Robert C. Mark D. University of California Pr Bolero Ozon. Cannabis : Evolution and Ethnobotany. Robert Clarke , Mark Merlin. Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary exploration of the natural origins and early evolution of this famous plant, highlighting its historic role in the development of human societies.
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- Series on Fibres: Turning Hemp into Fabric
- Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
- jute machinery plant china
- East London Industries : the jute factory, Stratford-le-Bow
- hemp spun yarns and threads - Import export
- THE JUTE INDUSTRY
- Natural Textile Fibers
- Jute Industry in Bangladesh
- Our hemp in the textile industry
- Hemp textiles made in U.S. will take time, experts say
Series on Fibres: Turning Hemp into FabricVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Jute/ hemp/ sisal rope ball winding machine
The cultivation of jute is confined to a comparatively restricted area, more than three-fourths of the total acreage being in eastern Bengal and Assam, while nearly the whole of the remaining fourth is in Bengal. Its principal industries are jute spinning and weaving, and the manufacture of porcelain, flags, machinery and beer, and it has some trade in wine. The other leading industries include manufactures of gauge-glasses, ink, muslins, India shawls, jute goods, woollens and winceys, floorcloth, and boots and shoes.
Other industries are engineering, shipbuilding and brewing, and there are cloth, jute , hat, wood-pulp and paper factories. Camphor, sugar, tea, indigo, ground peanuts, jute , hemp, oil and rattans are all articles of export. The industries include the spinning of jute , flax, hemp and cotton, iron-founding, brewing, and the manufacture of machinery, fishing-nets, sailcloth, sacks, casks, and soap.
There are also saw-and flour-mills, petroleum refineries and oil-works. The principal industries are steam flour-milling, distilling, and the manufacture of machinery, railway plant, carriages, cutlery, gold and silver wares, chemicals, bricks, jute , and the usual articles produced in large towns for home consumption.
JUTE , a vegetable fibre now occupying a position in the manufacturing scale inferior only to cotton and flax. The term jute appears to have been first used in , when the captain of the "Wake" noted in his log that he had sent on shore "60 bales of gunney with all the jute rope" New Eng.
The vats are fitted with filters made of coco-nut matting and jute cloth supported on wooden frames. Philadelphia, the Atlantic port, exports chiefly petroleum, coal, grain and flour, and imports chiefly iron ore, sugar, drugs and chemicals, manufactured iron, hemp, jute and flax. Shoes are called juta, juti or jute by Mahommedans, and jore or zore by Hindus.
The town is entirely modern, and owes its progress to the water-power supplied by the Ericht for linen and jute factories. Next to agriculture, weaving is the most important industry in the country, the cotton-mills of Bombay and the jute mills of Bengal having increased greatly of recent years. The number of jute mills in was 38, employing , hands, and since then the number has tended constantly upwards.
Roxburgh sent to the directors of the East India Company a bale of the fibre which he described as "the jute of the natives. The two species cultivated for jute fibre are in all respects very similar to each other, except in their fructification and the relatively greater size attained by C.
The core is served with a thick coating of wet jute , yarn or hemp h , forming a soft bed for the sheath, and, to secure immunity from the ravages of submarine boring animals, e. Ramie fibre and jute are available for coarse cloth; cotton weaving is almost non-existent.
This supersedes artificial irrigation, and the plains so watered yield abundantly in rice, jute and mustard. The jute manufacture, the principal centres of which are Berlin, Bonn, Brunswick and Hamburg, has of late attained considerable dimensions. It has manufactures of jute and machinery, brewing and iron-founding.
In Bombay new cotton mills were erected, and old ones extended, high-speed machinery was widely introduced, and 12, new looms were set up. Similarly the jute trade far surpassed all records. Pepper is grown in considerable quantities in the districts of Ha-Tien and Bien-Hoa, and sugarcanes, coffee, cotton, tobacco and jute are also produced.
About half the total crop is exported, and the remainder used in the jute mills centred round Calcutta, which supply cloth and bags for the grain export trade. The fibre known as China jute or Tien-tsin jute is the product of another plant, Abutilon Avicennae, a member of the Mallow family. An enormous development of agricultural resources has taken place within the Brahmaputra basin of late years, chiefly in the direction of tea cultivation, as well as in the production of jute and silk.
