Siti Suhaily, H. Abdul Khalil, W. Wan Nadirah and M. Materials Science - Advanced Topics.
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Bamboo Based Biocomposites Material, Design and ApplicationsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: 🔝 Top 10+ Best Partition Design Ideas - Living Room Wall Divider Partition Decor House 2018
Siti Suhaily, H. Abdul Khalil, W. Wan Nadirah and M. Materials Science - Advanced Topics. Bamboo or Bambusa in botanical has subfamilies of genres and there are difference species ranging from the type of wood to bamboo herb.
However, each particular species of bamboo has different properties and qualities [ 1 ]. Bamboo productions dated back to thousands of years ago and thus they are rich with traditional elements. Bamboo naturally, suitable for varieties of uses and benefits. Bamboo often used as materials for constructions or used as the raw materials for the production of paper sheet, they are also used to control erosion and also for embellishments.
Therefore, bamboo plant is sometimes regarded by some people as having positive features towards life such as properity, peace and mercy [ 3 ]. Recently, issues relating to environmental threatened the life cycle of the environment globally due to the countries using various types of materials that are not biodegradable by industrial sectors globally.
It has becoming a serious matter since it is closely related to the Product Lifecycle Phase resulted from extraction or deposition of waste materials that are not disposed properly [ 4 - 5 ]. Bamboo as the great potential to be used as solid wood substitute materials, especially in the manufacturing, design, and construction usage.
Bamboo properties of being light-weight and high-strength has attracted researchers to investigate and explore, especially in the field of bio-composite bamboo and is acknowledged as one of the green-technology that is fully responsible for eco-products on the environment [ 6 ]. Agricultural biomass solid wood made from bamboo have been identified by many researchers as the largest source of natural fiber and cellulose fibre biocomposite, which are provided at minimal cost and will bring a new evolution into production chain and manufacturing world [ 7 ].
Bamboo uniqueness are recognized as the source of raw materials that can be processed and shaped into the form of a number of commodities such as veneer, strips, lemon grass and fibre, and also it gives a new dimension, particularly in terms of its value of diversity in the production of bio-composite products. Advancement in science and technology, has led the materials used in manufacturing industries using raw materials from agricultural biomass to replace the use of solid wood and other non-biodegradable materials to improve manufacturing productivity and availability.
High elasticity and strength of bamboo are suitable for the construction industry, and bamboo has proven to serve as a foundation structure [ 8 - 9 ]. The creation of bio-composite fibre board is also used in wall construction and are potentially to contribute of making cost effective home possible. Use of bio-composite material is seen increasingly high and the use bamboo as an alternative can be seen in productions such as furniture, automotive and other related productions.
The natural colours of bamboo is unique compared to solid wood and other materials. In fact, the effect of the texture and tie on the outer skin of bamboo has the exotic value and at the same time creates a unique identity in the design, particularly furniture. The long-term global impact of furniture production has forced researchers to find solutions to various problems via research and development [ 11 ], and this search has given birth to the idea of using bamboo based biocomposite materials.
The bamboo based biocomposite industry is important for improving both the quality of manufacturing and production as well as research and development [ 12 - 14 ]. Examples of some of the biocomposite materials that have proven their quality on the international market are medium density fiberboard, plywood and bamboo veneer each of which have been widely used in manufacturing furniture and other products.
Distinctive properties of bamboo fiber reinforced biocomposite natural increase and flexural tensile strength, ductility and greater resistance to cracking and larger than a better impact strength and toughness of the composite [ 15 ]. All these properties are not accessible in other types of wood-based materials.
Bamboo chipboard is formed of bamboo shavings as elementary units, which are dried, mixed with certain amount of adhesive and waterproof agent, spread, shaped and hot-pressed at a proper temperature with proper pressure. Shavings are made of small-sized bamboo culm and bamboo wastes. As negative effects of green and yellow matter on adhesion are weakened after shaving, the adhering quality of bamboo chipboard is high. The supply of raw material for making bamboo chipboard is abundant and its production is an effective way to raise utilization ratio of bamboo resources, as can be seen in Figure 2.
