distributed into the occupied spaces, then it is exhausted to the ambient air or reused in the system. The selection of HVAC systems in a given building will depend on the climate, the age of the building, the individual preferences of the owner of the building and a designer of a project, the project budget, the architectural design of the buildings [ 1 ].

HVAC systems can be classified according to necessary processes and distribution process [ 2 ]. The required processes include the heating process, the cooling process, and ventilation process. Other processes can be added such as humidification and dehumidification process. These process can be achieved by using suitable HVAC equipment such as heating systems, air-conditioning systems, ventilation fans, and dehumidifiers.

The HVAC systems need the distribution system to deliver the required amount of air with the desired environmental condition. The distribution system mainly varies according to the refrigerant type and the delivering method such as air handling equipment, fan coils, air ducts, and water pipes.

System selection depends on three main factors including the building configuration, the climate conditions, and the owner desire [ 2 ]. The design engineer is responsible for considering various systems and recommending more than one system to meet the goal and satisfy the owner of a building. Some criteria can be considered such as climate change e. However, the selection of a system has some constraints that must be determined. These constraints include the available capacity according to standards, building configuration, available space, construction budget, the available utility source, heating and cooling building loads.

The basic components or equipment of an HVAC system that delivers conditioned air to satisfy thermal comfort of space and occupants and the achieve the indoor air quality are listed below [ 3 ]: Mixed-air plenum and outdoor air control. The major classification of HVAC systems is central system and decentralized or local system.

Types of a system depend on addressing the primary equipment location to be centralized as conditioning entire building as a whole unit or decentralized as separately conditioning a specific zone as part of a building. Therefore, the air and water distribution system should be designed based on system classification and the location of primary equipment.

The criteria as mentioned above should also be applied in selecting between two systems. An equipment room is located outside the conditioned area, or adjacent to or remote from the building. Installing secondary equipment for the air and water distribution which requires additional cost. Four requirements are the bases for any HVAC systems [ 4 ].

Primary equipment includes heating equipment such as steam boilers and hot water boilers to heat buildings or spaces, air delivery equipment as packaged equipment to deliver conditioned ventilation air by using centrifugal fans, axial fans, and plug or plenum fans, and refrigeration equipment that delivers cooled or conditioned air into space. It includes cooling coils based on water from water chillers or refrigerants from a refrigeration process.

Space requirement is essential in shaping an HVAC system to be central or local. It is preferable to be centrally located in the building to reduce the long duct, pipe, and conduit runs and sizes, to simplify shaft layouts, and centralized maintenance and operation. HVAC facilities: heating equipment and refrigeration equipment require many facilities to perform their primary tasks of heating and cooling the building.

The heating equipment requires boiler units, pumps, heat exchangers, pressure-reducing equipment, control air compressors, and miscellaneous equipment, while the refrigeration equipment requires water chillers or cooling water towers for large buildings, condenser water pumps, heat exchangers, air-conditioning equipment, control air compressors, and miscellaneous equipment.

The design of equipment rooms to host both pieces of equipment should consider the size and the weight of equipment, the installation and maintenance of equipment, and the applicable regulations to combustion air and ventilation air criteria. Fan rooms contain the HVAC fan equipment and other miscellaneous equipment.

The rooms should consider the size of the installation and removal of fan shafts and coils, the replacement, and maintenance. The size of fans depends on the required air flow rate to condition the building, and it can be centralized or localized based on the availability, location, and cost.

It is preferable to have easy access to outdoor air. Vertical shaft: provide space for air distribution and water and steam pipe distribution. The air distribution contains HVAC supply air, exhaust air, and return air ductwork. Pipe distribution includes hot water, chilled water, condenser water, and steam supply, and condenser return.

Equipment access: the equipment room must allow the movement of large, heavy equipment during the installation, replacement, and maintenance. Air distribution considers ductwork that delivers the conditioned air to the desired area in a direct, quiet, and economical way as possible. Air distribution includes air terminal units such as grilles and diffusers to deliver supply air into a space at low velocity; fan-powered terminal units, which uses an integral fan to ensure the supply air to the space; variable air volume terminal units, which deliver variable amount of air into the space; all-air induction terminal units, which controls the primary air, induces return air, and distributes the mixed air into a space; and air-water induction terminal units, which contains a coil in the induction air stream.

All the ductwork and piping should be insulated to prevent heat loss and save building energy. It is also recommended that buildings should have enough ceiling spaces to host ductwork in the suspended ceiling and floor slab, and can be used as a return air plenum to reduce the return ductwork.

The piping system is used to deliver refrigerant, hot water, cooled water, steam, gas, and condensate to and from HVAC equipment in a direct, quiet and affordable way. Piping systems can be divided into two parts: the piping in the central plant equipment room and the delivery piping.

HVAC piping may or may not be insulated based on existing code criteria. A central HVAC system may serve one or more thermal zones, and its major equipment is located outside of the served zone s in a suitable central location whether inside, on top, or adjacent to the building [ 4 , 5 ].

