Agarwood Aquilaria spp. Production being confined only to certain small pockets of South and Southeast Asia, agarwood is arguably the costliest wood in the world. Formation of fragrant agarwood resin is the outcome of complex biotic, abiotic, and physical stress on the Aquilaria trees. The intricate mechanism by which some odd fragrant molecules that constitute agarwood aroma is formed is still not clearly understood. The present review therefore aims to bring to focus this less known but highly valuable stress-induced aroma from Asia.
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- Recent Advances in Techniques for Flavor Recovery in Liquid Food Processing
- Aromas and Flavours of Fruits
- The Scent of Stress: Evidence From the Unique Fragrance of Agarwood
- Study of Essential Oils Obtained from Tropical Plants Grown in Colombia
- Aroma compound
- Biosynthesis of plant-derived flavor compounds.
- PROSEA, Introduction to Essential oils
Recent Advances in Techniques for Flavor Recovery in Liquid Food ProcessingVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Healing Plants and Aroma
This chapter presents a brief description of essential oil extraction and chemical characterization techniques, followed by a representative list of references to publications on EO composition obtained from tropical aromatic plants that grow in Colombia. Opportunities for the development of interesting products for the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, hygiene, and food industries are illustrated with a few selected works on the evaluation of cytotoxicity, antioxidant, antiviral, antigenotoxic activities, and repellence of these essential oils.
Essential Oils - Oils of Nature. The country is rich in many natural resources and water. Contrasting landscapes and varied climatic conditions have made it after Brazil, the second most biodiverse country. This biodiversity includes medicinal and aromatic plants; most native aromatic plants remain unexamined.
The aromatic herbs and spices commonly used in everyday life were brought to Colombia by the Spanish conquerors five centuries ago basil, chamomile, mint, parsley, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme, etc. These plantations are located mainly in the Andean region, some in the Eastern Plains of Colombia. The crop of medicinal and aromatic plants amounted to 16, tons in This vegetal material was used for many applications different from essential oil EO extraction, in over companies and commercial establishments [ 1 ].
Colombia has currently no commercial enterprise dedicated to the cultivation of aromatic plants destined to produce essential oils for export or the national market. Since there is no essential oil production, the EO exported amounts corresponded to commercialization of previously imported oils. The transition point was marked by the creation in of a network of research groups that joined their expertise around the development of the EOs agroindustry.
Over scientific articles comprise the results of its investigations, which have been focused on the multidisciplinary and systematic search of promising native plants and on introduced species such as ylang-ylang, palmarosa, turmeric, patchouli, mints, basils, citrus, geraniums, and others. Researchers from more than 10 universities have carried out their work in areas of botany and taxonomy, plant physiology, and ecology; on the study of secondary plant metabolites, crop and post-harvest improvement, EO distillation and its optimization, and design of rural stills; on the study of volatile fractions from plants and flowers, obtainment of extracts with solvents and supercritical fluids SFE-CO2 , and catalytic transformation of EOs or their main components; and on the study of their diverse biological properties antioxidant, antimicrobial, insecticidal, antiviral, and others.
The primary metabolites proteins, lipids, sugars, etc. For sure and with all the experimental details studied, the role played by secondary metabolites in plants is not completely known, because they fulfill several functions and operate through different mechanisms. Among many secondary metabolites isolated from plants, there are some very special, widely used in various branches of industry, medicine, and in many products of everyday life.
This class of substances is called EOs, volatile oils, ethereal oils, or essences. Numerous substances are part of these oils; they are a complex mixture of volatile compounds with very diverse chemical nature. What most characterizes and highlights them is their smell, generally pleasant and intense, that evokes the fragrance of the plant or of the fruit or wood, from which these oils come.
The essence can be remembered as the smell, for example, of a freshly cut grass or vanilla, sweet and cloying, among other aromatic tones that an EO has, formed by a complex range of volatile substances with different fragrant notes and different sensory thresholds for their perception. Isolated from flowers rose, orange blossom, lily, ylang-ylang , seeds coriander, celery, carrot, anise, cardamom , leaves and stems basil, thyme, mint, lavender, oregano , bark cinnamon , wood pine, sandalwood , roots valerian, vetiver , and rhizomes ginger, turmeric.
