The Forest Service and other federal, tribal, state, and local government agencies work together to respond to tens of thousands of wildfires annually. Each year, an average of more than 73, wildfires burn about 7 million acres of federal, tribal, state, and private land and more than 2, structures. Firefighters must be properly trained and equipped to respond to wildfires safely and effectively. The U. Forest Service is continuously conducting research on, and implementing, new technologies to enhance wildland firefighting.
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Nowak and E. McPherson David J. This article reports on the methodologies and initial results of an urban forestry research project, based in Chicago, Illinois. It discusses the interrelated urban forest ecosystem functions that are currently being studied - climate modification, energy conservation, air quality and carbon dioxide sequestration - and considers the cost-benefit implications of urban vegetation.
Currently in mid-operation, having completed intensive data collection during the summer of , the CUFCP is a multiyear research project scheduled for completion in late Daley expressed a desire for urban forest research in support of his comprehensive plan for greening Chicago, called GreenStreets.
Two scientists and five technicians are currently working on the CUFCP in Chicago and another 11 technicians were involved in the data collection exercise. The goals of the CUFCP are to: quantify and assign monetary values to many of the environmental benefits and costs associated with Chicago's urban forest ecosystem; generate management alternatives to enhance urban forest environmental benefits; and develop transferable methods and models for other cities.
Results and recommendations derived from the project will be reported in various scientific journals, non-technical publications and reports to the city of Chicago and surrounding communities. It is anticipated that the information will then be used by local urban foresters, home-owners, nonprofit groups, utility companies and planners in order to make more informed decisions about future urban vegetation configurations.
Figure 1 - Percentage tree cover by community area in Chicago Urban forest structure The greater the tree cover, the greater the relative importance of trees in influencing the environment of a given city. One of the most cost-effective analyses of urban forest structure is that of tree cover the proportion of area occupied by tree canopies when viewed from above.
Tree cover analysis of the CUCFP study area the city of Chicago, the rest of the surrounding Cook County and adjacent Du Page County , conducted using a dot grid sampling of random points on aerial photographs, revealed forest cover to be at a level of 19 percent. Tree cover in the city of Chicago itself is only 11 percent overall see Table but varies widely from place to place and ranges from a low of 1 percent to a high of 37 percent Fig. Factors that influence overall urban tree cover include ecoregion i.
For example, preliminary analyses indicate that cities developed in forested areas in the eastern United States average 30 percent in urban tree cover; in western forested areas, 26 percent; central areas covered by grassland and forests, 22 percent; and, in western areas originally dominated by shrub, grassland and desert, 17 percent. Average urban tree cover in the United States is estimated to be 27 percent.
Beyond tree cover, other attributes that are important for quantifying urban forest structure include species composition, tree diameter and height distribution, biomass and leaf surface area. However, very little is known about the comprehensive urban forest structure. Most urban forest work has been conducted on street tree populations which often comprise only a small percentage of total urban woody vegetation. Research has quantified species composition and other structural attributes for various parts of urban forests across the world e.
To estimate vegetative and other physical parameters of the entire Chicago area, plots were randomly selected and inventoried across all land-use types. This information will be used to quantify the physical attributes of vegetation, roads, buildings and other structures. In conjunction with the plot data, more than urban tree leaves were randomly sampled from tree canopies in a high-lift truck and a 0. These structural attributes will be used in functional models e. To project future urban tree growth, hundreds of tree disks, cut at diameter at breast height DBH mainly from dead or dying trees, were supplied by the Chicago Bureau of Forestry and suburban communities.
Increment cores of healthy trees are also being analysed to test the applicability of growth data obtained from unhealthy trees. Impacts of urban forests Urban forest structure directly affects urban forest functions e. The amount, type, location and condition of urban vegetation directly affects the amount of benefits derived from the vegetation and their associated costs. Impact on climate Rapid urbanization of United States cities during the past 50 years has been associated with a steady increase in downtown temperatures ranging from 0.
Because demand for electricity in United States cities increases by 3 to 4 percent per degree C of temperature increase, approximately 3 to 8 percent of current electric demand for cooling is used to compensate for this urban heat island effect Akbari et al.
Warmer temperatures in cities compared with surrounding rural areas have other implications, including increases in carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel power plants; increases in municipal water demand; unhealthy ozone levels; and human discomfort and disease. The accelerating world trend towards urbanization, especially in tropical regions, hastens the need for cost-effective urban heat island mitigation. Proper planting and care of trees to maximize building energy savings and to mitigate heat islands can be more economical than other methods of reducing electrical demand and heat islands, e.
