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A crane is a type of machine , generally equipped with a hoist rope , wire ropes or chains , and sheaves , that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally.
It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting them to other places. The device uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a human.
Cranes are commonly employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight, in the construction industry for the movement of materials, and in the manufacturing industry for the assembling of heavy equipment. The first known crane machine was the shadouf , a water-lifting device that was invented in ancient Mesopotamia modern Iraq and then appeared in ancient Egyptian technology. Construction cranes later appeared in ancient Greece , where they were powered by men or animals such as donkeys , and used for the construction of buildings.
Larger cranes were later developed in the Roman Empire , employing the use of human treadwheels , permitting the lifting of heavier weights. In the High Middle Ages , harbour cranes were introduced to load and unload ships and assist with their construction — some were built into stone towers for extra strength and stability.
The earliest cranes were constructed from wood, but cast iron , iron and steel took over with the coming of the Industrial Revolution.
For many centuries, power was supplied by the physical exertion of men or animals, although hoists in watermills and windmills could be driven by the harnessed natural power.
The first 'mechanical' power was provided by steam engines , the earliest steam crane being introduced in the 18th or 19th century, with many remaining in use well into the late 20th century. Cranes exist in an enormous variety of forms — each tailored to a specific use.
Sizes range from the smallest jib cranes, used inside workshops, to the tallest tower cranes, used for constructing high buildings. Mini-cranes are also used for constructing high buildings, in order to facilitate constructions by reaching tight spaces. Finally, we can find larger floating cranes, generally used to build oil rigs and salvage sunken ships. Some lifting machines do not strictly fit the above definition of a crane, but are generally known as cranes, such as stacker cranes and loader cranes.
Cranes were so called from the resemblance to the long neck of the bird , cf. The first type of crane machine was the shadouf , which had a lever mechanism and was used to lift water for irrigation. A crane for lifting heavy loads was developed by the Ancient Greeks in the late 6th century BC. Since these holes point at the use of a lifting device, and since they are to be found either above the center of gravity of the block, or in pairs equidistant from a point over the center of gravity, they are regarded by archaeologists as the positive evidence required for the existence of the crane.
The introduction of the winch and pulley hoist soon lead to a widespread replacement of ramps as the main means of vertical motion.
For the next years, Greek building sites witnessed a sharp reduction in the weights handled, as the new lifting technique made the use of several smaller stones more practical than fewer larger ones. In contrast to the archaic period with its pattern of ever-increasing block sizes, Greek temples of the classical age like the Parthenon invariably featured stone blocks weighing less than 15—20 metric tons.
Also, the practice of erecting large monolithic columns was practically abandoned in favour of using several column drums. Although the exact circumstances of the shift from the ramp to the crane technology remain unclear, it has been argued that the volatile social and political conditions of Greece were more suitable to the employment of small, professional construction teams than of large bodies of unskilled labour, making the crane preferable to the Greek polis over the more labour-intensive ramp which had been the norm in the autocratic societies of Egypt or Assyria.
The first unequivocal literary evidence for the existence of the compound pulley system appears in the Mechanical Problems Mech. Around the same time, block sizes at Greek temples began to match their archaic predecessors again, indicating that the more sophisticated compound pulley must have found its way to Greek construction sites by then.
The heyday of the crane in ancient times came during the Roman Empire , when construction activity soared and buildings reached enormous dimensions. The Romans adopted the Greek crane and developed it further. We are relatively well informed about their lifting techniques, thanks to rather lengthy accounts by the engineers Vitruvius De Architectura There are also two surviving reliefs of Roman treadwheel cranes , with the Haterii tombstone from the late first century AD being particularly detailed.
The simplest Roman crane, the trispastos , consisted of a single-beam jib, a winch , a rope , and a block containing three pulleys. Heavier crane types featured five pulleys pentaspastos or, in case of the largest one, a set of three by five pulleys Polyspastos and came with two, three or four masts, depending on the maximum load. This meant that, in comparison to the construction of the ancient Egyptian pyramids , where about 50 men were needed to move a 2.
However, numerous extant Roman buildings which feature much heavier stone blocks than those handled by the polyspastos indicate that the overall lifting capability of the Romans went far beyond that of any single crane. At the temple of Jupiter at Baalbek , for instance, the architrave blocks weigh up to 60 tons each, and one corner cornice block even over tons, all of them raised to a height of about 19 m.
It is assumed that Roman engineers lifted these extraordinary weights by two measures see picture below for comparable Renaissance technique : First, as suggested by Heron, a lifting tower was set up, whose four masts were arranged in the shape of a quadrangle with parallel sides, not unlike a siege tower , but with the column in the middle of the structure Mechanica 3.