EOs can be considered as the soul of the plants, their spirit, which characterizes, highlights, evokes, and makes them memorable in time; oils, generally, produce a pleasant sensation, especially when diluted. The EOs in the plants can be found in the different oil cells ginger, turmeric, vanilla , in the secretory channels pine, artemisia, anise, angelica , in the glands citrus, eucalyptus , or in the trichomes many plants of Labiatae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Geraniaceae families.
The plant material aromatic plant , when subjected to water vapor, releases a liquid odoriferous mixture EO of various volatile substances; this mixture can have from 50 to more than chemical substances and is composed of terpene hydrocarbons, their oxygenated derivatives, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones, as well as ethers, esters, phenolic compounds, phenylpropanoids, and other derivatives [ 3 ].
EOs can be obtained from plant material by three main methods Figure 1. This process is carried out with a superheated dry steam, usually generated by a boiler or steam generator, which penetrates the plant material at higher than atmospheric pressure; the steam current breaks the cells or oil channels in the plant and drags the volatile mixture, which condenses after passing through a cooling system heat exchanger. Generally, the oils are lighter than water and with very little soluble in it; therefore, they can be separated by decantation.
The exception is the clove oil, which is heavier than water and is collected under it. The steam distillation method is used to extract oils from rhizomes, roots, seeds vetiver, valerian, ginger, anise, cardamom, etc. In this extraction system, wet steam is used, coming from the boiling water, which passes through the plant material suspended above and supported on a mesh. Most herbaceous plants are distilled by this method. This method is used for the distillation of more delicate plant material, for example, flowers e.
The citrus peel orange, tangerine, lime EOs are also obtained by cold-pressing or by scraping their surfaces. Steam generation is one of the main components of the operation costs.
Current trends point toward the use of lignocellulosic waste as biofuel for the furnace. Still capacity is determined by the crop size. This is mainly to prevent mold formation. Patchouli and vetiver are two exceptions to this rule, because a curing period of several days or months vetiver recommended to enhance oil yield and organoleptic quality.
The reality is that a large part of Colombian small growers have low purchasing power, low economic performance and productivity, and not very sophisticated technology level in rural operations and processes.
Traditional agricultural production faces a complex problem that includes low prices, low profitability, and the increasingly acute lack of rural labor, because young people migrate to the cities. The EO industry is a very important rural development alternative in which the harvested vegetal material is no longer the final product, but the start of an added-value product chain. The common goal of these projects has been the development of the EO value chain.
The economic, agronomic, and quality viability of EOs obtained in several productive units have been studied. A mobile autonomous version that uses a radiator as condenser received a patent [ 4 ]. The farmers are trained on good agricultural practices, post-harvest treatment, and steam distillation. All activities are accompanied by permanent technical assistance Figure 2. These small rural projects constitute an opportunity for a commercializing enterprise that consolidates the various producers around quality control guidelines and provides the technical support to connect them with buyers abroad.
The university provides the technical support for chemical characterization with modern instrumentation, production of technical data sheets, and quality assurance. The analytical technique routinely used for the instrumental chemical analysis of EOs is gas chromatography GC , because the constituents of oils are volatile monoterpenoids, esters, etc. A chromatographic system comprises four fundamental blocks: 1 sample introduction system injector , 2 separation system column , 3 detection system for analytes eluted from the column detector , and 4 data analysis and operation control system.
The GC can have conventional, e. The separation is based on achieving different distribution constants of the components between the two phases, stationary and mobile. This is obtained by establishing the optimal operational conditions temperature, type of mobile phase, its velocity, stationary phase polarity, carrier gas pressure, temperature program, etc.
Figure 4 and by correctly choosing the chromatographic column, i. The EOs contain compounds of very different polarities, both nonpolar terpene hydrocarbons and polar alcohols, aldehydes. This implies that for their analysis, columns with different stationary phase polarities will be required.
