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More than years ago, a Chinese empress discovered how to unravel silk cocoons when one dropped into her cup of tea. Until this time, fibre for cloth came from plants cotton, linen, hemp, ramie or animals sheep, goats, camel and yak.
No one knew of such a fine and shiny fibre as silk, and no one would have believed it came from the secretions of an insect. As the Chinese and other nations began to travel around the world, they each sent ambassadors bearing gifts to other countries.
Silk was the most treasured gift from China, and her intelligent emperors soon realised they had a very important trade commodity. To meet the great demand for silk, the emperors ordered their citizens to pay a portion of their taxes in silk cloth. And to help insure that they would remain an important trading power, the government imposed a law that anyone who revealed the secret of silk production would be put to death.
The mystery of how silk was produced was not revealed to the western world for over years. One tale is told of two Christian monks who were sent to China to discover the age-old secret of silk production. They returned to Constantinople two years later with silkworm eggs and mulberry tree seeds hidden in hollowed out canes. From here, silk production spread throughout Europe. Raising silkworms is called sericulture and is an agricultural-based livelihood that depends heavily on the weather and the attentiveness of the farmer.
Workers feed the hungry silkworms fresh, chopped mulberry leaves eight times a day. The silkworms are moved to clean feeding trays once a day. Some years the silk quality is high, while other years the farmers suffer financially because of poor crops. The price of silk fluctuates with market supply and demand. The economic status of silk-rearing countries also plays an important role in the price of silk. As those countries become more affluent, like Japan, more farmers leave the agriculture industry in search of higher paying jobs.
As fewer farmers are willing to carry on the labour-intensive work of raising silkworms, silk is becoming more scarce and costly. Silk production - called sericulture - had spread to Europe by the middle ages and was an important industry providing royalty with silk colth. But in the early 's disease spread through the European bombyx moth population as well as the mulberry trees they depend on. This put silk production in Europe into decline. Then, one the Suez Canel was open importing silk from the east was again popular.
Disease and infection can spread rapidly through a silkworm colony. To combat this problem, each female is placed in a numbered space to lay her eggs and is examined microscopically to ensure there is no disease. If there is any sign of contamination, all the eggs from that female are destroyed. Disease wiped out the European sericulture industry in the mid s. Eventually Louis Pasteur found the source of the disease by testing female moths after they laid their eggs.
But silk is an important product for many cultures including Uzbekistan, Brazil, Iran, Thailand, and Vietnam. Japan is often associated with silk but only a small amount of sericulture is done in Japan.
Japan is more active in production of silk-based products. From Wikipedia. The scientific name for the silkworm is Bombyx mori. The silkworm is not a worm at all, but a caterpillar that transforms into a moth. It starts its life in spring as an egg the size of a sesame seed. A silkworm increases its body weight 10, times during its life of days. If a human baby grew that fast, in two months it would weigh as much as an adult elephant. When the silkworm is ready to make the cocoon, it is given a small nook of twigs, braided straw or bamboo.
They spin two semi-liquid proteins together at a rate of 30cm 1 foot per minute while turning , times in the three days it takes to form a cocoon.
It makes a strand of silk as long as 12 football fields which solidifies and becomes a thread when it meets the air outside the silkworm's body. Inside its cocoon, the silkworm goes into a deep sleep for days, while its body goes through a change, or metamorphosis, from silkworm to moth. When this pupa becomes a fully grown moth, it excretes a brown enzyme dissolving a hole in the cocoon. The flightless moth wiggles out and begins searching for a mate.
The female moth produces a special scent called a phermone to attract the male moth. One or two days after the male fertilises the eggs inside the female's body she lays eggs. The silken strand from one cocoon is too fine to make into cloth, so cocoons are reeled, or unravelled, at the same time.
The sericin sticks the strands together to make a thread the size of a human hair. The left over pupae are rich in protein. They are used as fish food, pressed into oil and people in some countries eat them. About 2, to 3, cocoons are required to make a pound of silk. One pound of silk represents about 1, miles of filament.
