Underwater hockey UWH , also known as Octopush mainly in the United Kingdom is a globally played limited- contact sport in which two teams compete to manoeuvre a puck across the bottom of a swimming pool into the opposing team's goal by propelling it with a hockey stick pusher. It originated in England on November 18 when Alan Blake, a founder of the newly formed Southsea Sub-Aqua Club, invented the game he called Octopush as a means of keeping the club's members interested and active over the cold winter months when open-water diving lost its appeal. Two teams of up to ten players compete, with six players in each team in play at any one time. Before the start of play the puck is placed in the centre of the pool, and the players wait in the water whilst touching the wall above the goal they are defending. At the start-of-play signal usually a buzzer or a gong members of both teams are free to swim anywhere in the play area and try to score by manoeuvring the puck into the opponents' goal.
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Sensor Fusion and Smart Sensor in Sports and Biomedical ApplicationsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: When Referees Get In The Way In Sport
Referees are essential for sports such as handball. However, there are few tools available to analyze the activity of handball referees. The aim of this study was to design an instrument for observing the behavior of referees in handball competitions and to analyze the resulting data by polar coordinate analysis.
For the data quality control analysis, we calculated Pearson's 0. In the generalizability analysis, the absolute and relative generalizability coefficients were 0. Polar coordinate analysis of referee decisions showed that correct calls were more common for central court and 7-meter throw calls.
Likewise, calls were more likely to be incorrect in terms of both errors of omission and commission when taken from the goal-line position.
Referees have a key role in elite sports competitions Cruz, ; Dohmen and Sauermann, Officiating a match between two teams is a difficult task that is further complicated by the need to take decisions on a range of events that occur within a short space of time Plessner, ; Mascarenhas and Smith, The decisions taken by referees can influence the unfolding of events during a match and even decide the outcome Philippe et al.
It is therefore important to analyze and improve referee performance in these contexts. Good referees share certain qualities. They must be very knowledgeable about the rules of the game, have a good level of physical fitness, position themselves correctly on the court or pitch, have good visual and auditory acuity, and be highly motivated and capable of taking on-the-spot decisions and controlling their emotions Weinberg and Richardson, ; Mascarenhas et al.
These qualities, can, however, be modified by various factors that can affect decision-making processes Weston et al. Refereeing in team handball is a complex task, as handball is a fast, physical game involving continuous contact and offensive and defensive actions Souchon et al.
To meet the demands of officiating a match and withstand the pressure generated by players, crowds, and critical moments, referees need to be sufficiently prepared, both psychologically and technically Gimeno et al. Tools have also emerged to analyze the activity of coaches, who have an important influence on match tactics and outcomes Debanne and Fontayne, ; Debanne, There is, however, a need for reliable, accurate tools for analyzing the performance of handball referees, as very few have been developed Souchon et al.
Research in this area has sought to identify different elements that can help to interpret decision-making in sport Araujo et al. It is a non-intrusive, b has a high level of ecological validity i. One technique that has shown great potential in this area in recent years is polar coordinate analysis Sackett, It is among the most informative techniques Araujo et al.
Recent years have seen a rapid uptake of polar coordinate analysis in the field of Sports Sciences, where it has been used to analyze a range of sports, including soccer, tennis, and handball Castellano et al. To analyze decisions taken in sport, it is necessary to analyze the different actions that occur during a game Pinder et al. Polar coordinate analysis is a suitable technique for identifying and helping to understand these actions.
Prudente et al. Polar coordinate analysis has also been used in beach volleyball to identify erroneous behaviors in relation to passes and receptions Morillo et al. Finally, the technique has been successfully applied to analyzing tactical decisions taken in track events.
Polar coordinate analysis is a powerful technique that reduces the volume of data to be processed without losing important information. This computation is possible, as both the frequency of the focal behavior n and the Z scores for each of the lags considered are known. These Z scores are independent of each other, as they are computed using the binomial test, which compares observed probabilities corresponding to textual units derived from observation of the teachers' discourse with expected probabilities chance occurrences.
The relationship between the focal behavior and the conditional behaviors is estimated using the angle of the resulting vector, while the strength is estimated using the vector radius Anguera et al. A crucial component of polar coordinate analysis is that its powerful data reduction feature permits the consideration of both retrospective and prospective perspectives.
In other words, it shows what happens before and after the behavior of interest. Given the scarcity of tools available for analyzing the activity of handball referees, the main aim of this study was to design a tool that could be used to objectively analyze referee behavior and performance in competition situations. A second aim was to test the tool using data from three matches at the World Men's Handball Championship held in Spain.