Central systems must condition zones with their equivalent thermal load. Central HVAC systems will have as several control points such as thermostats for each zone. The thermal energy transfer medium can be air or water or both, which represent as all-air systems, air-water systems, all-water systems.

Also, central systems include water-source heat pumps and heating and cooling panels. All of these subsystems are discussed below. The thermal energy transfer medium through the building delivery systems is air. All-air systems can be sub-classified based on the zone as single zone and multizone, airflow rate for each zone as constant air volume and variable air volume, terminal reheat, and dual duct [ 5 ].

A single zone system consists of an air handling unit, a heat source and cooling source, distribution ductwork, and appropriate delivery devices. The air handling units can be wholly integrated where heat and cooling sources are available or separate where heat and cooling source are detached. The integrated package is most-commonly a rooftop unit and connected to ductwork to deliver the conditioned air into several spaces with the same thermal zone. The main advantage of single zone systems is simplicity in design and maintenance and low first cost compared to other systems.

However, its main disadvantage is serving a single thermal zone when improperly applied. Control may be either modulating or on—off to meet the required thermal load of the single zone. This can be achieved by adjusting the output of heating and cooling source within the packaged unit. Although few buildings can be a single thermal zone, a single zone can be found in several applications.

One family residential buildings can be treated as single zone systems, while other types of residential buildings can include different thermal energy based on the occupation and building structure. Movements of occupants affect the thermal load of the building, which results in dividing the building into several single zones to provide the required environmental condition.

This can be observed in larger residences, where two or more single zone systems may be used to provide thermal zoning. In low-rise apartments, each apartment unit may be conditioned by a separate single zone system. Many sizeable single story buildings such as supermarkets, discount stores, can be effectively conditioned by a series of single zone systems. Large office buildings are sometimes conditioned by a series of separate single zone systems. In a multi-zone all-air system, individual supply air ducts are provided for each zone in a building.

Cold air and hot or return air are mixed at the air handling unit to achieve the thermal requirement of each zone. Multi-zone all-air system consists of an air handling unit with parallel flow paths through cooling coils and heating coils and internal mixing dampers.

It is recommended that one multi-zone serve a maximum of 12 zones because of physical restrictions on duct connections and damper size. If more zones are required, additional air handlers may be used. The advantage of the multi-zone system is to adequately condition several zones without energy waste associated with a terminal reheat system. However, leakage between the decks of air handler may reduce energy efficiency. The main disadvantage is the need for multiple supply air ducts to serve multiple zones.

This can be performed by adding heating equipment, such as hot water coil or electric coil, to the downstream of the supply air from air handling units near each zone. Each zone is controlled by a thermostat to adjust the heat output of heating equipment to meet the thermal condition.

The supply air from air handling units is cooled to the lowest cooling point, and the terminal reheat adds the required heating load. The advantage of terminal reheat is flexible and can be installed or removed to accommodate changes in zones, which provides better control of the thermal conditions in multiple zones.

However, the design of terminal reheat is not energy-efficient system because a significant amount of extremely cooling air is not regularly needed in zones, which can be considered as waste energy.

Therefore, energy codes and standards regulate the use of reheat systems. The dual duct all-air system is a terminal-controlled modification of the multi-zone concept. These air streams are distributed throughout the area served by the air handling unit in separate and parallel ducts. Each zone has a terminal mixing box controlled by zone thermostat to adjust the supply air temperature by mix the supply cold and hot air.

This type of system will minimize the disadvantages of previous systems and become more flexible by using terminal control. Some spaces require different airflow of supply air due to the changes in thermal loads.

Therefore, a variable-air-volume VAV all-air system is the suitable solution for achieving thermal comfort. The previous four types of all-air systems are constant volume systems. The temperature of supply air of each zone is controlled by manipulating the supply air flow rate.

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Descriptions of manufacturing processes 1. This analysis had to identify the amount, type and quality of energy required so as to identify possible energy savings compatible to the respective cost-benefit analysis. The following process descriptions of the manufacture of sawn timber, plywood and particleboard are of a general nature and should provide the reader with a broad outline of the production processes involved in the mechanical wood-based industry and the role in which energy plays a part. Sawmilling is a less sophisticated activity of the mechanical forest industries. It implies a certain number of operations from handling and transportation of logs to timber drying, sorting and classification which require different types of energy.

Manufacturing Machinery and Equipment Sales Tax Exemption

Plastics are the most common materials for producing end-use parts and products, for everything from consumer products to medical devices. Plastics are a versatile category of materials, with thousands of polymer options, each with their own specific mechanical properties. But how are plastic parts made? For any designer and engineer working in product development, it is critical to be familiar with the manufacturing options available today and the new developments that signal how parts will be made tomorrow. This guide provides an overview of the most common manufacturing processes for producing plastic parts and guidelines to help you select the best option for your application.