It takes silk from over 2, cocoons to produce a single kimono. Reeled, or filament silk is the highest quality yarn and is very white and shiny.
First the cocoons are inspected and sorted, as only those with a perfect shape can be used for the reeling procedure. Cocoons are soaked in warm water to soften the gummy sericin. The silken strand from a single cocoon is too fine to use alone, so individual filaments of cocoons are unravelled at the same time, travelling through a very small eye. The softened sericin dries, hardens and binds the strands together to become one thread the size of a human hair.
This first stage of silk is very white and lusterous. The weak filament of the transparent silken envelope remaining from the reeling process, and the damaged, discoloured, or imperfectly shaped cocoons become the raw material for lustrous, creamy coloured spun silk yarn.
This cocoon "waste" must first have the sericin removed degummed with soap and water. Next, the fibre is cut into uniform lengths and carded to remove short tangled bits as well as the brown pupa inside the cocoons. Combing lays all the fibres parallel in a sliver which is spun into a shimmering yarn. Spun silk is the most familiar yarn made available to handworkers. Short fibres containing crushed pupa left behind after making higher quality spun silk are made into noil yarn.
The shortness of fibre length results in a lack of lustre and body. This is lower quality spun yarn using the same metric count system as the above spun silk. Noil has the strongest silk odour due to impurities in the yarn. The majority of the smell dissipates after washing, but can return again when wet. Karen Selk traveled to India and explored Eri silk production. Read her story here. Eri silk is from the Assam region of India and has a long history of being used for making the fine cloth that saris are made from.
The precise shape of the individual silk threads — determined by the shape of the orifice through which they are extruded — is characteristic of the species of silk moth that produced the strands. When most people speak of silk they mean the product of the domesticated Bombyx Mori silkworm. Bombyx caterpillers only eat the leaves of the Mulberry tree.
Production of Bombyx silk has been exported around the world - where ever the Mulberry tree may be grown to feed the caterpillars. Wild silks are defined as any silk made from a caterpillar other than Bombyx Mori. There are over caterpillars which produce cocoons but only a few types are used for fiber production. Wild silks are characterized as having a tougher and rougher silk than Bombyx. Wild silks are not white but are often beige or golden in color.
Wild silk is most often associated with India where wild silk has an ancient history. But techniques to demineralize the cocoons is expanding the use of wild silk and it is expected to lead to greater wild silk production in Africa and South America, where the climate is well suited to for wild caterpillars. Silk production is an efficient industry that does not use too much space or water. Visit the online Wild Silk Genome Database.
Non-mulberry sericigenous fauna belonging to the family Saturniidae superfamily Bombycoidea are mostly wild Silkmoths. In addition to silk fiber production wild silk is studied as an important tools in basic entomological and biotechnological research in various countries.
These are medium to very large in size, and this family includes the largest moths. Adults have a wingspan of 3 to 15 centimeters, relatively small heads, and densely hairy bodies. Larvae are usually very fleshy, with clumps of raised bristles. Caterpillars mostly feed on leaves of trees and shrubs; some cause severe damage. Pupa develops in silken cocoons. Wild silkmoths are reared on wild trees but can also be raised and bred under complete human control.
They complete their life cycle of four different metamorphosing phases, egg, larva, pupa and adult moths. Of this only larval stage is feeding period. The range of food selection of these insects is wide. Their cocoons are bigger than those of the domesticated silkworm. Wild silkmoths include tasar silkworm, eri-silkworm, oak-tasar silkworm and muga silkworm.
Most of the research and development of technology is confined to China, India, and Japan in Asia. The Indian Tasar Silkworm , Antheraea mylitta is a natural fauna of tropical India, represented by more than 20 ecoraces.
Large quantity of Indian and Chinese tasar cocoons are utilized to produce various types of textiles.
