Island Press Empik. Henning Steinfeld , Harold A. Mooney , Fritz Schneider , Laurie E. The rapidly changing nature of animal production systems, especially increasing intensification and globalization, is playing out in complex ways around the world. Over the last century, livestock keeping evolved from a means of harnessing marginal resources to produce items for local consumption to a key component of global food chains.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
Fun Facts: Products We Get From Beef Cattle
Itprovides multiple functions as sources of meat, milk andegg production, sources of draft power and manure tosupport crop production, means of transport particularly inthe rural areas, source of foreign currency through export ofchilled meat, live animals, skin, hides, etc, and much more. Having a hugelivestock population, this situation is a paradox. The Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, EIARin collaboration with the regional research institutes,Universities and other partners has been doing researchto look intervention options on the major challenges oflivestock development in the country.
Livestock researchhas been focusing on priority commodities including, cattle dairy and beef , sheep, goats, camels, poultry, fishery,apiculture, sericulture, forage and pasture crops andrangelands management.
To alleviate the major constrainsthat limit productivity, including genotype improvement,feeds and nutrition, animal health, product processing,socioeconomics, extension and other crosscutting issueslike gender are the strategic thematic areas addressed.
Among others the livestock development is constrained bythe traditional subsistence production practice, the pooreconomic status of farmers, critical inadequate supply offeed, low producing genotypes and poor marketing linkagesin the country. Quit a lot of technologies, information andknowledge are generated but its adoption the farmers andits impact in the overall national economy is very low.
With the increasing demand for livestock products,nationally and globally, and the potential that the countryhas, the Ethiopian government has given focus for thesector and acting on supporting the sector to improveproductivity.
The Main focus will demonstrate available andsuccessful technologies in the area of genotype examplecrossbreeding of dairy cattle , feed and forage productiontechnologies, efficient feeding systems, proper healthmanagement, and efficient marketing linkages. Alignedwith these plans, generation of appropriate technologies,information and knowledge relevant to the currentchallenges will be of high priority.
Dairy in Ethiopia is dominantly based on cattlemilk and to some extent from camels and goats, particularlyin the pastoral systems. The main form of production issmallholder low input systems.
The urban and peri-urbandairy system is market oriented with improved breeds,feeding systems, health and husbandry practices. Mostfarmers keep cattle as a dual purpose animal to producemilk, meat and primarily for provision of draft power tosupport crop production.
The objective of the nationaldairy research program is to improve the overall dairyproductivity, through generating appropriate technologiesof genotype, feeding, health, product processing, socioeconomics and marketing components of the commodityand demonstrate successful practice to farmers and different relevant actors. Market oriented dairy development willbe the major focus area in the country, where dairyproductivity will be improved through creating a systemwhere efficient provision of inputs and services, strongmarket linkages through involving the private partners isstrengthened so that the system is eventually sustainable.
Achievements: The major research achievements on dairyis introduction and adaptation of exotic dairy breedsin to the country, and development of cross breeds,particularly crosses of local boran cattle with that of Jerseyand Holstein Friesian breeds, manageable and profitablefor small scale commercial farmers in urban and periurban areas of the country.
Adequate information has been generated on the production system in the differentareas. Improved management and husbandry practicesof local dairy cattle though putting them into sustainedapplications and improvement of local genotypes havestill faced challenges. Furthermore, several technologiesand associated information of feeds, nutrition, healthimprovements, dairy processing of dairy cattle have beendeveloped, demonstrated and disseminated to farmers andsmall scale dairy cooperatives.
Some information on dairymarketing is also available. Preliminary adoption studiesshowed large number of farmers in the different areas hassuccessfully changed their livelihood and living standardsthrough adoption of improved dairy production practices.
Future Directions:Despite the research endeavors on dairyimprovement so far, success has been limited to specificareas and beneficiaries, leaving the national demandstill at a greater gap even for household consumption. Taking these facts in to account,dairy improvement in the future is expected to look into improvement specificities such as intensive farming,breed, reproduction, feeding system, health, artificialinsemination, dairy value chain and marketing dependingon predicted food demands and policy directions on milkand meat improvement in Ethiopia.
