Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer i. Thermal insulation can be achieved with specially engineered methods or processes, as well as with suitable object shapes and materials. Heat flow is an inevitable consequence of contact between objects of different temperature. Thermal insulation provides a region of insulation in which thermal conduction is reduced or thermal radiation is reflected rather than absorbed by the lower-temperature body. The insulating capability of a material is measured as the inverse of thermal conductivity k. Low thermal conductivity is equivalent to high insulating capability Resistance value.
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Thermal Insulation Material Based on “Jute”VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How It's Made - ROCKWOOL Stone Wool Insulation
A variety of finishes are used to protect the insulation from physical and environmental damage, as well as to enhance the appearance of the insulation. Archaeology has shown that prehistoric humans used various natural materials as insulation. They clothed or covered themselves with animal furs, wool and skins from animals; built homes of wood, stone and earth; and used other natural materials such as straw or other organic materials to protect against the cold in winter and the heat in summer.
In Medieval times, in the colder northern climates, the walls were stuffed with straw. Mud plaster was mixed with straw to try to keep out the cold. Tapestries were hung on the walls of castles or palaces to fight the drafts between stones as large structures could settle and shift from the weight of the walls. Older buildings were likely cold and drafty places without insulation and sealants against drafts. Insulation evolved very slowly until , when the process to create fiberglass was discovered by accident.
The first finely woven glass fibers, called mineral wool, were produced in by an inventor named John Player. At first, he did not see the mineral wool fibers as an insulation material; he thought it could be a new fabric that could be used to make warm clothes.
At the World's Fair, Player displayed a dress made from mineral wool fiberglass cloth. Fiberglass insulation quickly dominated the marketplace as the primary method of insulating homes and buildings. Fiberglass batt insulation had to but cut or torn into tiny pieces to pack into odd-shaped wall spaces tight enough to prevent voids or air drafts that would reduce the insulating effect of the material.
Fiberglass also is used with a paper or plastic jacket to insulate pipe. When insulating cold pipe, it is important to use a vapor barrier on the insulation and tape the joints to prevent moisture intrusion and sweating of condensation in the insulation. Wet insulation allows heat to transfer more efficiently. Any building, whether a home or a business, needs to be well-insulated. The best solution from a cost and performance standpoint might be a mix of two or more different insulations, each used where and when it can offer the best aspects of its characteristics.
Typically, the building envelope is insulated with architectural-type insulation; the piping and mechanical systems also are insulated. Adding insulation is a very important part of every building project and the effects are largely invisible.
The insulation will lower the heating and cooling bills each month and decrease the amount of global warming attributable to a building. Properly insulating the building envelope is important to help prevent freezing pipe as well as ice or moisture damage in a building.
Generally, plumbing pipe should not be installed in outside walls. However, in some instances, plumbing pipe can be installed in outside walls if the building envelope insulation is adequate and installed on the outside of the plumbing pipe, and adequate heat or precautions are provided to assure the piping will not freeze.
To understand how insulation works, it is important to understand the concept of heat flow or heat transfer. In general, heat always flows from warmer to cooler surfaces. This flow does not stop until the temperature in the two surfaces is equal. Insulation reduces the transference of heat. Conduction heat flow. Conduction is direct heat flow through solids. It results from the physical contact of one object with another.
Heat is transmitted by molecular motion. Molecules transmit their energy to adjoining molecules of lesser heat content, whose motion is thereby increased. Convection heat flow. Convection is the flow of heat forced and natural within a fluid. A fluid is a substance that may be either a gas or a liquid.
The movement of a heat-carrying fluid or air occurs either by natural convection or by forced convection, as in the case of a forced-air furnace. Radiation heat flow. Radiation is the transmission of energy through space using electromagnetic waves. Radiated heat moves at the speed of light through the air without heating the space between the surfaces.
The best pipe insulation for any given job is largely determined by certain application specifics, rather than product benefits. Here are some application variables to consider for each insulation installation: Process temperature; Compressive resistance or R-Value; Corrosion; pH; Fire performance; and Water vapor permeability.
Insulation is typically used for one or more of the following functions: Reduce heat loss or heat gain to achieve energy conservation; Increase operating efficiency of HVAC, plumbing, steam, process and power systems; Control surface temperatures for personnel and equipment protection; Control the temperature of commercial and industrial processes; Prevent or reduce condensation on surfaces; Prevent or reduce damage to equipment from exposure to fire or corrosive atmospheres; Assist mechanical systems in meeting USDA FDA criteria in food and pharmaceutical plants; Reduce noise from mechanical systems; and Protect the environment through the reduction of CO 2 , NOx and greenhouse gases.
Mechanical pipe and equipment insulation materials can be used to insulate against heat loss or gain and to protect personnel from high-temperature systems that could cause injury such as burns if someone were to touch or be exposed to high-temperature pipe.