Ylang-ylang essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers. GC-MS analysis. Injection modes: A. Split 1, ; B. With higher temperature rate, poorer separation of germacrene D and benzyl acetate is observed. The detection system differentiates the analyte molecules from those of the mobile phase carrier gas , to which the detector is transparent. The response of the detector is based on the measurement of one of the physical properties of the system, e.
The analog signal becomes digital, graphic, i. Through a combination of specialized software data system , its accessories, interfaces, and analog-digital converters, the work of the chromatographic system and all its operational parts hardware is harmonized. For the EO analysis, which are very complex mixtures, two GC detectors are mainly used, namely, the flame ionization detector and the mass selective detector MSD or the mass spectrometry MS detector. The preliminary or presumptive tentative identification of the EO components may be obtained once the retention indices are determined.
The analysis in modern equipment uses a program for the column temperature; in these cases, linear retention indexes are calculated, which are part of many databases and bibliographic references [ 5 , 6 ]. The complementarity of the chromatographic analysis screening with confirmatory spectral data mass spectra is achieved using the combination of two techniques, GC and MS.
EOs contain both nonpolar monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and polar compounds their oxygenated derivatives, aliphatic alcohols, ketones, oxides, phenolic compounds and their derivatives, phenylpropanoids, and rarely acids, among others.
The compounds reach the end of the column in the increasing order of their boiling points. In the polar column, poly ethylene glycol , the elution order of the components is more difficult to predict, because it is related to the intermolecular forces between the analyte and the stationary phase and depends both on the dipole moment of the molecule the polarity and on the possibility of hydrogen bond formation between the substance and the stationary phase.
Co-injection of the essential oil and n-paraffin mixture to calculate retention indices RI. The elution order of some compounds in columns with different stationary phases may be reversed. When the chromatographic parameters t R , t RR , or retention indices and spectroscopic parameters, i.
However, when retention indexes and mass spectra are used, extracted from the specialized literature [ 6 , 7 ] or from the databases e. Each one of the mentioned spectroscopic techniques contributes with some structural information, but the combined results allow to assemble the puzzle and elucidate the chemical structure unequivocally. Ethyl benzoate mass spectrum. Methyl m-methyl benzoate mass spectrum. Benzyl acetate mass spectrum.
The biggest challenge in EO analysis is the complete separation of its components Figure 7 because their frequent coelution occurs due to their very close or equal distribution constants.
Some conventional strategies, e. Multidimensional chromatography makes it possible to separate the peaks of partially or totally co-eluted substances. This method has played an important role in the development of separation techniques for complex mixtures, including EOs [ 8 , 9 ].
Multidimensional chromatography requires at least two detectors and can have configurations of up to three columns in the same oven or in separate chromatographic ovens. Ylang-ylang essential oil chromatogram GC-MS fragment. In comprehensive gas chromatography GC x GC , two columns are used, linked together by means of a modulator. In contrast to conventional multidimensional gas chromatography, the GC x GC requires a single detector with high processing frequency; both columns can be in the same oven or in two separate ovens.
There are different types of modulators, e. The second column, therefore, must be short and very thin and separate the components in just a few seconds. In most cases, a time-of-flight TOF mass detector is used, which is the best option—though expensive—to make a quantitative analysis and identification of compounds in such complex mixtures, as are EOs Figure 8. Further technical details for EO chemical characterization and that of their components can be found elsewhere [ 12 , 13 ].
In summary, EO characterization necessary for its quality control and the determination of authenticity, as part of a technical data sheet necessary for its commercialization, can be divided into four main stages or areas: 1 organoleptic properties, 2 physicochemical determinations, 3 qualitative and quantitative analysis of the components present in the oil chemical composition , and, finally, 4 some other determinations, e.
CENIVAM has studied Colombian plants widely used in popular medicine or in culinary, for example, anise [ 14 ], oregano [ 15 ], rue [ 16 , 17 ], and other species introduced from Asia, such as lemongrass, citronella, ginger, citrics [ 18 , 19 , 20 ], vetiver, and ylang-ylang [ 21 , 22 , 23 ], as well as several native species, among others, Copaifera officinalis [ 24 ], Spilanthes americana [ 25 ], Lepechinia schiedeana [ 26 ], Lippia alba [ 27 ], Xylopia americana [ 28 ], Hyptis umbrosa [ 29 ], Callistemon speciosus sims DC.