Besides rice, the products of the countryinclude tea, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, precious woods and rubber; coffee, pepper, sugar-canes and jute are cultivated to a minor extent. The industries comprise the manufacture of cloth, industrial machines, sugar-refining, jute fabrics and brewing. The greatest activity is shown in the cotton industry, which flourishes especially in the Twente district of Overysel, where jute is also worked into sacks. Other notable branches of manufacturing industry, besides those already named, are flour-mills, jute , hosiery, lace, paper, cement, hats, haberdashery, machinery, tobacco, soap and candle factories, iron and steel works, distilleries, breweries, potteries, vinegar, chocolate, varnish, furniture, clothing and brickworks.
In addition to this, various industries were set on foot for the benefit of those who were not capable of field work, such as mat and rope making, and jute and cotton weaving. Next to cotton, jute is the most important and prosperous of Indian manufactures.
There are also woollen and jute mills, iron and brass foundries, lac factories and oil-mills. On the left bank of the Ericht, opposite Blairgowrie, with which it is connected by a four-arched bridge, stands the town and police burgh of Rattray pop.
Should these tests prove satisfactory the core is served with jute yarn, coiled in water-tight tanks, and surrounded with salt water. The jute industry is concentrated in a few large factories, which from onwards have more than supplied the home market, and have begun considerably to export. Besides wool, leading imports are jute , cotton, flax, timber, petroleum, coal, pitch, wine, cereals, oil-seeds and oil-cake, nitrate of soda and other chemical products, and metals.
The chief exports are raw cotton, cotton goods and yarn, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, raw jute and jute -manufactures, hides and skins, tea, opium and lac. Inthere was great activity in both the cotton and jute industries. In Behar it has begun to replace indigo, and some success was achieved in Orissa, Assam and Madras; but jute is a very exhausting crop, and requires to be planted in lands fertilized with silt or else with manure.
The leading industries are the crushing of palm-kernels and linseed and the manufacture of india-rubber, phosphates, starch, nitrate and jute. The object of these experiments is, of course, to obtain a better class of jute seed by growing plants, especially for no other purpose than to obtain their seed. The agricultural department of the government of Bengal are now fully alive to the importance of fostering the jute industry by showing conclusively that attention to scientific agriculture will make two maunds of jute grow where only one maund grew before.
The following description of the retting of jute is taken from Royle's Fibrous Plants of India:- " The proper point being attained, the native operator, standing up to his middle in water, takes as many of the sticks in his hands as he can grasp, and removing a small portion of the bark from the ends next the roots, and grasping them together, he strips off the whole with a little management from end to end, without breaking either stem or fibre.
The separated fibre is then made up into bundles ready for sending to one of the jute presses. The jute is carefully sorted into different qualities, and then each lot is subjected to an enormous hydraulic pressure from which it emerges in the shape of the well-known bales, each weighing lb. A number of experiments in jute cultivation were made during , and the report showed that very encouraging results were obtained from land manured with cow-dung.
The characters by which qualities of jute are judged are colour, lustre, softness, strength, length, firmness, uniformity and absence of roots. Jute , indeed, is much more woody in texture than either flax or hemp, a circumstance which may be easily demonstrated by its behaviour under appropriate reagents; and to that fact is due the change in colour and character it undergoes on exposure to the air.
A list of all the principal marks is issued in book form by the Calcutta Jute Baler's association. Long before jute came to occupy a prominent place amongst the textile fibres of Europe, it formed The lower qualities are, naturally, divided into fewer varieties. Each baler has his own marks, the fibres of which are guaranteed not follow that a large crop of jute will result in low prices, for the yearwas not only a record one for crops, but also olitorius.
There is a thin close-woven cloth made and used as garments among the females of the aboriginal tribes near the foot of the Himalayas, and in various localities a cloth of pure jute or of jute mixed with cotton is used as a sheet to sleep on, as well as for wearing purposes. To indicate the variety of uses to which jute is applied, the following quotation may be cited from the official report of Hem Chunder Kerr as applying to Midnapur.
For years small quantities of jute were imported into Great Britain and other European countries and into America, but it was not until the year that the fibre may be said to have made any great impression in Great Britain. Warden in his Linen Trade says: "For years after its introduction the principal spinners refused to have anything to do with jute , and cloth made of it long retained a tainted reputation.
Indeed, it was not until Mr. Rowan got the Dutch government, about , to substitute jute yarns for those made from flax in the manufacture of the coffee bagging for their East Indian possessions, that the jute trade in Dundee got a proper start.
For many years Great Britain was the only European country engaged in the manufacture of jute , the great seat being Dundee. The success of the mechanical method of spinning and weaving of jute in Dundee and district led to the introduction of textile machinery into and around Calcutta. The Calcutta looms are engaged for the most part with a few varieties of the commoner classes of jute fabrics, but the success in this direction has been really remarkable.