The maximum lifting capability of a single capstan can be established by the number of lewis iron holes bored into the monolith. In case of the Baalbek architrave blocks, which weigh between 55 and 60 tons, eight extant holes suggest an allowance of 7. During the High Middle Ages , the treadwheel crane was reintroduced on a large scale after the technology had fallen into disuse in western Europe with the demise of the Western Roman Empire.
Generally, vertical transport could be done more safely and inexpensively by cranes than by customary methods. Typical areas of application were harbors, mines, and, in particular, building sites where the treadwheel crane played a pivotal role in the construction of the lofty Gothic cathedrals. Nevertheless, both archival and pictorial sources of the time suggest that newly introduced machines like treadwheels or wheelbarrows did not completely replace more labor-intensive methods like ladders , hods and handbarrows.
Rather, old and new machinery continued to coexist on medieval construction sites  and harbors. Apart from treadwheels, medieval depictions also show cranes to be powered manually by windlasses with radiating spokes , cranks and by the 15th century also by windlasses shaped like a ship's wheel. To smooth out irregularities of impulse and get over 'dead-spots' in the lifting process flywheels are known to be in use as early as The exact process by which the treadwheel crane was reintroduced is not recorded,  although its return to construction sites has undoubtedly to be viewed in close connection with the simultaneous rise of Gothic architecture.
The reappearance of the treadwheel crane may have resulted from a technological development of the windlass from which the treadwheel structurally and mechanically evolved. Alternatively, the medieval treadwheel may represent a deliberate reinvention of its Roman counterpart drawn from Vitruvius ' De architectura which was available in many monastic libraries.
Its reintroduction may have been inspired, as well, by the observation of the labor-saving qualities of the waterwheel with which early treadwheels shared many structural similarities. The medieval treadwheel was a large wooden wheel turning around a central shaft with a treadway wide enough for two workers walking side by side. While the earlier 'compass-arm' wheel had spokes directly driven into the central shaft, the more advanced 'clasp-arm' type featured arms arranged as chords to the wheel rim,  giving the possibility of using a thinner shaft and providing thus a greater mechanical advantage.
Contrary to a popularly held belief, cranes on medieval building sites were neither placed on the extremely lightweight scaffolding used at the time nor on the thin walls of the Gothic churches which were incapable of supporting the weight of both hoisting machine and load. Rather, cranes were placed in the initial stages of construction on the ground, often within the building. When a new floor was completed, and massive tie beams of the roof connected the walls, the crane was dismantled and reassembled on the roof beams from where it was moved from bay to bay during construction of the vaults.
Less frequently, medieval illuminations also show cranes mounted on the outside of walls with the stand of the machine secured to putlogs. In building construction, for example, it is assumed that the crane lifted the stone blocks either from the bottom directly into place,  or from a place opposite the centre of the wall from where it could deliver the blocks for two teams working at each end of the wall.
It is noteworthy that medieval cranes rarely featured ratchets or brakes to forestall the load from running backward. According to the "present state of knowledge" unknown in antiquity, stationary harbor cranes are considered a new development of the Middle Ages. These cranes were placed docksides for the loading and unloading of cargo where they replaced or complemented older lifting methods like see-saws , winches and yards. Two different types of harbor cranes can be identified with a varying geographical distribution: While gantry cranes which pivoted on a central vertical axle were commonly found at the Flemish and Dutch coastside, German sea and inland harbors typically featured tower cranes where the windlass and treadwheels were situated in a solid tower with only jib arm and roof rotating.
Unlike construction cranes where the work speed was determined by the relatively slow progress of the masons, harbor cranes usually featured double treadwheels to speed up loading. Cranes were also used domestically during this period. The chimney or fireplace crane was used to swing pots and kettles over the fire and the height was adjusted by a trammel. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution the first modern cranes were installed at harbours for loading cargo.
In , the industrialist and businessman William Armstrong designed a water-powered hydraulic crane. In a scheme was set in motion to provide piped water from distant reservoirs to the households of Newcastle.
Armstrong was involved in this scheme and he proposed to Newcastle Corporation that the excess water pressure in the lower part of town could be used to power one of his hydraulic cranes for the loading of coal onto barges at the Quayside. He claimed that his invention would do the job faster and more cheaply than conventional cranes. The corporation agreed to his suggestion, and the experiment proved so successful that three more hydraulic cranes were installed on the Quayside.
The success of his hydraulic crane led Armstrong to establish the Elswick works at Newcastle , to produce his hydraulic machinery for cranes and bridges in His company soon received orders for hydraulic cranes from Edinburgh and Northern Railways and from Liverpool Docks , as well as for hydraulic machinery for dock gates in Grimsby.