While working on thelong term strategy, demonstration and dissemination ofavailable technologies are the major directions. The issue oftechnology multiplication like heifers and forage seeds areimportant areas to address. Ethiopia has diversified cattle breeds welladapted to the different agro ecologies in the highlandmixed crop-livestock production system and the pastoral— agro-pastoral areas.
The cattle breeds the country hasare not as such specialized to beef production. Mostof them are managed under traditional productionpractice providing multiple functions of dairy, beefand draught power.
This is a very good indicator of high possibilitiesof transforming the beef industry better from whatcurrently existing in Ethiopia. In this regard to meet the increasing demandof local and export market to different countries, thereis a need to develop appropriate technologies to boostbeef productivity and production in Ethiopia.
The majorchallenges of inadequate or poor production practices,none specialized system of production, scarcity ofquality feed, inadequate control and prevention ofimportant animal diseases, inefficient marketing systems,and natural disasters like drought are critically limitingproductivity. The national research on beef is tryingto tackle these problems with the main objective ofachieving projected domestic consumption requirements for red meat that arises due to rapidly growing population,increasing urbanization and rising incomes, and increaselive animal and meat exports to generate foreign exchangeearnings.
Achievements:Beef research in Ethiopia is focused onmanagement of local breeds for fattening. This is mainlyon feeding strategies based on available feed resources inthe targeted areas and animal health management especiallyon internal parasites. Feed management practice of youngbulls, oxen and other categories of animals for differenttarget markets are established for different breeds. Baseline information on available feed resources, feedingpractices and overall farming systems in different areas arealso documented.
Feeding packages for selected breedstargeting the export market is established. Beef value-chainsspecially focusing on marketing and services provision isdocumented for selected high potential sites is also studied. Information on basic carcass parameters of Ethiopian beefis also available. Recommended beef production practicehas been demonstrated to farmers. Small ruminants are found in almost all agro-ecologies in Ethiopia, andmake significant contribution to the national economy and the livelihood of farmers andpastoralists.
There are many constraints which limit productivity of small ruminants andneed to be addressed through research and development. Small ruminant research hasbeen going on for decades in Ethiopia to improve the productivity of the local geneticresources, increase off-take rates and their contribution to the livelihoods of farmers andpastoralists and to the national economy. Achievements:Small ruminant research achievements thus far include on-stationcharacterization of the performance of indigenous sheep and goat breeds, identificationof constraints of on-farm production of small ruminants , development of managementpackages husbandry, feeding, health etc.
A number of recommendations pertainingto the developed technologies have been given for development institutions, policymakers and producers for increased small ruminant production and productivity. Future directions:Changeinsheepandgoatresearchistakingplacetotransformsubsistencetype of production in to market oriented or commercial types of production.
This requiresraising production and productivity of small ruminants beyond the current level. Theexport market and growing domestic market require adequate supply of standard meatboth in quality and quantity. This calls for work in all areas of small ruminant researchand development which include generation of appropriate breeds for target areas,efficient systems of utilization of available feed resources, animal health services and welldeveloped market structure.
Generation of current socioeconomic information on theimportance of small ruminant animals is crucial specially to strengthen demonstration anddissemination of available proven technologies for farmers and different stakeholders. Camel Camelusdromedarius isfoundinaridandsemi-aridareasof Somali, Afar, Southern Oromia regions of Ethiopia, where the majority ofcommunitiesarepastoralists.
Camelsmakea significant contribution to the lives of pastoralists and agro pastoralists beingmajorsourceoffoodandeconomicasset. Theprotein,fatandvitamin-Ccontentof camel milk is vital for pastoralists living in an environment that lacks vegetables.