Buildings, paving and vegetation act as thermal interfaces between the atmosphere and the urban land surface. Urban forest structure measurably affects the thermal behaviour of different sites within a city. Urban forests ameliorate climate through: shading, which reduces the amount of radiant energy absorbed, stored and radiated by built surfaces; evapotranspiration, which converts radiant energy into latent energy, thereby reducing sensible heat which warms the air; and air flow modification, which affects the transport and diffusion of energy, water vapour and pollutants.
The relative importance of these effects depends on the area, surface roughness and configuration of vegetation and other landscape elements Wilmers, Generally, the climatic effects of larger green spaces are noticed at greater distances to m than those associated with smaller areas Honjo and Takakura, Tall trees influence surface roughness while deciduous trees contribute to seasonal differences in turbulence Oke, Tree spacing, crown spread and the vertical distribution of leaf area with height influence the transport of cool air and pollutants along streets by advection and out of urban canyons by turbulent mixing from above Oke, ; Barlag and Kuttler, Extensive tree cover in residential areas has been associated with inversions that trap cool air and pollutants below the canopy Grant, Urban foresters in Chicago and other cities seek information to guide decision making regarding the size, distribution and design of green space along streets, in parks and on private property.
There are indications that green space can have both desirable impacts e. Street trees in Chicago comprise approximately one-third of total city tree cover There is the need for a better understanding of how different urban building morphologies and vegetation configurations affect local relative humidity, air temperature and wind speed.
Many studies have analysed urban heat islands across a city over selected periods of a day, but very little continuous data have been collected. To gain a better understanding of the effect of urban trees on local microclimate over the course of a year, empirical models that relate subcanopy climate to local landscape features e.
The dependent variables are the differences in the values of climatic variables between an airport reference station and five portable meteorological stations. Some conceptual challenges to the generation of these models include the difficulty in developing the morphological parameters that will be used as the independent variables in the model and having to deal with colinearity among these variables.
The need to use portable equipment meant some loss of sensitivity and also required an intensive campaign to acquire permission from local residents to place and monitor equipment on their property.
Another study analysing the effect of urban vegetation on hydroclimate was conducted by analysing water and energy fluxes over a large neighbourhood. Land surface data were collected, along with water, electricity and gas usage, to calibrate the Grimmond and Oke evaporation-interception model. After validation, the model will be applied to project effects of increased and decreased tree cover on the local energy and water balances.
An urban park in Chicago's Cook County. Parks and forest reserves in Chicago have an average tree cover of 32 percent Impacts on use of energy The amount of energy required to heat and cool buildings depends on their thermophysical properties, occupant behaviour and local climate.
By modifying local climate, urban forests can increase or decrease building energy use Heisler, Measured Meter, and simulated Huang et al. The aggregate effects of neighbourhood trees on air temperature and wind speed are just as important as more localized shading effects Huang et al.
Avoided investment in new power supplies and an estimated 9 million tonnes million kg annual reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants could augment these savings considerably. Even when the costs of planting, watering and maintaining trees are considered, tree-planting is a more cost-effective energy and carbon dioxide conservation strategy than many other fuel-saving measures.
More than 75 percent of Chicago households use electricity for air-conditioning during the summer. Initial computer simulations indicate that three 7. Annual savings created per tree would be broken down as follows: reduced cooling requirements in summer as a result of shade 37 percent ; reduced cooling requirements in summer as a result of evapotranspiration-lowered air temperature 42 percent ; reduced heating requirements in winter as a result of lowered wind speeds 21 percent.
CUFCP energy research is using empirical relations between subcanopy climate and landscape features to estimate effects of existing, increased and decreased tree cover on building microclimates.
Modified climate data will be used with building energy analysis models to identify optimal tree locations and species for heating and cooling energy savings. Source: McPherson et al. Impacts on air quality Trees in urban areas help to improve air quality by presenting a large surface area in which: particulate pollutants can be trapped; gaseous pollutants may be bound or dissolved, particularly when wet; and gaseous pollutants may be taken up during gas exchange at leaf stomates.
Information on the rate at which various pollutants are deposited to surfaces in urban areas, including trees, is very limited. Besides directly absorbing or intercepting pollutants, trees can also influence the formation of a secondary pollutant, ozone. Research by the CUFCP is investigating the magnitude of vegetative emissions of volatile organic compounds a precursor of ozone and air temperature reductions caused by trees to determine how these factors influence ozone formation in the Chicago area.