As we used an observation instrument that combined field formats with category systems, the observational design was multidimensional Morillo et al. A group of six observers, all male referees who officiated regional handball matches in Andalusia, Spain, participated in the data quality control phase.
For this analysis, the observers studied the semi-final between Spain and Slovenia at the World Men's Handball Championship.
The polar coordinate analysis was performed using data coded by a single observer from three final-stage matches in the same championship: the semi-final between Spain and Slovenia, the semi-final between Denmark and Croatia, and the third place game between Slovenia and Croatia. The ethical requirements of observational methodology were applied to the current study and performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki. Given the scarcity of existing theoretical constructs and the multidimensional nature of handball, the coding system observation instrument was built using an empirical-inductive approach Castellano et al.
For the polar coordinate analysis, we chose three focal behaviors that would permit analysis of individual interventions by referees, as this is a key aspect of refereeing.
The categories chosen were related to decision responsibility. Although the other categories are also important, we chose the three categories that could provide the most useful information for the aim of the study. These were:. For the data quality control analysis, three different moments of the semi-final between Spain and Slovenia were analyzed by previously trained observers.
Two of the moments were observed by the same team of observers and the third one was observed by a second team. In addition, the data were coded using the consensus agreement method described by Anguera Cohen's kappa coefficients, generalizability analysis, and correlation coefficients were used to measure intra- and inter-observer agreement; the results in all cases were higher than 0. In the subsequent full data collection phase, behaviors were coded in the three matches analyzed.
Handball matches are officiated by two referees with the same level of responsibility. In each match, the actions of the referees were coded simultaneously by three previously trained observers using the consensus agreement method. The observers were all regional-level handball referees.
There are two referees in handball, a court referee and a goal-line referee, and these generally position themselves opportunely to cover critical areas of the playing court at any given time. Polar coordinate analysis, through the calculation of Z sum statistics derived from adjusted residuals corresponding to prospective and retrospective lags, indicates the nature of the relationship between a focal and a conditional behavior, which can be excitatory or inhibitory.
The type of relationship is determined by the quadrant in which the corresponding vector is located, and the focal behavior will always be excitatory or inhibitory. The meaning of the four quadrants is shown below:.
Quadrant I: Mutual excitation between focal and conditional behavior i. Quadrant II: Inhibitory focal behavior and excitatory conditional behavior i.
Quadrant III: Mutual inhibition between focal and conditional behavior i. Quadrant IV: Excitatory focal behavior and inhibitory conditional behavior i. The following events were excluded from the analysis and were therefore not recorded as correct calls: goals, throw-offs recorded as an error if incorrectly executed , whistle for a free throw, throw-in, or goalkeeper throw.
As one of the criterion was a whistle signal by a referee, application of the advantage rule was not recorded as a correct call. The largest source of variation was associated with the interaction [Criteria] [Categories]. Absolute generalizability coefficient, relative generalizability coefficient, absolute SD, and relative SD in relation to measurement design.
The results of the generalizability analysis show optimal values for absolute and relative generalizability coefficient values, in addition to a linear tendency for the SDs of each design. In all cases, the relative SD was lower than the absolute SD. The vector maps for the three focal behaviors selected for the polar coordinate analysis are shown below. Relationships in quadrant I are mutually excitatory, i. As expected, the focal behavior inhibited the other two categories in the same criterion, as they are mutually exclusive.
This shows that the likelihood of this foul being called correctly by the right referee is very high. As they are located in quadrant I, the focal and conditional behaviors are mutually excitatory. As expected for quadrant III, the focal behavior incorrect call inhibited correct calls.
Again, the focal behavior inhibited behaviors related to correct calls. We have presented a new tool for observing, coding, and analyzing the actions of referees in handball competitions. Although decisions made by referees are influenced by contextual factors Debanne, , the ad hoc observation instrument described in this study was designed to provide an objective means of recording, describing, and analyzing actions taken by handball referees according to their role and position on the court.
The reliability, generalizability, and correlation results in the data quality control analysis attest to the suitability of the data obtained. The observation instrument thus would appear to be an adequate tool for obtaining reliable datasets for performing sequential and other analyses of the performance of court and goal-line referees during handball competitions. In this respect, it is similar to observation instruments designed for other sports, such as soccer Sarmento et al. A recent study by Araujo et al.
The conceptual vector maps presented in this study show how the referees responded to events based on their use of the whistle. The instrument presented has numerous applications. It could be used, for example, to identify streams of behavior or specific actions that cause greater difficulties for referees or situations that are prone to more error, regardless of level of physical fitness. Handball refereeing has been reported to require moderate levels of fitness and does not appear to be limited by aerobic capacity Fernandes da Silva et al.