Table 1 summarizes the composition of several Lippia EOs, according to compound families. The knowledge of the chemical composition has been the basis for the interpretation of the results of bioactivity assays such as genotoxicity [ 41 , 42 , 43 ], antiviral [ 44 ] and antifungal [ 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 ] activities, insect repellence [ 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 ], antioxidant capacity [ 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 65 ], cytotoxic [ 30 , 66 , 67 , 68 ], antituberculosis [ 69 ], and anti-protozoarial activities [ 70 , 71 ].
A few examples are highlighted in the following section.
This chapter presents a brief description of essential oil extraction and chemical characterization techniques, followed by a representative list of references to publications on EO composition obtained from tropical aromatic plants that grow in Colombia. Opportunities for the development of interesting products for the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, hygiene, and food industries are illustrated with a few selected works on the evaluation of cytotoxicity, antioxidant, antiviral, antigenotoxic activities, and repellence of these essential oils. Essential Oils - Oils of Nature. The country is rich in many natural resources and water.
Aromas and Flavours of Fruits
Biotechnology - The Science and the Business. Derek G. Springham , Vivian Moses , Ronald E. Biotechnology has not stood still since when the first edition of Biotechnology - The Science and the Business was published. It was the first book to treat the science and business of technology as an integrated subject and was well received by both students and business professionals. All chapters in this second edition have been updated and revised and some new chapters have been introduced, including one on the use of molecular genetic techniques in forensic science.
The Scent of Stress: Evidence From the Unique Fragrance of Agarwood
This review covers literature data summarizing, on one hand, the chemistry of essential oils and, on the other hand, their most important activities. Essential oils, which are complex mixtures of volatile compounds particularly abundant in aromatic plants, are mainly composed of terpenes biogenerated by the mevalonate pathway. These volatile molecules include monoterpenes hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpens , and also sesquiterpenes hydrocarbon and oxygenated sesquiterpens. Furthermore, they contain phenolic compounds, which are derived via the shikimate pathway. Thanks to their chemical composition, essential oils possess numerous biological activities antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, etc… of great interest in food and cosmetic industries, as well as in the human health field.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Essential oil manufacturing, production, distilling - Silvestris
Recovery of volatile flavor-active aroma compounds which are key components of processed liquid food streams is of utmost concern to food industry, as these compounds contribute to the quality of the final product. This review paper highlights the recently published research on different techniques that can be applied for recovery of the key flavor components which all aim for minimizing the loss of volatile aromas and re- using them in process streams, in order to enhance the flavor profile of the liquid food product. Among the available techniques for flavor recovery in food industry, distillation or stripping, pervaporation, supercritical fluid extraction, and adsorption showed potential for selective recovery of the flavor components from liquid food streams. These techniques can be combined in different stages of the process or applied as an alternative to the other techniques for aroma recovery. Less attention has been paid to supercritical fluid extraction among the available techniques, especially for recovery of aroma components from alcoholic beverages. Since this technology demonstrated high selectivity for flavor recovery in fruit juices and can take profit from applying natural solvents like CO 2 , further research on the application of this technology combined with counter-current flow in a multi-stage contactor is recommended to optimize the recovery process. Adsorption also shows potential for flavor recovery that can be combined with thermal processing or applied as an alternative stand-alone technique. Flavor perception is the sensory impression of food or any other chemical substance, determined by chemical senses of taste and smell [ 81 ]. Flavors are a mixture of volatile aroma compounds which are classified to natural, natural identical, and artificial flavorings, [ 13 , 37 , 53 , 96 ]. Different chemical substances contribute to particular flavor perceptions [ 37 , 55 ] as is depicted in Fig.
Study of Essential Oils Obtained from Tropical Plants Grown in Colombia
Plants are a universal of foods, which are both nutritious and flavoured. With careful choice, plants can provide a quite adequate balance of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral acids required for a healthy diet. However, many plants are more valuable for their aromatic properties, the spectrum of which is immense. Some must be regarded as fragrances whereas others are primarily of value as flavourings, but in the creation of imitation flavourings and fragrance compounds the demarcating is very imprecise.