Bamboo chipboard is produced using water-soluble phenol resin, such a product has higher water tolerance, higher modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, and lower moisture expansion in thickness compared with wood chipboard. Bamboo chipboard can be used as a kind of material for engineering construction.
At present, it is mainly used for making ordinary concrete forms. For the sake of improving utilization ratio of bamboo resources the stems of small diameter and of less known species, stem tops and all bamboo processing residue are used to make bamboo chipboard. The manufacturing process is designed following the technology of wood particleboard; rolling, cutting, chipping, re-drying, gluing, spreading and hot-pressing.
The supply of raw material for making bamboo chipboard is abundant. All small bamboo stems of less known species and residue of bamboo cutting on groove land can be used for production. The utilization ratio of raw material for chipboard production is high, from 1. The technology and equipment for bamboo chipboard production are similar to those of wood particleboard.
It is recommended to develop bamboo chipboard for improving the utilization ratio of raw material and the economic performance of enterprise. Bamboo chipboard manufactured with phenol formaldehyde resin is of comparatively high strength and MOE, low expansion rate of water absorbing. In case of need the products can be strengthened by adding bamboo curtain or bamboo mat to the surface.
Such products have broad prospect. Plywood has been introduced in its application in , since the plywood manufacturing sector began to rapidly developing era, focusing on making buildings and making the walls of the first aircraft using plywood [ 17 ]. Instead of plywood, plybamboo is now being used for wall paneling, floor tiles; bamboo pulp for paper making, briquettes for fuel [ 18 ].
Plybamboo is a special category in the wide variety of bamboo-based panels. Figure 3 shows plybamboo produced from layered of bamboo veneers with certain desired thickness. Thick strips have higher rigidity; they can hardly be deformed to fill up the blank space between strips even under high pressure therefore leads to the formation of lower the Modulus of Rupture MOR and adhering strength. Previously, wood is used to make bottom boards over a long period of time.
However, plybamboo was now identified new alternative of make bottom boards. Besides, the manufacturing process of plybamboo was found is less laborious and consumes fewer adhesive than other types of composites. The strength, wear ability and rigidity of plybamboo are higher than those of ordinary plywood, thus, plybamboo has a wide prospect in automotive, building industries and engineering construction as well [ 19 ].
As a result, it has been of interest to make bamboo available in shapes more suitable to current structural applications. This interest led to the development of Laminated Bamboo Lumber LBL , which is usually produced as a board of rectangular cross-section [ 20 ]. Generally speaking, LBL is produced by flattening bamboo culms and gluing them in stacks to form a laminated composite. The aiming of this research is to examine a new low-technology approach for the fabrication of LBL in an effort to assess the feasibility of using this approach to produce an LBL product that is suitable for use in structural applications.
Mechanical properties of bamboo based laminates need to be investigated thoroughly so that the full potential of bamboo as a functionally graded composite could be utilized. This publication reports the mechanical properties evaluation of 5-layered bamboo epoxy laminates [ 21 ]. Therefore, the purpose of the present research was to manufacture five types of laminated bamboo flooring LBF made from moso bamboo P.
Medium Density Fiberboard MDF is a dry-formed panel product of lignocellulosic fiber mixture of certain synthetic resin such as urea formaldehyde resin UF , phenol formaldehyde resin PF or isocyanate binder [ 23 ]. MDF was used commercially in with the advancement of technologies and materials at that time. However, MDF belongs to the type of wood that is not durable and do not require a very high resistance such as tables, rack, storage and others.
In a certain period of time, the MDF can change shape, especially when exposed to water and the weight is too heavy. In order to find alternative of woods due to the arising illegal logging, renewable sources; bamboo fibres is used to produce agro-based MDF. Since bamboo itself has species, hence each bamboo fibres used in manufacturing MDF is expected not the same.
