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The Global EV Outlook is an annual publication that identifies and discusses recent developments in electric mobility across the globe. Combining historical analysis with projections to , the report examines key areas of interest such as electric vehicle and charging infrastructure deployment, ownership cost, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions and battery material demand.
The report includes policy recommendations that incorporate learning from frontrunner markets to inform policy makers and stakeholders that consider policy frameworks and market systems for electric vehicle adoption.
This edition features a specific analysis of the performance of electric cars and competing powertrain options in terms of greenhouse gas emissions over their life cycle. As well, it discusses key challenges in the transition to electric mobility and solutions that are well suited to address them. This includes vehicle and battery cost developments; supply and value chain sustainability of battery materials; implications of electric mobility for power systems; government revenue from taxation; and the interplay between electric, shared and automated mobility options.
The number of charging points worldwide was estimated to be approximately 5. The evolution of well-to-wheel WTW greenhouse gas emissions from the EV fleet is determined by the combined evolution of the energy used by EVs and the carbon intensity of electricity generation — as the grid becomes less carbon intensive, so do EVs. Despite the comparative advantage of EVs in terms of GHG emissions, it is clear that the benefits of transport electrification on climate change mitigation will be greater if EV deployment takes place in parallel with the decarbonisation of power systems.
Electric mobility is expanding at a rapid pace. In , the global electric car fleet exceeded 5. Norway is the global leader in terms of electric car market share. Policies play a critical role. Leading countries in electric mobility use a variety of measures such as fuel economy standards coupled with incentives for zero- and low-emissions vehicles, economic instruments that help bridge the cost gap between electric and conventional vehicles and support for the deployment of charging infrastructure.
Increasingly, policy support is being extended to address the strategic importance of the battery technology value chain. Technology advances are delivering substantial cost cuts. Key enablers are developments in battery chemistry and expansion of production capacity in manufacturing plants.
Other solutions include the redesign of vehicle manufacturing platforms using simpler and innovative design architecture, and the application of big data to right size batteries. Private sector response to public policy signals confirms the escalating momentum for electrification of transport. In particular, recent announcements by vehicle manufacturers are ambitious regarding intentions to electrify the car and bus markets.
Battery manufacturing is also undergoing important transitions, including major investments to expand production. Utilities, charging point operators, charging hardware manufacturers and other power sector stakeholders are also boosting investment in charging infrastructure.
These dynamic developments underpin a positive outlook for the increased deployment of electric vehicles and charging infrastructure. Projected EV stock in the New Policies Scenario would cut demand for oil products by million tonnes of oil equivalent Mtoe about 2. On a well-to-wheel basis, greenhouse gas GHG projected emissions from EVs will continue to be lower than for conventional internal combustion engine ICE vehicles. But the extent ultimately depends on the power mix: CO 2 emissions savings are significantly higher for electric cars used in countries where the power generation mix is dominated by low-carbon sources.
In countries where the power generation mix is dominated by coal, hybrid vehicles exhibit lower emissions than EVs. The EV uptake and related battery production requirements imply bigger demand for new materials in the automotive sector, requiring increased attention to raw materials supply. Traceability and transparency of raw material supply chains are key instruments to help address the criticalities associated with raw material supply by fostering sustainable sourcing of minerals.
The development of binding regulatory frameworks is important to ensure that international multi-stakeholder co-operation can effectively address these challenges. The battery end-of-life management — including second-life applications of automotive batteries, standards for battery waste management and environmental requirements on battery design — is also crucial to reduce the volumes of critical raw materials needed for batteries and to limit risks of shortages.
Absent adjustments to current transport-related taxation schemes, the increasing uptake of electric vehicles has the potential to change the tax revenue base derived from vehicle and fuel taxes. Gradually increasing taxes on carbon-intensive fuels, combined with the use of location-specific distance-based charges can support the long-term transition to zero-emissions mobility while maintaining revenue from taxes on transportation.
Electric mobility continues to grow rapidly. The global stock of electric two-wheelers was million by the end of and there were electric buses.