Most of the correct calls were made from the central court position. This is logical, as court referees are generally responsible for making more calls than goal-line referees and have to deal with less conflictive situations. Goal-line referees, by contrast, have to deal with multiple interactions in short spaces of time and are therefore more likely to make incorrect calls, even though they use their whistle less.
We also found that the referees observed made a high percentage of correct calls. Seven-meter throw fouls, for example, were correctly called by the right referee the goal-line referee in all cases. This again is logical, as fouls of this type are generally the responsibility of the referee at the end of the court and are rarely called by the court referee.
Handball, unlike other sports such as basketball, does not use instant-replay or similar technology to facilitate the work of referees. The installation of court-side cameras to watch instant or near-instant replays of dubious play or the use of goal-line sensors to check whether or not the ball completely crossed the goal-line could lead to interesting improvements in the game. Such measures, however, also have drawbacks.
The technology is costly and perhaps should only be considered for elite competitions. In addition, the use of these systems could hurt the credibility of referees and cause them to lose confidence in their calls, particularly in the case of less experienced referees. More studies of decision-making by handball referees are needed to assess the possible advantages of redistributing responsibilities and zones between both referees and even perhaps of using a third referee in areas with high error rates.
Our study highlights some limitations that could be overcome in future studies. It would be interesting, for example, to analyze more areas of the court and to divide the court into specific zones to analyze the actions of referees according to the number of players on the court at a given time and the position of the defense.
A team official who uses unauthorised equipment or who behaves in an inappropriate manner as a result of the use of electronic or communication equipment will be sent off. Where wearable technology WT as part of electronic performance and tracking systems EPTS is used in matches played in an official competition organised under the auspices of FIFA, confederations or national football associations, the competition organiser must ensure that the technology attached to the player's equipment is not dangerous and must bear the following mark: This mark indicates that it has been officially tested and meets the minimum safety requirements of the International Match Standard developed by FIFA and approved by The IFAB. The transition period runs until 31 May A professional standard was developed by FIFA and approved by The IFAB in order to support the competition organisers with the approval process of reliable and accurate electronic performance and tracking systems. The professional standard will be implemented in the transition period until 1 June Slogans, statements, images and advertising Equipment must not have any political, religious or personal slogans, statements or images.
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The following work presents an overview of smart sensors and sensor fusion targeted at biomedical applications and sports areas. In this work, the integration of these areas is demonstrated, promoting a reflection about techniques and applications to collect, quantify and qualify some physical variables associated with the human body. These techniques are presented in various biomedical and sports applications, which cover areas related to diagnostics, rehabilitation, physical monitoring, and the development of performance in athletes, among others. Although some applications are described in only one of two fields of study biomedicine and sports , it is very likely that the same application fits in both, with small peculiarities or adaptations.
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Referees are essential for sports such as handball. However, there are few tools available to analyze the activity of handball referees. The aim of this study was to design an instrument for observing the behavior of referees in handball competitions and to analyze the resulting data by polar coordinate analysis. For the data quality control analysis, we calculated Pearson's 0. In the generalizability analysis, the absolute and relative generalizability coefficients were 0. Polar coordinate analysis of referee decisions showed that correct calls were more common for central court and 7-meter throw calls. Likewise, calls were more likely to be incorrect in terms of both errors of omission and commission when taken from the goal-line position. Referees have a key role in elite sports competitions Cruz, ; Dohmen and Sauermann, Officiating a match between two teams is a difficult task that is further complicated by the need to take decisions on a range of events that occur within a short space of time Plessner, ; Mascarenhas and Smith,
Best practices for analyzing large-scale health data from wearables and smartphone apps
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The mission of AP-SMART is to inspire clinicians, practitioners, scientists and engineers to work towards a common goal to improve quality of life in the international community. The Journal publishes original research, reviews, editorials, perspectives, and letters to the Editor. Multidisciplinary research with collaboration amongst clinicians and scientists from different disciplines will be the trend in the coming decades. AP-SMART provides a platform for the exchange of new clinical and scientific information in the most precise and expeditious way to achieve timely dissemination of information and cross-fertilization of ideas. The information presented aims to provide a scientific yet practical approach to these five areas: Sports medicine—itself a field with cross-disciplinary dimensions, including sports traumatology, cardiology, endocrinology, accident and emergency medicine, physiology, biochemistry and biomechanics. Whilst each of these fields serves a specific domain, they all contribute importantly to the overall care of athletes.
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Человек сунул руку в карман и, вытащив пистолет, нацелил его Беккеру в голову. - El anillo.