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STATE FORESTS IN OVER A CENTURYVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: From Factory to Forest
For the purposes of the present chapter, forestry is understood to embrace all the fieldwork required to establish, regenerate, manage and protect forests and to harvest their products. The last step in the production chain covered by this chapter is the transport of raw forest products.
Further processing, such as into sawnwood, furniture or paper is dealt with in the Lumber, Woodworking and Pulp and paper industries chapters in this Encyclopaedia. The forests may be natural, human-made or tree plantations. Forest products considered in this chapter are both wood and other products, but emphasis is on the former, because of its relevance for safety and health.
The utilization and management of forests are as old as the human being. Initially forests were almost exclusively used for subsistence: food, fuelwood and building materials. The pressure on forests was aggravated by early industrialization. The combined effect of conversion and over-utilization was a sharp reduction in forest area in Europe, the Middle East, India, China and later in parts of North America.
Presently, forests cover about one-quarter of the land surface of the earth. The deforestation process has come to a halt in industrialized countries, and forest areas are actually increasing in these countries, albeit slowly.
In most tropical and subtropical countries, however, forests are shrinking at a rate of 15 to 20 million hectares ha , or 0. Asia has the lowest forest cover in terms of percentage of land area under forest and hectares per capita.
Forest resources vary significantly in different parts of the world. These differences have a direct impact on the working environment, on the technology used in forestry operations and on the level of risk associated with them. Boreal forests in northern parts of Europe, Russia and Canada are mostly made up of conifers and have a relatively small number of trees per hectare.
Most of these forests are natural. Moreover, the individual trees are small in size. Because of the long winters, trees grow slowly and wood increment ranges from less than 0. The temperate forests of southern Canada, the United States, Central Europe, southern Russia, China and Japan are made up of a wide range of coniferous and broad-leaved tree species. Tree densities are high and individual trees can be very large, with diameters of more than 1 m and tree height of more than 50 m.
Forests may be natural or human-made i. Standing volumes per hectare and increment are high. Tropical and subtropical forests are mostly broad-leaved.
Tree sizes and standing volumes vary greatly, but tropical timber harvested for industrial purposes is typically in the form of large trees with big crowns. Average dimensions of harvested trees are highest in the tropics, with logs of more than 2 m 3 being the rule.
Standing trees with crowns routinely weigh more than 20 tonnes before felling and debranching. Dense undergrowth and tree climbers make work even more cumbersome and dangerous. An increasingly important type of forest in terms of wood production and employment is tree plantations. Tropical plantations are thought to cover about 35 million hectares, with about 2 million hectares added per year FAO They usually consist of only one very fast growing species.
Various pines Pinus spp. Plantations are managed intensively and in short rotations from 6 to 30 years , while most temperate forests take 80, sometimes up to years, to mature. Trees are fairly uniform, and small to medium in size, with approximately 0. There is typically little undergrowth. Prompted by wood scarcity and natural disasters like landslides, floods and avalanches, more and more forests have come under some form of management over the last years.
Wood utilization levels in most industrialized countries are below the growth rates. This is not true for many tropical countries.
Globally, wood is by far the most important forest product. World roundwood production is approaching 3. Wood production grew by 1. There is, however, a major difference in the nature of the wood products harvested in industrialized and in developing countries.
This is why the list of the ten biggest producers of industrial roundwood in figure Non-wood forest products are still very significant for subsistence in many countries. They account for only 1. Forestry alone accounted for 0. The share of forestry production in GDP tends to be much higher in developing countries, with an average of 2.
In a number of countries forestry is far more important than the averages suggest. In several industrialized and developing countries, forest products are a significant export. While they cannot be readily expressed in monetary terms, the value of non-commercial goods and benefits generated by forests may well exceed their commercial output. According to estimates, some to million people live in or depend on forests for their livelihood.