In freight transport, electric vehicles EVs were mostly deployed as light-commercial vehicles LCVs , which reached units in , while medium electric truck sales were in the range of 1 in The global EV stock in was served by 5. Policies continue to have a major influence on the development of electric mobility. EV uptake typically starts with the establishment of a set of targets, followed by the adoption of vehicle and charging standards. An EV deployment plan often includes procurement programmes to stimulate demand for electric vehicles and to enable an initial roll-out of publicly accessible charging infrastructure.
Fiscal incentives, especially important as long as EVs purchase prices are higher than for ICE vehicles, are often coupled with regulatory measures that boost the value proposition of EVs e. Policies to support deployment of charging infrastructure include minimum requirements to ensure EV readiness in new or refurbished buildings and parking lots, and the roll-out of publicly accessible chargers in cities and on highway networks. Adoption of standards facilitates inter-operability of various types of charging infrastructure.
Technology developments are delivering substantial cost reductions. Advances in technology and cost cutting are expected to continue.
The dynamic development of battery technologies as well as recognition of the importance of EVs to achieve further cost reductions in the broad realm of battery storage has put the strategic relevance of large-scale battery manufacturing in the limelight of policy attention. Other technology developments are also expected to contribute to cost reductions. These include the possibility to redesign vehicle manufacturing platforms using simpler and innovative design architecture that capitalise on the compact dimensions of electric motors, and that EVs have much fewer moving parts than ICE vehicles.
As well as the use of big data to customise battery size to travel needs and avoid over sizing the batteries, which is especially relevant for heavy-duty vehicles. The private sector is responding proactively to the policy signals and technology developments. An increasing number of original equipment manufacturers OEMs have declared intentions to electrify the models they offer, not only for cars, but also for other modes of road transport.
Investment in battery manufacturing is growing, notably in China and Europe. Utilities, charging point operators, charging hardware manufacturers and other stakeholders in the power sector are also increasing investment in the roll-out of charging infrastructure. This takes place in an environment that is increasingly showing signs of consolidation, with several acquisitions by utilities and major energy companies. In the EV30 30 Scenario, EV sales and stock nearly double by sales reach 43 million and the stock numbering more than million.
Almost half of all vehicles sold in in Europe are EVs partly reflective of having the highest tax rates on fossil fuels. With the projected size of the global EV market in particular cars , the expansion of battery manufacturing capacity will largely be driven by electrification in the car market.
This supports increasing consensus that the electrification of cars will be a crucial driver in cutting unit costs of automotive battery packs. The projected EV stock in the New Policies Scenario would cut demand for oil products by million tonnes of oil equivalent Mtoe about 2. Opportunities exist to balance potential reductions in revenue, but their implementation will require careful attention to social acceptability of the measures. In the near term, possible solutions include adjusting the emissions thresholds or the emissions profile that define the extent to which vehicle registration taxes are subject to differentiated fees or rebates , adjustments of the taxes applied to oil-based fuels and revisions of the road-use charges e.
In the longer term, gradually increasing taxes on carbon-intensive fuels, combined with the use of location-specific distance-based approached can support the long-term transition to zero-emissions mobility while maintaining revenue from transport taxes.
Location-specific distance-based charges are also well suited to manage the impacts of disruptive technologies in road transport, including those related to electrification, automation and shared mobility services.
Since EVs are expected to become more relevant for power systems, it is important to ensure that their uptake does not impede effective power system management.
Since buses account for the largest share of fast charging demand, concentrating these consumption patterns to low demand periods such as at night can constructively impact the load profile in a power system.
Policies and market frameworks need to ensure that electric mobility can play an active role in increasing the flexibility of power systems. By providing flexibility services, electric mobility can increase opportunities for integration of variable renewable energy resources into the generation mix, as well as reducing cost associated with the adaptation of power systems to increased EV uptake.
Electricity markets should facilitate the provision of ancillary services such as grid balancing that are suitable for EV participation and allow for the participation of small loads through aggregators. To participate in demand response in the electricity market, aggregators should not face high transaction costs including not only fees, but also other regulatory, administrative, or contractual hurdles to be able to pool large numbers of small loads.