The overall objectives of the national camel research are to improve productionand productivity of camel through the improvement of its major constrainingfactors including genotype, feeding, husbandry and health; to improve market,market systems and market linkages of camel and camel products in main pastoraland agro-pastoral areas of Ethiopia. Achievements:Studies have been done on camel diseases and parasites, traditionalproduction practices, challenges and opportunities, feeds and nutrition, meat andmilk handling as well as marketing of camels and their products, particularly in Afar,Somali and Oromia regions.
Socio-economic aspects of these areas have been alsoaddressed to a certain depth. Knowledge and information has been disseminatedto camel producers through trainings and field visits.
Numerous articles on camelresearch have been published in local and international proceedings and journals. Pastoralists and agro pastoralists will befurther trained and closely communicated on improved camel production andmanagement systems. Scarcity of feed both in quality and quantity is one of the majorbottlenecks of livestock production in Ethiopia, regardless of agro-ecologyor type of production.
On the other hand, it is believed that there is hugepotential to improve availability of feed in quality and quantity in the country,if limitations and gaps of all sources of feeds are addressed continuouslywith respect to profitability of targeted livestock production systems or feedmarketing possibilities. Achievements:During the last few decades the national feed research programhas developed, adapted and recommended different forage and pasture varietieswith their agronomic practices to different agro-ecologies of the country.
Mostof these varieties along with their improved production, management andutilization practices have been demonstrated and promoted to producers,though sustainable production is still lacking. Elephant grass, Rhodes, Panicum,Cinchrus,Oats,VetchLablab,alfalfa,cowpea,sesbania,tagasaste,leucaenaare the most common forage crops grown by producers even under a range ofagro-ecological variability.
Future directions: The need for sufficient and quality feed at all time is surelyexpected to increase with increased demand for meat and milk nationally aswell as globally. Predominating in the lowlands.
They are the main feed sources of grazersand browsers Gemedo et al. Rangelands are sources of surface andunderground water, minerals, tourism, and natural gas.
They also play important rolein environmental and ecosystem functions such as maintenance and conservation ofbiodiversity and mitigation of climate change.
The overall objective of the rangelandresearch is to develop and demonstrate appropriate technologies, knowledge andinformation of rangeland management, improvement and utilization practices notonly for increased production of feed for animals but also for healthy functioningsustainability of the entire system. Achievements:During the last two-three decades research in the rangelands mainlyfocused on baseline information commonly of biophysical characteristics ofrangelands; management and utilization practices, conditions and trends as well associo-economic aspects of associated communities.
Sufficient information has beengenerated accordingly, particularly for major rangelands. Few attempts have beenalso made on improvement and restoration practices or systems especially of poor,degraded, or encroached sites. Adoption and demonstration of new technologiesand good practices has been also a recent inclusion of the research as a gate way torangeland development.
Future directions:Research on rangelands has been limited to basic information andpreliminary improvement options which has not yet solved major problems.
It includes but not limited to ecological restoration, grazing management,alternative use of range resources as well as demonstration and promotion of newtechnologies or information at least within a short or medium term research plan. The early years were very active years.
Aviary Research program was structurally recognized in with the inclusion of research on other birds ostrich, Duck, Geese, Gunie fowl etc…. In the poultry research has been restructured into national case team to carry out andcoordinate poultry research at a national level. The objective of the research is to generatetechnology that helps to attain self-sufficiency in poultry products, increase rural and periurban productivity and family incomes.
Achievements: So far, improved management packages including feeding, housing andhealthmanagementhavebeendevelopedforlocalchicken. Horro: an indigenous chicken breed has been also developed through mass selection, and isrecognized by the science and technology ministry of Ethiopia. A white feather synthetic line,a breed suitable for semi-intensive commercial production system is on its final stage of breeddevelopment by now, while a dual purpose Koekoek breed has been imported, adapted anddistributed across the country.
Feed formulation based on local availabilities has been alsoachieved for different chicken breeds. Demonstration and wider promotion of proven poultrytechnologies were the backbone of achievements and current status of this commodity.