Insulation is used indoors and outdoors on mechanical systems. It is used in the exterior walls of a building to provide a resistance of heat transfer through exterior walls of a building to reduce the energy required to heat or cool a building. Insulation alone will not prevent freezing; it just slows down the transfer of heat. Therefore, a heat source must be provided within the building insulation envelope to prevent freezing. Heat tracing is sometimes used on piping systems to prevent freezing; however, in most cases, heat tracing of piping requires thicker insulation than normal to minimize the electrical requirements.
If you are using heat tracing in your design, be careful not to let value-engineering reduce the insulation thickness or the heat tracing may not work properly. Check with the heat-tracing system manufacturer for proper insulation type and thicknesses to avoid warranty issues with the installation. Using more mechanical pipe and equipment insulation is the easiest way to reduce the energy consumption of the buildings' cooling and heating systems, domestic hot water systems and chilled water supply, and refrigerated systems including ducts and housings.
At some point, adding more insulation would be cost-prohibitive; however, significant energy or money can be saved over the life of the building by increasing insulation thickness in most applications. Developer buildings tend to have minimal or no insulation on branch piping because the developers want to construct a building as inexpensive as possible and sell it to someone else who will eventually pay the utility bills.
Energy conservation programs should address this with incentive points for good design and installation practices. For industrial facilities, such as power plants, refineries and paper mills, mechanical thermal insulations are installed to control heat gain or heat loss on process piping and equipment, steam and condensate distribution systems, boilers, smoke stacks, bag houses and precipitators, and storage tanks.
These insulations are typically for personnel protection and to maintain a tenable environment within a factory or workspace. Energy savings. Substantial quantities of heat energy are wasted daily in industrial plants nationwide because of under-insulated, under-maintained or uninsulated heated and cooled surfaces. Properly designed and installed insulation systems will immediately reduce the need for energy. Benefits to industry include enormous cost savings, improved productivity and enhanced environmental quality.
Process heat transfer control. By reducing heat loss or gain, insulation can help maintain process temperature to a predetermined value or within a predetermined range. Again, insulation alone will not prevent freezing.
Insulation must work with a heat source to maintain freeze protection. The insulation thickness must be enough to limit the heat transfer in a dynamic system or limit the temperature change, with time, in a static system. The need to provide time for owners to take remedial action in emergencies in the event of loss of electrical power or heat sources is a major reason for this action in a static or nonflowing water system to prevent freezing. Condensation control.
Specifying enough insulation thickness and an effective vapor barrier system or insulation jacket is the most effective means of controlling condensation on the membrane surface and within the insulation system on cold piping, ducts, chillers and roof drains. Enough insulation thickness is needed to keep the surface temperature of the membrane above the highest possible design dewpoint temperature of the ambient air within the building so condensation does not form on the surface of the pipe or insulation and drip onto the ceiling or the floor below.
An effective vapor retarder or insulation jacket system is needed to restrict moisture migration into the insulation system through the facing, joints, seams, penetrations, hangers and supports.
By controlling condensation, the system designer may control the potential for: Degrading system service life and performance; Mold growth and the potential for health problems resulting from water condensate; and Corrosion of pipe, valves and fittings caused by water collected and contained within the insulation system. Personnel protection. Thermal insulation is one of the most effective means of protecting workers from second- and third-degree burns resulting from skin contact for more than five seconds with surfaces of hot piping and equipment operating at temperatures above Insulation reduces the surface temperature of piping or equipment to a safer level as required by OSHA, resulting in increased worker safety and the avoidance of worker downtime due to injury.
Fire protection. Used in combination with other heat sources and materials, insulation helps provide fire protection. It is often used in pipe sleeves or cored openings of fire barriers with firestop systems designed to provide an effective barrier against the spread of flame, smoke and gases at penetrations of fire-resistance-rated assemblies by ducts, pipe and electrical or communication cables.
Grease ducts can catch fire and become red-hot until the grease burns away or the fire is extinguished. Insulation materials on grease ducts prevent the spread of fire to adjacent combustible building materials. Insulation often is used in conduit sleeves or openings of fire barriers with firestop systems designed to provide an effective barrier against the spread of flame, smoke and gases for electrical and communications conduit and cable thru penetration protection.
However, insulation surface burning characteristics are considerably different from one product to another and should be a consideration in choosing a product for a particular application.
ASTM cautions users of any of their standards that the test method may not be indicative of actual fire situations. The ASTM E Steiner Tunnel test is the most commonly referred to specification in the industrial and commercial construction markets.
It is often referred to even when the model building code does not require it. The Steiner tunnel test is a widely used method of testing building interior wall and ceiling finishes for their ability to support and propagate fire, and for their tendency to emit smoke. The test was developed in by Al Steiner of Underwriters Laboratories. These standards are in widespread use for the regulation and selection of materials for interior building construction throughout North America.
These are more commonly referred to for mass transit and flooring applications. UL 94 can be required for appliance enclosures and equipment applications. Sound attenuation. Insulation materials can be used in the design of an assembly having a high sound transmission loss to be installed between the source and the surrounding area.
Sometimes, insulations with high sound absorption characteristics may be used on the source side of an enclosure to help lower the exposure to people to noise in areas immediately around the noise source by absorption, thereby contributing to the reduction of the noise level on the other side of the enclosure. Most mechanical insulation systems in commercial construction are not generally visible to the occupants of the building.
