Grafting has become an imperative for intensive vegetable production since chlorofluorocarbon-based soil fumigants were banned from use on grounds of environmental protection. Compelled by this development, research into rootstock—scion interaction has broadened the potential applications of grafting in the vegetable industry beyond aspects of soil phytopathology. Grafting has been increasingly tapped for cultivation under adverse environs posing abiotic and biotic stresses to vegetable crops, thus enabling expansion of commercial production onto otherwise under-exploited land. Vigorous rootstocks have been employed not only in the open field but also under protected cultivation where increase in productivity improves distribution of infrastructural and energy costs. Applications of grafting have expanded mainly in two families: the Cucurbitaceae and the Solanaceae, both of which comprise major vegetable crops.
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Mindful of the carbon emissions that come from raising cows, he orders a plant-based burger. He asks where this wondrous environmentally friendly virtueburger was made? Sheepishly, staff inform him that the patty—supplied by Beyond Meat, a California-based company—has been flown in from America.
To be fair, Beyond Meat has plans to begin production of its foods in the Netherlands. A niche business is becoming mainstream.
Startups and established food conglomerates are hungry for a share of a rapidly growing market for plant-based meats—foods that mimic the taste, texture and nutritional qualities of meat, without a single animal in sight.
At the moment, the market for meat substitutes is tiny. Euromonitor expects the market for meat alternatives in both Europe and America to double by If so, the implications are vast. Until recently, the only way to make meat was for an animal to eat a plant and then be killed.
Now, with better technology, it may be possible to create radically different, animal-free food chains. And boffins are constantly improving what bogus burgers taste like.
Demand for plant-based meat is driven by a combination of environmental, ethical and health concerns. Raising animals for meat, eggs and milk is one of the most resource-intensive processes in agriculture. Globally, demand for meat from animals is shooting up as people in developing countries grow richer and can afford to feast on flesh. In rich countries, by contrast, an increasing number of people say they would like to eat fewer animals.
They may even mean it. Nearly two-fifths of Americans who described themselves as carnivores told a survey by Mintel in February that they wanted to add more plant-based foods to their diet. Young people are the most fervently flexible. Around a third of those under the age of 35 in Britain told a poll by Mintel in September that they wanted to cut the amount of meat they eat, compared with less than a fifth of older people.
Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods, another plant-based food company in Silicon Valley, have entered the market. Many of these companies look to plant-based milks as a precedent.
That owes something to canny marketing. That made consumers think of it as just another variety of the white stuff you pour on cereal, rather than a weird product for people with allergies. Over the past year nearly two-fifths of American households bought alternative milks. The others were flexitarian, drinking both moo juice and the nutty or beany variety. The rest said the new milks were healthier or more ethical.
Meatless meat has been around for a while. For a long time, however, the market for pseudomeat was small, and the incentive for making it tasty was accordingly modest. This is perhaps why so many early veggie burgers had the taste and the texture of heavily salted woodchips. They aim to outcompete the conventional meat industry.
Their scientists are designing plant-based meats that taste a lot like the real thing. What makes meat taste like meat? The full sensory experience of eating a slab of meat starts when the constituent proteins, fats and sugars within it interact during cooking. Apply heat and the amino acids and sugars react. The meat goes brown and releases dozens of volatile molecules that give it its flavour and odour in a process known as the Maillard reaction.
Each new entrant to the market has tried to recreate these sensations of meatiness as closely as possible. Their products are generally based around a source of plant protein such as soya, wheat or legumes, which are then combined with a range of fats, colours and flavourings. The soya-based burger from Impossible Foods, for example, also contains haem, an iron-rich molecule that exists in living things to help proteins carry oxygen.
Haem gives beef its reddish colour. It helps to create a meaty aroma and flavour once the meat is cooked. In the Impossible Burger, the formulation uses leghaemoglobin. This occurs naturally in the roots of soya but is made for Impossible Foods using genetically modified yeast. It also contains specks of coconut oil and cocoa butter that give the burger a marbling when cooked, akin to the fat in a beef burger.
Many plant-based food firms hope one day to make pseudomeats that even more closely resemble animal muscle itself. This is tricky. To get the texture of their plant-based burgers and nuggets right, manufacturers use a process called extrusion, in which the mixture of ingredients is pushed through a small hole to create meat-like fibres. However, real animal muscle tends to have more complex structure than anything extrusion can achieve. Most of these companies argue that their products are healthier than animal meat.
Some claims are more convincing than others. A plant-based burger tends to provide the same number of calories as a similar-sized slab of beef. Plant-based meats contain no cholesterol, have less fat and more fibre and vitamins. They also avoid the increased risk of colorectal cancer that, according to the World Health Organisation, is linked to eating a lot of processed red meat. However, they also tend to contain more salt and less protein. A big difference between meat and plant-based products is that the latter are continually improving.
Since they are designed from scratch, manufacturers can keep tweaking the recipes to make each bite yummier or more nutritious. Whereas meat firms constantly search for ways to raise animals more efficiently, pseudomeat makers adapt and refine the product itself.
Like the software-writers of Silicon Valley, their recipes are never complete. Impossible also wanted to reduce the amount of salt and saturated fat while adding more protein. Future iterations are planned. Researchers want to make the burgers juicier, so they do not become dry when cooked beyond medium.
But plant-based meats will. Their latest invention can create muscle-like structures and textures within slabs of plant-based meats using a device called a Couette cell. This consists of two concentric cylinders, one of which rotates around the other while the ingredients are sandwiched in between. By exerting force on the proteins in the mixture, the ingredients lengthen into fibres and wind around one another.
