Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth.
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Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products.
Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year , the global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries. There are six stages: . Cotton is grown anywhere with long, hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity. Indian cotton, Gossypium arboreum , is finer but the staple is only suitable for hand processing.
American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum , produces the longer staple needed for machine production. The cotton bolls are harvested by stripper harvesters and spindle pickers that remove the entire boll from the plant. The cotton boll is the seed pod of the cotton plant; attached to each of the thousands of seeds are fibres about 2.
Scutching refers to the process of cleaning cotton of its seeds and other impurities. The first scutching machine was invented in , but did not come into further mainstream use until after or , when it was introduced and used in Manchester, England. By , it had become generally adopted. The scutching machine worked by passing the cotton through a pair of rollers, and then striking it with iron or steel bars called beater bars or beaters. The beaters, which turn very quickly, strike the cotton hard and knock the seeds out.
This process is done over a series of parallel bars so as to allow the seeds to fall through. At the same time, air is blown across the bars, which carries the cotton into a cotton chamber. The weaving process uses a loom. The lengthway threads are known as the warp , and the cross way threads are known as the weft.
The warp, which must be strong, needs to be presented to loom on a warp beam. The weft passes across the loom in a shuttle , that carries the yarn on a pirn. These pirns are automatically changed by the loom. Thus, the yarn needs to be wrapped onto a beam, and onto pirns before weaving can commence. When a hand loom was located in the home, children helped with the weaving process from an early age. Piecing needs dexterity, and a child can be as productive as an adult.
When weaving moves from the home to the mill, children are often allowed to help their older sisters, and laws have to be made to prevent child labour becoming established. Knitting by machine is done in two different ways; warp and weft. Weft knitting as seen in the pictures is similar in method to hand knitting with stitches all connected to each other horizontally. Various weft machines can be configured to produce textiles from a single spool of yarn or multiple spools depending on the size of the machine cylinder where the needles are bedded.
In a warp knit there are many pieces of yarn and there are vertical chains, zigzagged together by crossing the cotton yarn. Warp knits do not stretch as much as a weft knit, and it is run-resistant.
A weft knit is not run-resistant, but stretches more. This is especially true if spools of spandex are processed from separate spool containers and interwoven through the cylinder with cotton yarn, giving the finished product more flexibility and making it less prone to having a 'baggy' appearance. The average t-shirt is a weft knit. The woven cotton fabric in its loom-state not only contains impurities, including warp size, but requires further treatment in order to develop its full textile potential.
Furthermore, it may receive considerable added value by applying one or more finishing processes. Production of cotton requires arable land. Native Indian varieties of cotton were rainwater fed, but modern hybrids used for the mills need irrigation, which spreads pests. The consumption of energy in form of water and electricity is relatively high, especially in processes like washing, de-sizing, bleaching, rinsing, dyeing, printing, coating and finishing. Processing is time consuming. The major portion of water in textile industry is used for wet processing of textile 70 per cent.
Approximately 25 per cent of energy in the total textile production like fibre production, spinning, twisting, weaving, knitting, clothing manufacturing etc.
About 34 per cent of energy is consumed in spinning, 23 per cent in weaving, 38 per cent in chemical wet processing and five per cent in miscellaneous processes. Power dominates consumption pattern in spinning and weaving, while thermal energy is the major factor for chemical wet processing. However, due to carbon emissions from fertiliser application, use of mechanized tools to harvest the cotton, The growth of cotton is divided into two segments i.
Genetically modified products aim to increase disease resistance and reduce the water required. Before mechanisation, cotton was harvested manually by farmers in India and by African slaves in America. In Uzbekistan was a major exporter of cotton and uses manual labour during the harvest. Human rights groups claim that health care professionals and children are forced to pick cotton.
Flax is a bast fibre , which means it comes in bundles under the bark of the Linum usitatissimum plant. The plant flowers and is harvested. It is now treated like cotton. Jute is a bast fibre , which comes from the inner bark of the plants of the Corchorus genus. It is retted like flax, sundried and baled. When spinning a small amount of oil must be added to the fibre.
It can be bleached and dyed. It was used for sacks and bags but is now used for the backing for carpets. In the s, jute-cotton composite fabrics were known as jutton fabrics. Hemp is a bast fibre from the inner bark of Cannabis sativa. It is difficult to bleach, and is used for making cord and rope.
These bast fibres can also be used: kenaf , urena , ramie , nettle. Wool comes from domesticated sheep. It forms two products, woolens and worsteds. The sheep has two sorts of wool and it is the inner coat that is used. This can be mixed with wool that has been recovered from rags. Shoddy is the term for recovered wool that is not matted, while mungo comes from felted wool.
The fleece is cut in one piece from the sheep. This is then skirted to remove the soiled wool, and baled. It is graded into long wool where the fibres can be up to 15 in, but anything over 2. Fibres less than that form short wool and are described as clothing or carding wool. At the mill the wool is scoured in a detergent to remove grease the yolk and impurities. This is done mechanically in the opening machine. Vegetable matter can be removed chemically using sulphuric acid carbonising.
Washing uses a solution of soap and sodium carbonate. The wool is oiled before carding or combing. The processes in silk production are similar to those of cotton but take account that reeled silk is a continuous fibre.