Insulating materials remain as important as ever. The range of available kinds is constantly increasing. Thanks to their heat-insulating properties, they help save heating and cooling energy and reduce CO2 emissions. Detail Practice: Insulating Materials offers a comprehensive catalogue of insulating materials for use in construction. Notes on the individual types of insulating materials provide information on the raw materials they contain as well as their typical attributes, areas of application, and delivery forms. Tables with physical characteristic values and indications regarding health and environmental safety enable the reader to compare different insulating materials.
Thermal Insulation for Buildings, Pipe and Mechanical Equipment
When insulating your home, you can choose from many types of insulation. The maximum thermal performance or R-value of insulation is very dependent on proper installation. Homeowners can install some types of insulation -- notably blankets and materials that can be poured in place. Liquid foam insulation materials can be poured, but they require professional installation.
Thermal and Acoustic Building Insulations from Agricultural Wastes
Handbook of Ecomaterials pp Cite as. Global population growth and economic growth increase the demand for more buildings and thus more construction materials. Increases in production of construction materials lead also to greenhouse gas emission rise and depletion of natural resources. One of these materials is insulation, which increasingly plays a vital role in the energy performance of buildings and in the process reducing negative environmental impacts of the built environment.
It is important to know how heat is transferred in fish holds. Heat is transferred by conduction, convection or radiation, or by a combination of all three. Heat always moves from warmer to colder areas; it seeks a balance. If the interior of an insulated fish hold is colder than the outside air, the fish hold draws heat from the outside. The greater the temperature difference, the faster the heat flows to the colder area. By this mode, heat energy is passed through a solid, liquid or gas from molecule to molecule in a material. In order for the heat to be conducted, there should be physical contact between particles and some temperature difference. Therefore, thermal conductivity is the measure of the speed of heat flow passed from particle to particle. The rate of heat flow through a specific material will be influenced by the difference of temperature and by its thermal conductivity. The rate of heat flow will depend on the temperature of the moving gas or liquid and on its rate of flow.
Building insulation materials
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soundproofing - Import export
The first publication on a post-war house in Brussels in which insulation was used appeared in La Maison. Insulation against heat and sound transfer became a popular theme in the specialized architectural and technical literature in Belgium. Synthetic insulation materials revolutionized the insulation market. It was put on the market in Following the success of Dow and BASF, Eternit and Isoverbel extended their product range from mineral insulation to synthetic insulation in the late s.. Bouwen en Wonen published an article on the thermal insulation of houses as an important source of cost reductions. Styropor was applied on a very wide scale, with tens of millions of square meter of Styropor applied in The Association for Thermal and Acoustical Insulation was founded. The BBRI published several technical reports on insulation during the s, for instance on the insulation of flat roofs in
Among the different natural fibres, jute is a less expensive fibre, annually renewable, and commercially available compared to other natural fibre crops. This jute is mostly cultivated in India and Bangladesh. More than a century, this fibre is well known as packaging sacks , hessian, and carpet backing. Since s, the synthetic fibres slowly took the market share of conventional jute textiles due to their low cost and high production speed. As far as suitability of the insulating material is concerned, it has high potential of using as three types of insulation thermal, sound, and electrical. This present chapter gives emphasis on the basic methods of measuring jute based thermal insulation materials in different application areas. Apart from its evaluation methods, special attention has been made on the important factors affecting the thermal insulation behaviours of the jute-based textile materials. Focusing the needs of the industry, present chapter also covers the future aspects regarding the insulation application from jute-based materials. Insulation Materials in Context of Sustainability. Among the different fibre crops, jute is one of the oldest cultivated fibre crops in India.
thermal and acoustical insulation
Building insulation materials are the building materials , which form the thermal envelope of a building or otherwise reduce heat transfer. Insulation may be categorized by its composition natural or synthetic materials , form batts, blankets, loose-fill, spray foam, and panels , structural contribution insulating concrete forms , structured panels, and straw bales , functional mode conductive, radiative, convective , resistance to heat transfer , environmental impacts, and more. Sometimes a thermally reflective surface called a radiant barrier is added to a material to reduce the transfer of heat through radiation as well as conduction. The choice of which material or combination of materials is used depends on a wide variety of factors.
Our design engineers analyze heatshield requirements and use either customer-supplied IGES and STP files or physical measurements to create 2D drawings and 3D models of custom engineered thermal barrier insulation. We manufacture insulation jacketing and insulation blankets that tolerate extreme service conditions and protect heat sensitive cables, controls, and electric wiring while assuring human safety.
Planning tasks involving existing structures are currently among the most common types of contract, and almost every structure makes different demands and raises individual problems. Reflecting this state of affairs, there are a dizzying number of publications on the market, most of which are quite specialized. The Refurbishment Manual cuts through this jungle of publications. It defines terms and concepts, combines the narrowly focused perspectives of the specialists, and offers concrete approaches to this wide-ranging topic.