Amongst these may be mentioned the following: Hessian, bagging, tarpaulin, sacking, scrims, Brussels carpets, Wilton carpets, imitation Brussels, and several other types of carpets, rugs and matting, in addition to a large variety of fabrics of which jute forms a part.
Calcutta has certainly taken a large part of the trade which Dundee held in its former days, but the continually increasing demands for jute fabrics for new purposes have enabled Dundee to enter new markets and so to take part in the prosperity of the trade.
The difference between the production and the exports represents the native consumption, for very little jute is sent overland. In their general features the spinning and weaving of jute fabrics do not differ essentially as to machinery and processes from those employed in the manufacture of hemp and heavy flax goods. The pioneers of the jute industry, who did not understand this necessity, or rather who did not know how the woody and brittle character of the fibre could be remedied, were greatly perplexed by the difficulties they had to encounter, the fibre spinning badly into a hard, rough and hairy yarn owing to the splitting and breaking of the fibre.
This peculiarity of jute , coupled also with the fact that the machinery on which it was first spun, although quite suitable for the stronger and more elastic fibres for which it was designed, required certain modifications to suit it to the weaker jute , was the cause of many annoyances and failures in the early days of the trade.
Batch setting is the first part of this operation; it consists of selecting the different kinds or qualities of jute for any predetermined kind of yarn. The "streaks" 1 or "heads" of jute as they come from the bale are in a hard condition in consequence of having been subjected to a high hydraulic pressure during baling; it is therefore necessary to soften them before any further process is entered. The streaks are sometimes partly softened or crushed by means of a steam hammer during the process of opening the bale, then taken to the "strikers-up" where the different varieties are selected and hung on pins, and then taken to the jute softening machine.
The more general practice, however, is to employ what is termed a "bale opener," or " jute crusher. The uniform moistening of the fibre in this machine facilitates the subsequent operations, indeed the introduction of this preliminary process originally by hand constituted the first important step in the practical solution of the difficulties of jute spinning. About 1 to 14 gallons of oil is the usual amount given per bale of lb of jute , while the quantity of water per bale varies from 3 to 7 gallons.
A certain weight of jute , termed a "dollop," is laid upon the feed cloth for each revolution of the latter. Another type of machine termed the three pair roller jute opener is illustrated in fig. In the jute roving frame the bobbin is termed the "follower," because its revolutions per minute are fewer than those of the flyer. The principles of jute spinning are similar to those of dry spinning for flax. For very heavy jute yarns the spinning frame is not used - the desired amount of twist being given at the roving frame.
The count of jute yarn is based upon the weight in pounds of 14, yds. In addition jute is grown to a considerable extent in Goalpara and Sylhet; cotton is grown in large quantities along the slopes of the Assam range. The chief items were tea, rice in the husk, oil-seeds, tea-seed, timber, coal and jute. The sea-borne exports consist chiefly of jute , other items being tea, raw cotton, rice and hides. Rheine is the seat of cotton industries, has manufactures of jute , machinery, tobacco and flour, and a considerable river trade in agricultural produce.
The eastern tract consists of rich alluvial soil, well watered, and subject to fertilizing inundations, yielding heavy crops of coarse rice, oil-seeds and jute. It has an important woollen and linen industry, and manufactures of jute and machinery, as well as an active trade, especially of woollens, to the East. There are engineering shops producing railway stock and motors, jute spinning and weaving mills, and match and joinery works. Howrah, on the opposite side of the Hugh, is the terminus of three great railway systems, and also the headquarters of the jute industry and other large factories.
The most important industries are the manufacture of jute goods carried on at Ponte a Moriano in the Serchio valley, 6 m.
The law came into force in , and was immediately followed by the erection of a large number of factories, for spinning silk, cotton, jute and wool, and the making of railway plant, automobiles, the building of ships, and in fact almost every kind of industry. Jute pat or kosta forms a very important commercial staple of Bengal. The value of jute and of the goods manufactured from it represents more than a third of the aggregate value of the trade of Calcutta.
The principal imports are cotton piece goods, railway materials, metals and machinery, oils, sugar, cotton, twist and salt; and the principal exports are jute , tea, hides, opium, rice, oil-seeds, indigo and lac.
Did you know the very first pair of Levis were made of hemp? And did you know that hemp was planted near and around the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site to pull radioactive elements from the ground? Derived from the Cannabis Sativa plant, the fibres of hemp are well known for their durability and ruggedness. In their raw state, hemp fibres are yellowish grey to deep brown. Prior to Levis Strauss' ingenious use of hemp to create his first jean, hemp was largely used as an industrial fibre, but soon became popular in the textile world after it was used in this first pair of jeans. Materials made from hemp have been discovered in tombs dating back to 8, B.
Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
Home jute machinery plant china. Read More. K Mobile Crusher also known as mobile crushing station, developed based on years of independent research and manufacturing experience of mobile crushers. K Series Mobile Crushing plant as it is also called, is often used as a primary crusher in a mult.
jute machinery plant china
Natural and organic fibers become more and more popular these years. Most of the people come to realize that nature, soft and healthy are the most important things of the textile. Hemp fiber is naturally one of the most environmentally friendly fibers and also the oldest. The Columbia history of the world states that the oldest relics of human industry are bits of Hemp fabric discovered in tombs dating back to approximately B. Hemp is called a fiber of hundred uses. The significance of Hemp to the economic and day to day lives of our ancestors is increasingly being recognized.
Refine your search. Wool and mixed wool, combed and carded wool spun yarn. Find out about this company. With 17 years of experience, we supply the textile and metal processing industry across Europe. Our products are trusted by textile weavers, knitters, broad weavers, automotive suppliers, wire International leader in the field of polyamide and coated elastomer manufacture. Founded in , the company produces threads for all textile sectors, from knitted hosiery to circular mesh, from Production of chemical intermediates, polyamide polymers, engineering plastics, synthetic fibres and non-woven fabrics. Production of pure cotton thread and other fibres; open end, slub, American type carded and American and Egyptian type combed yarn.
East London Industries : the jute factory, Stratford-le-Bow
This factory is owned by Messrs. The works stand on about four acres of ground, one half of which is covered in, and the rest an open space or shed. On my visit to this place, Captain Ritchie, M. The product of these 'hands' in yarn is ,, yards weekly, and the jute cloth produced in the same period measures , yards. The quantity of jute manufactured every week is about 60 tons. The goods produced find their way to both home and foreign markets. Obviously Messrs. When the new Factory Act came into operation it was necessary that three hours less of labor should be required weekly. It would have been competent, according to the Act, to refuse to admit the workers as early as formerly in the morning. At the Stratford Jute Factory this would be the best arrangement for the masters. Or half-an-hour more could have been added to the dinner hour, or half-an-hour taken off the time of leaving off work in the evening.
hemp spun yarns and threads - Import export
Our hemp in the textile. Are you interested in it? Contact Us. This is really an old account of when hemp fibers in olden days were used to make clothes and jeans, ropes and canvas sails for boats, and lots of other items. But it is also true that due the rise in the industrial use of cotton, followed by synthetic fibers in Europe, hemp went out of fashion. Users had to turn to importing hemp, particularly from Asia. Several leading companies in their respective fields became interested in using their skills and know-how to develop technical solutions to hemp production and processing and to meet their requirements and specifications in:. Search Search for: Search. Our hemp in the textile Are you interested in it? Home Our applications Our hemp in the textile industry.
THE JUTE INDUSTRY
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus , which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae , and more recently with Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius , but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers , and second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. It falls into the bast fiber category fiber collected from bast, the phloem of the plant, sometimes called the "skin" along with kenaf , industrial hemp , flax linen , ramie , etc. The industrial term for jute fiber is raw jute. Jute is also called the golden fiber for its color and high cash value. The jute plant needs a plain alluvial soil and standing water.
Natural Textile Fibers
Ramie fibre comes under bast fibre category, which can be classified as underutilised fibres. The high potential of ramie fibre is not fully exploited due to various techno-economic reasons. It is one of the strongest natural fibres having rich cellulose content. Apart from textile uses, ramie fibre can be utilised for the production of various diversified products.
Jute Industry in Bangladesh
Constitution was written on hemp paper, and Betsy Ross ' first American flag was made of hemp fabric, but the road back to hemp fiber textiles grown in the United States will take a while, industry experts say. Thousands of U.
Our hemp in the textile industry
There are more than 2, different plant fibres in the world. Although most of them have no economic importance, they are still used in order to meet regional demands and needs. Plant fibres can be classified according to the part of the plant they come from, such as; 1- seed fibres cotton , 2- stem fibres linen, hemp, jute , 3- leaf fibres sisal , 4- fruit fibres coconut, zucchini fibre.
Hemp textiles made in U.S. will take time, experts say
In the last few months, I have received several questions through the blog regarding natural textile fibers. Evidently, from the perspective of fashion consumers and professionals in the industry, there is a close relationship between these fibers and responsible, sustainable textile production; therefore they seek information on the topic.