Until now, researchers still in the middle of trying new species of bamboo for examples bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens [ 24 - 25 ] and Dendrocalamus asper [ 26 ] in producing MDF. Extensive and ongoing research of MDF exhibited with the manufacturing overlaid bamboo fibres board panels using stylus method [ 27 ].
This research quantifies the surface roughness of the panel to have better overlaying of the substrate [ 28 ] was aiming to evaluate the influence of fibre morphology, slenderness ratios and fibres mixing combinations on the mechanical and physical properties of agro-based MDF using bamboo and bagasse fibres, as shown in Figure 4. It was observed that bamboo fibres had better mechanical performances and were more slender fibres in comparison with bagasse fibres.
It appears that manufacturing MDF from bamboo which is non-wood species would provide profitable and marketable panel products in Thailand. Therefore, such panels are not only environmentally friendly but also alternative ways convert under-utilized species into substrate panel products for furniture manufacture.
The incorporation of several different types of fibres into a single matrix has led to the development of hybrid biocomposites. Recently, bamboo fibres was also gaining attention to be hybridized with more corrosion-resistant synthetic fibres glass, carbon or aramid fibres in order to tailor the composites properties according to the desired structure under consideration.
Since synthetic fibres degrade at a much slower rate or does not degrade at all, inclusion with natural fibres may lead to green environmental balances with improvement in performances.
Hybrid bamboo-glass fibres composites exhibit enhancement in terms of stiffness, strength and moisture resistance properties. Meanwhile, durability of bamboo-glass fibres composites under environmental aging was improved compared to pure composites [ 29 - 30 ].
Capability of bamboo to produce seven types of shapes encompasses silver, stripes, laths, veneer, particles, strands until bamboo fibres gives a huge impact in creating valuable hybrid biocomposites based on bamboo itself for various applications. In India, continuous ongoing research generates new hybrid bamboo mat veneer composites BMVC made from bamboo mats in combination with wood veneer [ 31 ].
In BMVC, wood veneer was placed in between bamboo mat. Results revealed presence of woven bamboo mats, BMVC has different mechanical properties along and across the length of the board thereby the properties are comparable to the plywood structure. Instead of bamboo mat, hybridization of bamboo curtain and bamboo mat with wood veneer was limited panels made in China for mainly used in rail coaches.
Bamboo mat were also further utilized and commercialized by incorporate with bamboo particleboard for other applications, as can be seen in Figure 5. Besides, new hybrid biocomposites product mades from bamboo strips and wood veneer bonded with PF resin were also developed. A symmetrical structure with flat and smooth surface results from the combination between bamboo strips, bamboo particle and wood veneer plays important role as new material used for concrete formwork and side board of trucks.
On the other hand, hybridization between bamboo and other natural fibres were also become a new approach in bamboo development progress.
For example, as shown in Figure 6 , bamboo rod was stack together with OPF fibres, coconut veneer and bamboo stripe as shown in Figure 7 , respectively in order to produce high performances composites and gives variety in design and applications as well. The most common reinforcement of bamboo fibres used today is thermoplastic polypropylene matrices [ 30 ]. Apart from various types of bamboo form, bamboo strips have higher cohesive strength than extacted bamboo fibres.
For this reason, bamboo strips was reinforced with non-woven polypropylene aiming to produce ultra-light weight unconsolidated composites [ 32 ]. Non-woven web allow us to reinforced materials in their native form [ 6 - 8 ] and utilize the unique properties of the reinforcing materials. It was found, bamboo strips-polypropylene BS-PP composites has better properties including high flexural, high acoustical properties and good sound dampening that makes them suitable and ideal raw material to replace fibres glass currently used for automotive headliner substrates.
Several components can be manufactured using biocomposites such as door insert, trunk liners, pillar trims, parcel shelves and load floors for automotive and field roofing, walling and profiling for building, as can be seen in Figure 8.