The terms used are different. Both wool and silk require farmland. Whereas silkworms require mulberry leaves, sheep eat grass, clover, forbs and other pasture plants. Sheep, like all ruminants emit CO2 via their digestive system. Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive development by scientists to improve upon the naturally occurring animal and plant fibres.
In general, synthetic fibres are created by forcing, or extruding , fibre forming materials through holes called spinnerets into the air, thus forming a thread. Before synthetic fibres were developed, cellulose fibres were made from natural cellulose , which comes from plants. The first artificial fibre, known as art silk from onwards, became known as viscose around , and finally rayon in A similar product known as cellulose acetate was discovered in Rayon and acetate are both artificial fibres, but not truly synthetic, being made from wood.
Although these artificial fibres were discovered in the mid-nineteenth century, successful modern manufacture began much later in the s. Nylon , the first synthetic fibre, made its debut in the United States as a replacement for silk , and was used for parachutes and other military uses. The techniques used to process these fibres in yarn are essentially the same as with natural fibres, modifications have to be made as these fibres are of great length, and have no texture such as the scales in cotton and wool that aid meshing.
Unlike natural fibres, produced by plants, animals or insects, synthetic fibres are made from fossil fuels , and thus require no farmland. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Textile manufacturing by pre-industrial methods.
Main article: Textile manufacture during the British Industrial Revolution. Main article: Carding.
We proudly support fashion start ups, small brands, SMEs and emerging designers. We offer a full scale manufacturing solution including a range of services which you can read a bit more about below. Hawthorn offers industry leading MOQs for custom clothing — from 50pcs per design. All clothes are cut, stitched and finished by hand and undergo a four stage quality control procedure to ensure satisfaction. Throughout manufacture, all stages are quality checked to ensure the highest standards. Fabrics are sourced to match your requirements for composition and handfeel.
How is fabric created?
Quality control is vital when manufacturing your garments. Quality control ensure your garments not only meet your high standards but also to ensure that the garments are made in order for the standard of garments are sustained. Depending on the fabrics you require at production, some fabrics you may want, might need to be order from abroad. In doing so, we need to ensure we get the fabric in time for your production - to make sure our production scheduling runs smoothly. There if we do decide to get your fabrics from abroad suppliers, we need to schedule extra time. As there could always be delays in receiving the fabric and chances that fabrics may not be available at a certain time. Manufacturers and their clients have very different thoughts and opinions when it comes to ideal order sizes.
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Portugal is a stable and responsible country, and our region has long been recognised as the primary centre of European textile production with its wide range of dynamic and innovative factories. AAC has 30 years of experience in the clothing industry. Our objective is to work in partnership with international brands looking for support in the development of their designs in Portugal. Through investing fully in human capital and the continuous development of our strong technical knowledge base we continue to build enduring business relationships based on mutual trust and confidence. Founded in , AAC is a family business based in the geographic heart of the Portuguese textiles industry.
Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading today on the web, tablet, phone, or ereader. Globalization has proliferated business with numerous challenges and opportunities, and simultaneously at other end the growth in economy, population, income and standard of living has redefined the scope of business and thus the business houses approaches. A highly competitive environment, knowledgeable consumers and quicker pace of technology are keeping business enterprises to be on their toes. Today management and its concepts have become key for survival of any business entity. The unique cultural characteristics, tradition and dynamics of consumer, demand an innovative management strategy to achieve success. Effective Management has become an increasingly vital ingredient for business success and it profoundly affects our day-to-day life. Today, the role of a business houses has changed from merely selling products and services to transforming lives and nurturing lifestyles. The Indian business is changing and so do the management strategies. These changing scenarios in the context of globalization will bestow ample issues, prospects and challenges which need to be explored. The practitioners, academicians and researchers need to meticulously review these aspects and acquaint them with knowledge to sustain in such scenarios.
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Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Niir Project Consultancy Services , Mar 3, - pages. Phenolic resins, also known as phenol—formaldehyde resins, are synthetic polymers that are produced from the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde at high temperatures.
There are three basic steps required for fabric production. The first step in creating fabric is yarn production. Here, the raw materials that have been harvested and processed are transformed from raw fibers into yarn and threads. This is done by spinning the fibers. Spinning can be done by hand, but this process is quite tedious and time consuming. These days, the vast majority of spinning is done by spinning wheel. The fibers are drawn across the wheel, and as it spins, the fibers are collected on a cylindrical object called a bobbin. The bobbin holds the spun fibers, which are now connected into a long strand of thread or yarn.
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Clothing industry or garment industry summarizes the types of trade and industry along the production and life chain of clothing and garments, starting with the textile industry producers of cotton , wool , fur , and synthetic fibre , embellishment using embroidery , via the fashion industry to fashion retailers up to trade with second-hand clothes and textile recycling. The producing sectors build upon a wealth of clothing technology some of which, like the loom , the cotton gin , and the sewing machine heralded industrialization not only of the previous textile manufacturing practices. By the early 20th century, the industry in the developed world often involved immigrants in " sweat shops ", which were usually legal but were sometimes illegally operated. They employed people in crowded conditions, working manual sewing machines , and being paid less than a living wage. This trend worsened due to attempts to protect existing industries which were being challenged by developing countries in South East Asia , the Indian subcontinent and Central America.
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Suggestion : Watch the 20 minutes video tutorial before reading this article. Planning to import clothing or other textile products from China? In this guide, you will learn what need to know to select the right clothing manufacturer, create a techpack, select materials, get samples made and much more.
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