Guide to Manufacturing Processes for Plastics

AMOF Fjell Process Technology has a long history of designing, manufacturing, installing and commissioning compact fish meal plants for on-board fishing vessels. Typical plants have a capacity range of between 15 to tons of raw materials per day. Evaporators of various types such as rising film, forced flash, falling film and plates have been designed, fabricated and supplied to various industries around the world, such as:. The combination of thermal and mechanical design, fabrication, together with experienced personnel, has secured a number of challenging orders. Successful constructions of thermal process equipment is maintained by the designer having knowledge of:.

HVAC systems are milestones of building mechanical systems that provide thermal comfort for occupants accompanied with indoor air quality.

Solar thermal power electricity generation systems collect and concentrate sunlight to produce the high temperature heat needed to generate electricity. All solar thermal power systems have solar energy collectors with two main components: reflectors mirrors that capture and focus sunlight onto a receiver. In most types of systems, a heat-transfer fluid is heated and circulated in the receiver and used to produce steam. The steam is converted into mechanical energy in a turbine, which powers a generator to produce electricity. Solar thermal power systems have tracking systems that keep sunlight focused onto the receiver throughout the day as the sun changes position in the sky. Solar thermal power systems may also have a thermal energy storage system component that allows the solar collector system to heat an energy storage system during the day, and the heat from the storage system is used to produce electricity in the evening or during cloudy weather. Solar thermal power plants may also be hybrid systems that use other fuels usually natural gas to supplement energy from the sun during periods of low solar radiation. Linear concentrating systems collect the sun's energy using long, rectangular, curved U-shaped mirrors.

Electric heating

Romina Ronquillo. Heat exchangers are devices designed to transfer heat between two or more fluids—i. Depending on the type of heat exchanger employed, the heat transferring process can be gas-to-gas , liquid-to-gas , or liquid-to-liquid and occur through a solid separator, which prevents mixing of the fluids, or direct fluid contact. Other design characteristics, including construction materials and components, heat transfer mechanisms, and flow configurations, also help to classify and categorize the types of heat exchangers available.

Weber Comechanics was established in as a research and design entity undertaking development of analytical instruments — pyrometric control devices for resistance welders — which attracted significant interest of engineering experts in the industry. At close cooperation with production plants, it became obvious that many processing areas lack necessary equipment or tooling.

Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to manufacture semiconductor devices , typically the metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS devices used in the integrated circuit IC chips that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices. It is a multiple-step sequence of photolithographic and chemical processing steps such as surface passivation , thermal oxidation , planar diffusion and junction isolation during which electronic circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure semiconducting material. Silicon is almost always used, but various compound semiconductors are used for specialized applications. The entire manufacturing process, from start to packaged chips ready for shipment, takes six to eight weeks and is performed in highly specialized facilities referred to as foundries or fabs. All machinery as well as FOUPs contain an internal nitrogen atmosphere. The air inside the machinery and the FOUPs is usually kept cleaner than the surrounding air in the cleanroom. This internal atmosphere is known as a mini environment. Technology nodes, also known as "process technologies" or simply "nodes", are typically indicated by the size in nanometers or historically micrometers of the process's transistor gate length. Semiconductor device manufacturing has since spread from Texas and California in the s to the rest of the world, including Asia , Europe , and the Middle East.

The following process descriptions of the manufacture of sawn timber, plywood Debarking is to safeguard saws and other equipment from undue wear and damage Conditioning involves the exposure of the peeler blocks to both heat and from the cauls by hand, or mechanically by means of chains or turning devices.

Process & Production Equipment

Induction forge. Induction forge It is used for, forging, melting, brazing, heat treating, and other things, even cooking. Induction Heating Induction Heating is a time tested way of heating metals and other things. The induction coil actually functions as a trans-former primary, with the workpiece to be heated becoming the transformer secondary. Tomorrow I will fill it with coolant and fire it up. Skip navigation Induction Heater 12 KW: This is an amazing induction heater and now you can build your own for fun or as a powerful tool. The basic principles of induction heating have been understood and applied to manufacturing since the s. It comes with a manual, a foot pedal remote, three heating coils and parts for 3 more. I know Tom Ferry was a good friend of Grant's. Forge Motorsport was founded in with the simple ideals of innovation, clever design, and manufacturing to the highest quality.

Semiconductor device fabrication

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Understanding Heat Exchangers

Electric heating is a process in which electrical energy is converted to heat energy. Common applications include space heating , cooking , water heating and industrial processes. An electric heater is an electrical device that converts an electric current into heat. Most modern electric heating devices use nichrome wire as the active element; the heating element, depicted on the right, uses nichrome wire supported by ceramic insulators.

The arrangements for cleaning equipment that comes in contact with products are an essential part of a food processing plant. It must be kept in mind that food manufacturers are always obliged to maintain high hygienic standards; this applies both to the equipment and, naturally, to the staff involved in production.

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