On a well-to-wheel basis, projected greenhouse gas GHG emissions from EVs by are lower at a global average than for conventional internal combustion engine ICE vehicles. The impact however differs strongly by country. CO 2 emissions savings are significantly higher for electric cars used in countries where the power generation mix is dominated by low-carbon sources and the average fuel consumption of ICE vehicles is high. In countries where the power generation mix is dominated by coal, very efficient ICEs, such as hybrid vehicles, exhibit lower emissions than EVs.
In the future, the emissions reduction potential over the life cycle of EVs can rise further the faster electricity generation is decarbonised. The EV uptake and related battery production requirements imply bigger demand for new materials in the automotive sector.
The demand for cobalt and lithium is expected to significantly rise in in both scenarios. Cathode chemistries significantly affect the sensitivity of demand for metals, particularly cobalt.
Both cobalt and lithium supplies need to scale up to enable the projected EV uptake. The scale of the changes in material demand for EV batteries also calls for increased attention to raw material supplies. The challenges associated with raw material supply relate primarily to the ramp-up of production, environmental impacts and social issues. Traceability and transparency of raw material supply chains are key instruments to help address some of these criticalities by fostering sustainable sourcing of minerals.
The battery end-of-life management is also crucial to reduce the dependency of the critical raw materials needed in batteries and to limit risks of shortages. Relevant policy options to address this are within the 3R framework reduce, reuse and recycle and specifically within the reuse and recycle components. The global electric car fleet exceeded 5. Europe followed with 1.
The vast majority are in China. With sales in the tens of millions per year, the Chinese market for electric two-wheelers is hundreds of times larger than anywhere else in the world. These foot scooter schemes now operate in around cities in the United States, 30 in Europe, 7 in Asia and 6 in Australia and New Zealand. In freight transport, electric vehicles EVs were mostly deployed as light-commercial vehicles LCVs , which reached units in , up 80 from Medium truck sales were in the range of 1 in , mostly concentrated in China.
The number of EV chargers continued to rise in to an estimated 5. With the fast chargers for buses, by the end of there were about fast chargers installed globally. The global EV fleet consumed an estimated 58 terawatt-hours TWh of electricity in , similar to the total electricity demand of Switzerland in The global EV stock in emitted about 38 million tonnes of carbon-dioxide equivalent Mt CO 2 -eq on a well-to-wheel basis. This compares to 78 Mt CO 2 -eq emissions that an equivalent internal combustion engine fleet would have emitted, leading to net savings from EV deployment of 40 Mt CO 2 -eq in Policy approaches to promote the deployment of EVs typically start with a vision statement and a set of targets.
An initial step is the adoption of electric vehicle and charging standards. Procurement programmes kick-start demand and stimulate automakers to increase the availability of EVs on the market, plus provide impetus for an initial roll out of publicly accessible charging infrastructure. Another useful policy measure is to provide economic incentives, particularly to bridge the cost gap between EVs and less expensive internal combustion engine ICE vehicles as well as to spur the early deployment of charging infrastructure.
The Global EV Outlook is an annual publication that identifies and discusses recent developments in electric mobility across the globe. Combining historical analysis with projections to , the report examines key areas of interest such as electric vehicle and charging infrastructure deployment, ownership cost, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions and battery material demand. The report includes policy recommendations that incorporate learning from frontrunner markets to inform policy makers and stakeholders that consider policy frameworks and market systems for electric vehicle adoption. This edition features a specific analysis of the performance of electric cars and competing powertrain options in terms of greenhouse gas emissions over their life cycle.
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Global EV Outlook 2019
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An engine is the heart of a vehicle's operating system and ultimately what makes the vehicle a successful form of transportation. Without the engine, a vehicle is just another big piece of stamped out metal appearing in various shapes and sizes. In addition to being manufactured for vehicles, engines are also built for aircraft and large machinery equipment, such as Caterpillar excavators and dozers. They are also used in trailer manufacturing for the hydraulic systems. Companies in the engine manufacturing industry manufacture and assemble diesel engines, electric engines, industrial engines, and natural gas-powered engines. The engines built will eventually be used as the workhorse for automotive vehicles, heavy-duty trucks, mid-duty trucks, and RVs. We cover more below on which industries engines are built for, where the workers are located, and, most importantly, the PPE workers require when manufacturing engines.
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