Impacts on atmospheric carbon dioxide Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide CO 2 and other greenhouse gases are thought by many to be leading to increased atmospheric temperatures through the trapping of certain wavelengths of heat in the atmosphere. This increase in atmospheric CO 2 , the predominant greenhouse gas, is largely attributable to fossil fuel combustion and, to a much lesser extent, deforestation. Trees, through their growth process, act as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Thus, increasing the amount of trees can potentially slow the accumulation of atmospheric CO 2 , so long as the trees are healthy and growing vigorously. In terms of reducing levels of atmospheric CO 2 , trees in urban areas offer the double benefit of direct carbon absorption and reduction of the CO 2 produced by fossil fuel power plants through energy conservation from properly located trees. At present, the CUFCP is quantifying the degree to which urban trees in the Chicago area sequester atmospheric CO 2 and reduce emissions from power plants through energy conservation.
In addition, a neighbourhood carbon budget is being researched to determine how much carbon in fossil fuels is being expended in the maintenance of urban vegetation and what carbon benefits are being derived from vegetation at the neighbourhood level. To illustrate the potential impact of urban trees on atmospheric carbon dioxide, the effect of planting ten million urban trees 3.
The resulting million trees were assumed to be planted in proper locations around buildings to conserve energy. In the year , these trees would have stored 85 million tonnes and prevented the production of another million tonnes of carbon, a carbon avoided to stored ratio.
The total million tonnes of carbon stored and avoided is a liberal estimate, as all million trees were assumed to survive the entire 50 years and there is no calculation for the eventual CO 2 released to the atmosphere when trees might have to be removed.
Even so, this estimate is less than 1 percent of the amount of carbon emissions forecast for the United States over the same year period Nowak, in press. Although the relative impact of urban trees on the increasing amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide is small, carbon sequestration and avoidance are only two of the many benefits derived from urban trees.
Benefits and costs of urban vegetation Urban green space provides many environmental and social services that contribute to the quality of life in cities. However, economic approaches used to estimate the value of green space services e. Benefits from trees are environmental externalities because these benefits are not reflected in consumer prices - we do not pay money to trees for cooling our homes but we do pay utility companies for the power to run air-conditioners to cool our homes.
Two approaches used to estimate values for external environmental benefits from trees are direct estimation and implied valuation McPherson, Computer simulation of the effects of trees on building energy use provide direct estimates of benefits.
Implied valuation relies on the costs of environmental control to estimate a benefit to society of reducing externalities such as air pollution, water runoff from storms or highway noise.
For instance, if a society is willing to pay a given figure e. Figure 2 Cumulative amount of carbon stored and avoided by planting ten million trees annually from to Amounts given assume no tree mortality A green space accounting approach that directly connects vegetation structure with the spatial-temporal flow of functional benefits and costs was applied for a tree-planting programme in Tucson, Arizona.
Prices were assigned to each cost planting, pruning, removal, irrigation, etc. Trees planted in parks were projected to provide the highest benefit-cost ratio 2. Application of this benefit-cost approach is limited by the inability to value more intangible benefits of trees e. Despite these uncertainties, this green space accounting approach will be applied in Chicago, as it offers a relatively sophisticated approach for evaluating some of the economic and environmental implications of possible urban forestry efforts.
Tree numbers, locations and species to be planted in Chicago during the next five years will be determined by a survey of agencies and contractors. Prices will be assigned to each cost and benefit.
Findings will depict the net present value of benefits and the annual flow of benefits and costs over a year planning horizon.
What was once used only for air space and meteorological research, LiDAR — which stands for Light Detection and Ranging and is commonly referred to as airborne laser scanning — is now being used for forest research to more accurately examine everything from the height and diameter of trees to ground terrain evaluation and plot-level wood volume estimates. In the just-released video Forest for the Trees: How technology is transforming B. Coops explains LiDAR technology can be used with airplanes or drones and involves sending pulses of light down to the ground that bounce back and mirrors the data captured into images that allow forest planners to measure the topography, depth, height, slope and other values of the land being surveyed. LiDAR can provide a wide range of enhanced ecological applications such as evaluating microhabitat diversity and watershed modelling. Through the use of LiDAR, forest planners can rapidly and accurately produce three-dimensional data-sets, which allows them to better assess road building opportunities, stand value and wood quality, resulting in more efficient inventory management. We are using them more and more for our reforestation and we are starting to use them in our wildlife management as well, which includes the monitoring and assessment of fish and riparian areas.
The Forest and Natural Areas Management FNAM program is a two-year diploma program with a focus on forestry, vegetation management, arboriculture for supporting sustainable community development in both rural and urban environments. The breadth of technical and field-based skills you acquire also relevant to many other natural resource sectors. Forestry practices must integrate field skills, scientific knowledge and technology in an ecological framework, to produce various goods and services. It involves assessing the health of forests with respect to insects and disease, planning revegetation strategies, and using technology to map and track forest inventories.
Forestry Safety Gear
A feller buncher is a self-propelled machine with a cutting head that is capable of holding more than one stem at a time. The cutting head is used strictly for cutting, holding, and placing the stems on the ground. Feller bunchers do not have processing capabilities. Either wheels or tracks propel feller bunchers. Tracked machines are slower than wheeled machines, but often have the advantage of being more stable on steep slopes.