The result is a gelatinous red slab of plant meat that contains long, thick, elastic muscle-like fibres which look and flake apart like pulled pork or beef. From an environmental perspective, the new meats are surely better.
Rearing and slaughtering animals is an inefficient way to produce food, says Bruce Friedrich of the GFI. Most of the energy that goes into making a cow is used as it walks around, digests food and grows the non-edible bits of its body such as bones and hooves. As yet, rigorous environmental assessments of plant-based meats are rare.
But both Impossible Foods and Beyond Meat have commissioned independent researchers to carry out life-cycle analyses of their products. Their findings are encouraging. Such greenery appeals to the young, the urban and the wealthy.
However, to make a difference to the planet, meatless meat needs to be on billions of plates, not just millions. Before they start feeling smug, passengers should bear in mind that eating plantburgers on a flight is not a meaningful way to offset the carbon emissions of a transatlantic journey. Selling alternative meat in restaurants allows customers to try it in a setting where they are less price-sensitive, says Justin Sherrard of Rabobank, a Dutch lender.
A bigger test, he says, will be how these patties fare in supermarkets, where shoppers watch pennies. Hoping to mimic the success of plant-based milks, Beyond Meat insisted that its products were placed in the same refrigerated aisles in supermarkets as its animal-based competitors—a condition that Whole Foods, a supermarket chain, acceded to in America in Price, however, is still a problem.
But competition should lower those prices. For its part, Beyond Meat hopes that as it ramps up production, prices will fall. Peas, the main source of protein used in its burgers, are in plentiful supply worldwide, thanks to an import ban in India last year. But getting them from the field to the plate has been tricky. The protein is extracted by firms such as Puris or Roquette and then transformed into burgers by Beyond Meat.
Only more recently has production capacity risen to meet demand. Puris has teamed up with Cargill, one of the big four grain traders, to expand capacity. Smaller firms that specialise in ingredients for plant-based food have started to spring up, and more established ones, such as Ingredion, are moving into this space too. Its researchers are investigating whether other crops, such as yellow peas and fava beans, can make good meatless meat.
They are also hoping to breed new varieties of soya and wheat. Fermenting that yeast will then produce their desired products. Both companies hope that their products will help even the smallest firms to create their own plant-based meats from scratch. Plant-based-meat firms are ramping up their research and development departments. All this costs money. Big food producers are getting involved. Unilever, a big conglomerate, bought the Vegetarian Butcher last year for an undisclosed amount.
None of these developments has escaped the attention of traditional meatpackers. Tyson Foods, a large meat processor based in Arkansas, was an early investor in Beyond Meat.
Other firms are trying to woo customers by making animal husbandry greener. More investors are demanding transparency on how meat is sourced, says Aarti Ramachandran of the FAIRR Initiative, a group that tells investors they might lose money if they back environmentally dodgy meat producers.
The food production chain in RimWorld results in edible food to keep your colony sustained. There are multiple ways to obtain raw ingredients for refined food, and refined food itself. The most common way to produce food in RimWorld is to farm it. Vegetarian ingredients are obtained by growing crops, and meat ingredients are obtained by rearing livestock.
Mindful of the carbon emissions that come from raising cows, he orders a plant-based burger. He asks where this wondrous environmentally friendly virtueburger was made? Sheepishly, staff inform him that the patty—supplied by Beyond Meat, a California-based company—has been flown in from America. To be fair, Beyond Meat has plans to begin production of its foods in the Netherlands. A niche business is becoming mainstream.
Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention.
Arby’s creates meat-based vegetable called a ‘Megetable’
The meat-based carrot was created by Neville Craw , Arby's brand executive chef, and his sous-chef Thomas Kippelen. Craw and Kippelen created the Marrot by cutting a whole turkey breast into the shape of a carrot, sous viding the meat for an hour before rolling it in a special carrot marinade and then roasting the meat again for an hour. We test more than 1, menu items per year, and we remain committed to providing our guests with the highest quality meats in the industry.
Handbook of Vegetables and Vegetable Processing, Second Edition is the most comprehensive guide on vegetable technology for processors, producers, and users of vegetables in food manufacturing. This complete handbook contains 42 chapters across two volumes, contributed by field experts from across the world. It provides contemporary information that brings together current knowledge and practices in the value-chain of vegetables from production through consumption. The book is unique in the sense that it includes coverage of production and postharvest technologies, innovative processing technologies, packaging, and quality management. Handbook of Vegetables and Vegetable Processing, Second Edition covers recent developments in the areas of vegetable breeding and production, postharvest physiology and storage, packaging and shelf life extension, and traditional and novel processing technologies high-pressure processing, pulse-electric field, membrane separation, and ohmic heating. It also offers in-depth coverage of processing, packaging, and the nutritional quality of vegetables as well as information on a broader spectrum of vegetable production and processing science and technology. This important book will appeal to anyone studying or involved in food technology, food science, food packaging, applied nutrition, biosystems and agricultural engineering, biotechnology, horticulture, food biochemistry, plant biology, and postharvest physiology. Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. Handbook of Vegetables and Vegetable Processing.
The enclosed information is on conventional and heirloom vegetables, including many from the collection of Dr. David Bradshaw available for spring planting. Many of the varieties are the result of years of research by state agricultural experiment stations and USDA plant breeders. We are also offering several outstanding varieties released by private companies. Look for Heirloom following the variety name. All variety information presented is based on average performance compiled from numerous sources. Varietal performance can be expected to vary depending on geographic location, time of planting, climate, soil and cultural practices.
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Meat vs Veg: An energy perspective
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Arby’s creates meat-based vegetable called a ‘Megetable’
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