Future directions: New breeds of chickens including synthetic ones will be developed andtargeted within the near future. Further formulation of rations, alternative vaccines andvaccination strategies will be addressed.
Marketing and value chain are other issues of concern. Socio -economic studies expected to be strengthened. The research group will remain active inthe training of farmers, experts and practitioners in the poultry industry. Ethiopia has quite a significant numberof freshwater lakes, rivers and hydroelectric andirrigation dams suitable for the production offish.
It has more than endemic fish speciesdistributed over the different lakes and rivers. Thenational aquatic life and fishery research teamis implementing prioritized research activitiesin the major fishery research centers located inthe high fish potential areas including lake Tana,Arbaminch, Zeway, Hawassa, Koka, Hashengie,etc.
The research program is structured in to twobig programs as captured fisheries and aquaculture. Despite the high potential and the increasingdemand for fish in the country the research has thefollowing major challenges;.
Achievements: The fishery and aquaculture research has develop different technologiesthat best suits to the current conditions of Ethiopian fishery focusing on baselineinformation of water bodies, culturing systems, postharvest management, biologicalinformation, feeding systems and fishery health.
During the last few decades theresearch has characterized the different water bodies for its liminological, physicaland chemical features and their suitability and potential for fish production. The fishproductivity of major water bodies has been estimated.
Ingen e-bok tilgjengelig CengageBrain. James R. Gillespie, the original author of this text, had extensive training and experience in the field of livestock production and agricultural education. Gillespie taught agricultural education at the high school and adult education levels. Gillespie passed away in Frank B.
The discussion on the role of livestock with regard to human food production is often controversial. On the one hand, the low efficiency of animals in converting plant nutrients into animal products is often criticized, and livestock production is associated with a loss of available food for humans because a high amount of animal feeds is potentially suitable for direct and hence, more efficient human consumption. Thus, from this perspective, shifting consumption patterns away from animal products could increase the overall food availability Goodland, ; Aiking, ; Sabate and Soret, On the other hand, however, livestock can convert human-inedible plant biomass such as grasses or by-products from the food industry into high-quality animal products, and hence increase global food availability, as this biomass would otherwise not be accessible by humans as a food source Smith et al. Whether livestock increases or reduces the amount of food available to humans mainly depends on the potential suitability of feedstuffs for direct human consumption. Therefore, reducing the amount of human-edible feed in livestock diets is a key factor toward more sustainable livestock systems Eisler et al.
Livestock production and marketing
Itprovides multiple functions as sources of meat, milk andegg production, sources of draft power and manure tosupport crop production, means of transport particularly inthe rural areas, source of foreign currency through export ofchilled meat, live animals, skin, hides, etc, and much more. Having a hugelivestock population, this situation is a paradox. The Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, EIARin collaboration with the regional research institutes,Universities and other partners has been doing researchto look intervention options on the major challenges oflivestock development in the country. Livestock researchhas been focusing on priority commodities including, cattle dairy and beef , sheep, goats, camels, poultry, fishery,apiculture, sericulture, forage and pasture crops andrangelands management. To alleviate the major constrainsthat limit productivity, including genotype improvement,feeds and nutrition, animal health, product processing,socioeconomics, extension and other crosscutting issueslike gender are the strategic thematic areas addressed. Among others the livestock development is constrained bythe traditional subsistence production practice, the pooreconomic status of farmers, critical inadequate supply offeed, low producing genotypes and poor marketing linkagesin the country. Quit a lot of technologies, information andknowledge are generated but its adoption the farmers andits impact in the overall national economy is very low.