The company expanded from a workforce of and an annual production of 45 cranes in , to almost 4, workers producing over cranes per year by the early s. Armstrong spent the next few decades constantly improving his crane design — his most significant innovation was the hydraulic accumulator.
Where water pressure was not available on site for the use of hydraulic cranes, Armstrong often built high water towers to provide a supply of water at pressure. However, when supplying cranes for use at New Holland on the Humber Estuary , he was unable to do this because the foundations consisted of sand. He eventually produced the hydraulic accumulator, a cast-iron cylinder fitted with a plunger supporting a very heavy weight. The plunger would slowly be raised, drawing in water, until the downward force of the weight was sufficient to force the water below it into pipes at great pressure.
This invention allowed much larger quantities of water to be forced through pipes at a constant pressure, thus increasing the crane's load capacity considerably. One of his cranes, commissioned by the Italian Navy in and in use until the mids, is still standing in Venice , where it is now in a state of disrepair.
There are three major considerations in the design of cranes. First, the crane must be able to lift the weight of the load; second, the crane must not topple; third, the crane must not rupture. For stability, the sum of all moments about the base of the crane must be close to zero so that the crane does not overturn. These requirements, along with additional safety-related aspects of crane design, are established by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers  in the volume ASME B Standards for cranes mounted on ships or offshore platforms are somewhat stricter because of the dynamic load on the crane due to vessel motion.
Additionally, the stability of the vessel or platform must be considered. For stationary pedestal or kingpost mounted cranes, the moment created by the boom, jib, and load is resisted by the pedestal base or kingpost. Stress within the base must be less than the yield stress of the material or the crane will fail.
There are four principal types of mobile cranes: truck mounted, rough-terrain, crawler, and floating. A truck -mounted crane has two parts: the carrier, often referred to as the lower , and the lifting component which includes the boom, referred to as the upper.
These are mated together through a turntable, allowing the upper to swing from side to side. These modern hydraulic truck cranes are usually single-engine machines, with the same engine powering the undercarriage and the crane.
The upper is usually powered via hydraulics run through the turntable from the pump mounted on the lower. In older model designs of hydraulic truck cranes, there were two engines. One in the lower pulled the crane down the road and ran a hydraulic pump for the outriggers and jacks.
The one in the upper ran the upper through a hydraulic pump of its own. Many older operators favor the two-engine system due to leaking seals in the turntable of aging newer design cranes. Hiab invented the world's first hydraulic truck mounted crane in Generally, these cranes are able to travel on highways, eliminating the need for special equipment to transport the crane unless weight or other size constrictions are in place such as local laws.
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Container ships sometimes spelled containerships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers , in a technique called containerization. They are a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport and now carry most seagoing non-bulk cargo. Container ship capacity is measured in twenty-foot equivalent units TEU. Container ships now rival crude oil tankers and bulk carriers as the largest commercial seaborne vessels. There are two main types of dry cargo: bulk cargo and break bulk cargo. Bulk cargoes, like grain or coal, are transported unpackaged in the hull of the ship, generally in large volume. The first ships designed to carrying standardized load units were used in the late 18th century in England. In James Brindley designed the box boat "Starvationer" with 10 wooden containers, to transport coal from Worsley Delph to Manchester by Bridgewater Canal. In , the first purpose-built container vessels began operating in Denmark , and between Seattle and Alaska.
Anchor mechanisms. The following anchor mechanisms are used on sea vessels: anchors half-brushes anchor or anchor. The anchor mechanisms serve to release the anchor and the anchor chain when the ship is anchored; anchoring the anchorage during anchorage; Anchoring — pulling the ship to the anchor, selecting the chain and anchor and pulling the anchor into the vessel; mooring operations, if there are no specially provided mechanisms for these purposes. The main element of any anchor mechanism working with the purpose is a chain cam drum — an asterisk. The horizontal position of the axis of the sprocket is peculiar to the bracelets, the vertical position to the spiers. For some modern ships for a number of reasons, conventional windlasses or spiers are not advisable, therefore, anchor mooring winches are installed on such vessels. The winches are also installed with the combined ropes for a deep-water parking.
Officer of the Watch. The majority of the information presented below has been compiled from various sources either from the internet or through personal day to day work experience and is being updated at regular intervals. Please do not hesitate to contact us for any queries or ideas for improvement of the maritime dictionary. Anchor billboard. Anchor stopper. Bilge keel. Body plan. Bow door. Bow thruster. Bulk carrier.
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