Make payments or register online to renew or obtain new licenses by selecting a keyword which best matches your license needs below. After selecting a keyword you will be taken to our online payment center where you will be required to log in before entering any payments. Fire is a significant force in the forest environment. Depending upon specific land management objective, plus a host of environmental variables, fire will sometimes be an enemy, at times a friend, and frequently its effects will be mixed between the two extremes. To extend knowledge of fire's role in Florida forests, this publication has been developed from scientific literature review and observations by experienced personnel. To be most useful, the general principles that follow must be localized to specific environments or management units in that way, in-depth knowledge of fire can be used to enhance productivity of the earth's ecosystems in all their infinite variety. One great truth of this environmental age is that it is far better to complement natural systems than to manipulate them for single-purpose gain. It is through recognition of ecological interrelationships that we can best manage natural resources for the public good.
Advanced Forest Equipment is a manufacturer of high-performance mulching attachments for excavators and skid steers. Built in the USA, great for the do. And that no-compromise approach extends into each of our product lines.
Nowak and E. McPherson David J. This article reports on the methodologies and initial results of an urban forestry research project, based in Chicago, Illinois. It discusses the interrelated urban forest ecosystem functions that are currently being studied - climate modification, energy conservation, air quality and carbon dioxide sequestration - and considers the cost-benefit implications of urban vegetation. Currently in mid-operation, having completed intensive data collection during the summer of , the CUFCP is a multiyear research project scheduled for completion in late Daley expressed a desire for urban forest research in support of his comprehensive plan for greening Chicago, called GreenStreets. Two scientists and five technicians are currently working on the CUFCP in Chicago and another 11 technicians were involved in the data collection exercise. The goals of the CUFCP are to: quantify and assign monetary values to many of the environmental benefits and costs associated with Chicago's urban forest ecosystem; generate management alternatives to enhance urban forest environmental benefits; and develop transferable methods and models for other cities. Results and recommendations derived from the project will be reported in various scientific journals, non-technical publications and reports to the city of Chicago and surrounding communities. It is anticipated that the information will then be used by local urban foresters, home-owners, nonprofit groups, utility companies and planners in order to make more informed decisions about future urban vegetation configurations.
Precision forestry: A revolution in the woods
Space and robotics technology have been combined to develop an advanced Precision Forestry Positioning System, which allows more efficient forest planning and harvesting. The system combines remote sensing maps from airplanes with satellite navigation data to map each tree in a forest. This information is then used to plan which trees are to be cut, and when. Finally, the plan is used on harvesters to identify which trees to cut. This helps make the harvesting more efficient, optimises overall wood production and reduces costs. As the prototype works well, we are fairly close to the stage where we can go into production. Another 6 to 12 months, and we should be there," said Prof. The objective of the Precision Forestry Positioning System is to automate and optimise all the work involved in foresting, from the early planning of the forest to the final cutting of single trees, in order to be competitive on the worldwide market, and to overcome efficiency problems related to the forest ownership structure of the region. Much higher accuracy is needed".
Monitoring our forests from space
Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since Digital technology is revolutionizing industries around the globe, from manufacturing to healthcare. Even agriculture is undergoing enormous change due to technologies like variable-rate fertilization and automated harvesting. Forestry, on the other hand, has lagged behind most other industries in the adoption of digital technology. This, however, is finally starting to change. Studies are already showing productivity increases in general agriculture at rates of 5 to 25 percent annually, with returns on investment of one to two years for digital technology depending of course on many factors, such as farm size, crop selection, and other conditions.
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Slated for launch in , Biomass , the European Space Agency's forest mission, will provide information on the current state of our forests to help us understand how they are changing over time and gain insight into the role they play in the carbon cycle. While satellites have been used in the past to collect information on the height and density of forests worldwide, Biomass will go further by delivering accurate maps with a resolution of metres of tropical, temperate and boreal forests.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests , woodlands , and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Modern forestry generally embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber , fuel wood, wildlife habitat , natural water quality management , recreation , landscape and community protection, employment, aesthetically appealing landscapes , biodiversity management, watershed management , erosion control , and preserving forests as " sinks " for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester.
Agro-forestry is an integrated approach to the production of trees and of non-tree crops or animals on the same piece of land. The crops can be grown together at the same time, in rotation, or in separate plots when materials from one are used to benefit another. Agro-forestry systems take advantage of trees for many uses: to hold the soil; to increase fertility through nitrogen fixation, or through bringing minerals from deep in the soil and depositing them by leaf-fall; and to provide shade, construction materials, foods and fuel.