Some research articles studied the effect of bamboo charcoal addition in the polyolefin thermoplastic polymer [ 33 ]. Bamboo charcoal has innumerable pores in its structure making it an excellent medium for preventing static electricity buildup and absorbing volatile chemicals. Taking into consideration these two advantages, bamboo charcoal was chosen as promising material to enhance the water absorption and electrical conductivity of the polyolefin.
In another interesting study, bamboo fibres were undergoing autohydrolysis processing as method for obtaining soluble hemicelluloses-derived products reinforced with polylactic acid PLA. This composite was made with spent autohydrolysis solids presented a markedly reduced water uptake.
SEM of reinforced samples showed a satisfactory compatibility between phases, confirming the potential of composites made up of PLA and bamboo fibres as an environmental friendly alternative to conventional petrochemical thermoplastics.
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Until now, the few existing systematic texts on construction materials have primarily been directed at building engineers. An overview for architects, which also considers the importance of construction materials in the sensory perception of architecture—including tactile qualities, smell, color, and surface structure—has not been available. With the publication of the Construction Materials Manual, all that has changed. As a basic work aimed equally at the questions and perspectives of architects and building engineers, it will bring together all of the above-mentioned viewpoints.
Cork is a strategic material used in multiple applications and its use has accompanied mankind since the days of Ancient Egypt. The cork oak forests are extremely well adapted to the semi-arid regions of southern Europe and northern Africa western Mediterranean. These forests help to prevent the advance of desertification, improve water penetration into the soil and hydrological regulation, promote soil conservation, and being the perfect habitat for many animal and vegetables species. Consequently, these forests promote biodiversity Pereira, ; Gil, , Save the cork forests, increasing the area and the quantity and quality of cork produced and develop new products with high added value are essential actions.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Different Types of Wall Partitions used in Home Designing
He holds the Counsellor title of the Portuguese Engineers Association. Science I. Citations prediction for the year around 5. Member of the editorial board of 9 international journals, 4 referenced on the Web of Science and three referenced on Scopus. Emirates, Poland and also the EU Commission. Invited reviewer for international journals for which he reviewed so far almost papers. Said Jalali is former Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Minho, and is an acknowledged expert on building materials. Aleksandra Fucic has 30 years of experience working on the biomonitoring of populations exposed to radiation or chemical agents with a special interest in achieving a healthy living environment and investigation of health risks related to new construction materials. Access Online via Elsevier Empik.
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Fiberglass refers to a group of products made from individual glass fibers combined into a variety of forms. Glass fibers can be divided into two major groups according to their geometry: continuous fibers used in yarns and textiles, and the discontinuous short fibers used as batts, blankets, or boards for insulation and filtration. Fiberglass can be formed into yarn much like wool or cotton, and woven into fabric which is sometimes used for draperies. Fiberglass textiles are commonly used as a reinforcement material for molded and laminated plastics. Fiberglass wool, a thick, fluffy material made from discontinuous fibers, is used for thermal insulation and sound absorption. It is commonly found in ship and submarine bulkheads and hulls; automobile engine compartments and body panel liners; in furnaces and air conditioning units; acoustical wall and ceiling panels; and architectural partitions. Fiberglass can be tailored for specific applications such as Type E electrical , used as electrical insulation tape, textiles and reinforcement; Type C chemical , which has superior acid resistance, and Type T, for thermal insulation. Though commercial use of glass fiber is relatively recent, artisans created glass strands for decorating goblets and vases during the Renaissance. A French physicist, Rene-Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur, produced textiles decorated with fine glass strands in , and British inventors duplicated the feat in
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay , rocks, sand , and wood , even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacturing of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry , insulation , plumbing , and roofing work. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes. In history there are trends in building materials from being natural to becoming more man-made and composite ; biodegradable to imperishable; indigenous local to being transported globally; repairable to disposable; chosen for increased levels of fire-safety, and improved seismic resistance.. These trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological, energy, and social costs of building materials.
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Bamboo Based Biocomposites Material, Design and Applications
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