Cyan milk protein fiber dewaters and skims milk, and manufactures the protein spinning fluid suitable for wet spinning process by means of new bio-engineering technique, and new high-grade textile fiber is made by combining them. Cyan milk protein fiber is healthy for skin, comfortable, with bright colors due to good dye ability, etc. The milk protein fiber can be spun purely or spun with cashmere, silk, spun silk, cotton, wool, ramie and other fibers to weave fabrics with the features of milk protein fiber. It can also be used to create top-grade underwear, shirts, T shirts, loungewear, etc.
Stability of Silk and Collagen Protein Materials in Space
Fort, Mumbai No. Mumbai, Maharashtra. Saheed Nagar, Bhubaneswar, Dist. Khorda, Odisha.
Cattail Silk Yarn Uk
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More than years ago, a Chinese empress discovered how to unravel silk cocoons when one dropped into her cup of tea. Until this time, fibre for cloth came from plants cotton, linen, hemp, ramie or animals sheep, goats, camel and yak. No one knew of such a fine and shiny fibre as silk, and no one would have believed it came from the secretions of an insect. As the Chinese and other nations began to travel around the world, they each sent ambassadors bearing gifts to other countries. Silk was the most treasured gift from China, and her intelligent emperors soon realised they had a very important trade commodity. To meet the great demand for silk, the emperors ordered their citizens to pay a portion of their taxes in silk cloth. And to help insure that they would remain an important trading power, the government imposed a law that anyone who revealed the secret of silk production would be put to death. The mystery of how silk was produced was not revealed to the western world for over years.
Spun Silk Yarn
This tiger is almost done! Used here is an 11"x17" snap frame, primary rug backing fabric, Oxford punch needle, Mini Masterpieces exclusive long punch needle, and a variety of yarns. The colors are variegated enough to be noticeable, yet subtle enough to blend naturally.
You search returned no results, please check the spelling or try a new search. Known as the world's most luxurious textile, silk fabric is a stunning, smooth and opulent choice for your project. Printed silk fabric makes this elegant material contemporary and exciting. Smooth, shiny, flowing drape. Super light, 2. Natural sheen to face, luxury handle. Clothing, scarves etc. Very light 1.
Silk Hand Embroidery Thread 101: Getting Started with Silk
Background : Cut and pierced cocoons are generated in large quantities in the state every year. Even though cut and pierced cocoons are having shell with silk filaments, these cannot be reeled. A good quality hand spun yarn better than dupion can be produced using such cocoons. By using cut cocoon spinning machine a good hand spun yarn can be produced by soaking these cocoons in cold water and soda. The machine is very simple and can be easily operated by women, which helps in generating gainful employment. The raw material needed for this activity is easily available in different parts of the State.
The mill is an initiative of Ministry of Textiles, Govt. Union Textile Ministry has taken up several measures to develop textile industry in the North East India using locally available raw materials and Rudrasagar Silk is the result of the initiatives. Assam has rich heritage of sericulture and produces rare varieties of wild silks like Eri and Muga silk. However, availability of weaver friendly and good quality yarns are always short supplied due to limited number of modern spinning mills. With this new spun silk mill coming into operation, which will produce high quality Eri, Muga and Silk blended spun yarns, local weavers will have be able to produce high quality, high value handloom products suitable for both domestic and export markets.
Silkline for Textile Sector in NE India: Smriti Irani Inaugurates Rudrasagar Silk Mill
The Programmes aims at increased productivity, quality and promotion of new technologies, Packages of Practices developed by Research Institutes. Following Programmes are being implemented under CDP. TO 1: Subsidy for construction of silkworm rearing, reeling shed, purchase of equipment and Incentive to Bivoltine cocoon. DO 5: Maintance of community development Centres: Chawki silkworms were reared upto 2nd instar and distributed to sericulturists.
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I love Christmas. I love the cosy nights, twinkling decorations, candles burning and snuggling into soft fabrics. I also love the planet and I want future generations to love it too.
Oligomerization of Chemical and Biological Compounds. Silk fibers spun by several species of arthropods have existed naturally for hundreds of millions of years. The ecological functions of the silk fibers are closely related to their properties. For example, orb-weaving spiders produce a variety of different silks with diverse properties, each tailored to achieve a certain task Figure 1 [ 1 ].
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