An aroma compound , also known as an odorant , aroma , fragrance , or flavor , is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. For a chemical compound to have a smell or odor it must be sufficiently volatile to be transported to the olfactory system in the upper part of the nose. Generally molecules meeting this specification have molecular weights of less than Flavors tend to be naturally occurring, and fragrances tend to be synthetic. Aroma compounds can be found in food , wine , spices , floral scent , perfumes , fragrance oils , and essential oils. For example, many form biochemically during the ripening of fruits and other crops. In wines, most form as byproducts of fermentation. Also, many of the aroma compounds play a significant role in the production of flavorants, which are used in the food service industry to flavor, improve, and generally increase the appeal of their products. An odorizer may add a detectable odor to a dangerous odorless substance, like propane , natural gas , or hydrogen , as a safety measure. High concentrations of aldehydes tend to be very pungent and overwhelming, but low concentrations can evoke a wide range of aromas. Animals that are capable of smell detect aroma compounds with their olfactory receptors.
Horst Surburg , Johannes Panten. This 6th edition is thoroughly revised and updated, and now additionally includes all commercially important flavor and fragrance materials that entered the market over the past 10 years. In one handy and up-to-date source, this classic reference surveys those natural and synthetic materials that are commercially available, produced, and used on a relatively large scale, covering their properties, manufacturing methods employed, and areas of application. For this new edition the chapter on essential oils has been completely revised with regard to production volumes, availability, and new product specifications, while new legal issues, such as REACH regulation aspects, are now included. Finally, the CAS registry numbers and physicochemical data of over single substances and essential oils have been updated and revised.
Biosynthesis of plant-derived flavor compounds.
In traditional, herbal medicine, and aromatherapy, use of essential oils and their aroma compounds have been known since long, for the management of various human diseases. The essential oil is a mixture of highly complex, naturally occurring volatile aroma compounds synthesized by medicinal and aromatic plants as secondary metabolites. Essential oils widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, sanitary, food industry and agriculture for their antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiparasitic, insecticidal, anticancer, neuroprotective, psychophysiological, and anti-aging activities. Moreover, volatile aroma compounds comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds with significant vapor pressure. However, aroma compounds produced by plants, mainly attract pollinators, seed dispersers and provide defense against pests or pathogens. However, in humans, about active olfactory receptor genes are involved to detect thousands of different aroma compounds and modulates expression of different metabolic genes regulating human psychophysiological activity, brain function, pharmacological signaling, and therapeutic potential. Also includes calculated cheminformatics properties related to identification, physico-chemical properties, pharmacokinetics, toxicological, and ecological information.
PROSEA, Introduction to Essential oils
Plant breeders have made considerable advances producing cultivars with higher yields, resistant to pests and diseases, or with high nutritional quality, without paying enough attention to flavour quality. Indeed, consumers have the perception that fruit aromas and flavours have declined in the last years. Attention is given nowadays not only to flavoured compounds but also to compounds with antioxidant activity such as phenolic compounds.
Plants have the capacity to synthesize, accumulate and emit volatiles that may act as aroma and flavor molecules due to interactions with human receptors. These low-molecular-weight substances derived from the fatty acid, amino acid and carbohydrate pools constitute a heterogenous group of molecules with saturated and unsaturated, straight-chain, branched-chain and cyclic structures bearing various functional groups e. They are commercially important for the food, pharmaceutical, agricultural and chemical industries as flavorants, drugs, pesticides and industrial feedstocks. Due to the low abundance of the volatiles in their plant sources, many of the natural products had been replaced by their synthetic analogues by the end of the last century.
An essential oil is a mixture of fragrant, volatile compounds, named after the aromatic plant material of a single type and identity from which it has been derived by a physical process and whose odour it has. This definition indicates that a given essential oil is always derived from a single species or variety. The opposite is not necessarily true: a single species may yield several essential oils because it may consist of several genetically defined chemotypes.
Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Contact Dermatitis. Peter J.