Henning Steinfeld , Harold A. Mooney , Fritz Schneider , Laurie E. The rapidly changing nature of animal production systems, especially increasing intensification and globalization, is playing out in complex ways around the world. Over the last century, livestock keeping evolved from a means of harnessing marginal resources to produce items for local consumption to a key component of global food chains. Livestock in a Changing Landscape offers a comprehensive examination of these important and far-reaching trends. Volume 1 examines the forces shaping change in livestock production and management; the resulting impacts on landscapes, land use, and social systems; and potential policy and management responses. Volume 2 explores needs and draws experience from region-specific contexts and detailed case studies. The case studies describe how drivers and consequences of change play out in specific geographical areas, and how public and private responses are shaped and implemented. Together, the volumes present new, sustainable approaches to the challenges created by fundamental shifts in livestock management and production, and represent an essential resource for policy makers, industry managers, and academics involved with this issue. Drivers of Change Drivers Perspectives on Change.
Impacts of Climate Change on Animal Production and Quality of Animal Food Products
In terms of revenue generated, Alabama's top five agrigultural products are broilers young chickens , cattle and calves, chicken eggs, greenhouse and nursery products, and cotton. Alabama's agricultural production is dominated by the production of broilers. Most of the broilers are produced in the northern part of the state.
Perhaps, meat, hamburger, steak or even leather. These are all products of the beef animal or cattle , but there are also many other byproducts. Beef byproducts are the products that we get from beef cattle that might not be quite so obvious. For example, soap is a beef byproduct because it uses beef fat. If you have a beef animal that weigh 1, pounds — pounds of the animal will be used for meat products, such as steak, roasts and hamburgers. Leather is a very good example of a beef byproduct. It is made from the cow hide and it is used to make byproducts. Byproducts are a product of the animal that is used as an "ingredient" in other products. There are many foods that are obviously byproducts, such as steak, roasts and hamburgers. Another more obvious product is milk and other dairy products, such as butterand yogurt.
Meat and Dairy Production
All the contents of www. The Project envisages the development of a common methodology for the preparation, storage, dissemination and evaluation of scientific literature in electronic format. As the project develops, new journal titles are being added in the library collection. The objective of the site is to implement an electronic virtual library, providing full access to a collection of serial titles, a collection of issues from individual serial titles, as well as to the full text of articles. The access to both serial titles and articles is available via indexes and search forms. The site will be constantly updated both in form and content, according to the project's advancements. SciELO interface provides access to its serials collection via an alphabetic list of titles or a subject list or a search form by word of serial titles, publisher names, city of publication and subject.
Food and Agriculture
The contribution of livestock and livestock product exports to foreign exchange earnings is also large. Given the large porous border, a large amount of cross-border exports also go un-recorded. Therefore, the official estimates of foreign exchange earnings do not necessarily reflect the actual volume of exports. At the household level, livestock plays a critical economic and social role in the lives of pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, and smallholder farm households. Livestock fulfills an important function in coping with shocks, accumulating wealth, and serving as a store of value in the absence of formal financial institutions and other missing markets.
Meat, milk, and eggs are nutrient-rich products that could efficiently boost nutrient-poor diets either as part of the normal diet or if access is increased through interventions. The scientific evidence for the role of livestock products in improving nutrition is limited, especially during the first 1, d of life in low- and middle-income countries.
An animal product is any material derived from the body of an animal. Examples are fat, flesh, blood, milk, eggs, and lesser known products, such as isinglass and rennet. Animal by-products, as defined by the USDA, are products harvested or manufactured from livestock other than muscle meat. This does not in itself reflect on the condition, safety, or "wholesomeness" of the product.
A classification of livestock production systems H. Steinfeld and J. Definition of systems Description of systems Conclusions Bibliography The objective of this article is to describe a classification of the world's livestock systems based on a recent study carried out by the Animal Production and Health Division AGA of FAO. The results form a valuable basis for priority setting in AGA's new programme of work, which will be based on a systems approach starting from the biennium.
To read about what is in specific byproduct ingredients, read more about rendered products here. The nature and use of byproducts in pet foods, especially animal-origin byproducts, provoke a wide range of opinions. These opinions often revolve around which ingredients are suitable for humans vs.