Forests are also home to three-quarters of all species of living beings. They are a significant sink of carbon dioxide and serve to stabilize climates and water regimes. They reduce erosion, landslides and avalanches, and produce clean drinking water. They are also fundamental for recreation and tourism. Figures on wage employment in forestry are difficult to obtain and can be unreliable even for industrialized countries. The reasons are the high share of the self-employed and farmers, who do not get recorded in many cases, and the seasonality of many forestry jobs.
Statistics in most developing countries simply absorb forestry into the much larger agricultural sector, with no separate figures available. The biggest problem, however, is the fact that most forestry work is not wage employment, but subsistence. The main item here is the production of fuelwood, particularly in developing countries. Bearing these limitations in mind, figure World wage employment in forestry is in the order of 2.
This is a fraction of the downstream employment: wood industries and pulp and paper have at least 12 million employees in the formal sector. Total forestry employment can thus be estimated at some 16 million person years.
In most industrialized countries the size of the forestry workforce has been shrinking. This is a result of a shift from seasonal to full-time, professional forest workers, compounded by rapid mechanization, particularly of wood harvesting. Figure These differences are to some extent due to natural conditions, silvicultural systems and statistical error.
Even allowing for these, significant gaps persist. The transformation in the workforce is likely to continue: mechanization is spreading to more countries, and new forms of work organization, namely team work concepts, are boosting productivity, while harvesting levels remain by and large constant. It should be noted that in many countries seasonal and part-time work in forestry are unrecorded, but remain very common among farmers and small woodland owners. In a number of developing countries the industrial forestry workforce is likely to grow as a result of more intensive forest management and tree plantations.
Subsistence employment, on the other hand, is likely to decline gradually, as fuelwood is slowly replaced by other forms of energy. Characteristics of the Workforce Industrial forestry work has largely remained a male domain. There are, however, jobs that tend to be predominantly carried out by women, such as planting or tending of young stands and raising seedlings in tree nurseries. In subsistence employment women are a majority in many developing countries, because they are usually responsible for fuelwood gathering.
The largest share of all industrial and subsistence forestry work is related to the harvesting of wood products. The ratio is smaller in most industrialized countries. Broadly, there are two groups of forestry jobs: those related to silviculture and those related to harvesting.
Typical occupations in silviculture include tree planting, fertilization, weed and pest control, and pruning. Tree planting is very seasonal, and in some countries involves a separate group of workers exclusively dedicated to this activity. In harvesting, the most common occupations are chain-saw operation, in tropical forests often with an assistant; choker setters who attach cables to tractors or skylines pulling logs to roadside; helpers who measure, move, load or debranch logs; and machine operators for tractors, loaders, cable cranes, harvesters and logging trucks.
There are major differences between segments of the forestry workforce with respect to the form of employment, which have a direct bearing on their exposure to safety and health hazards.
The share of forest workers directly employed by the forest owner or industry has been declining even in those countries where it used to be the rule. More and more work is done through contractors i. The contractors may be owner-operators i. Both the contractors and their employees often have very unstable employment. Under pressure to cut costs in a very competitive market, contractors sometimes resort to illegal practices such as moonlighting and hiring undeclared immigrants.
While the move to contracting has in many cases helped to cut costs, to advance mechanization and specialization as well as to adjust the workforce to changing demands, some traditional ailments of the profession have been aggravated through the increased reliance on contract labour.
These include accident rates and health complaints, both of which tend to be more frequent among contract labour. Contract labour has also contributed to further increasing the high rate of turnover in the forestry workforce. This aggravates the skill problem already looming large among much of the forestry workforce. Most skill acquisition is still by experience, usually meaning trial and error.
The dominant wage system in forestry by far continues to be piece-rates i. Piece-rates tend to lead to a rapid pace of work and are widely believed to increase the number of accidents. There is, however, no scientific evidence to back this contention. One undisputed side effect is that earnings fall once workers have reached a certain age because their physical abilities decline. In countries where mechanization plays a major role, time-based wages have been on the increase, because the work rhythm is largely determined by the machine.
Various bonus wage systems are also in use.
Technology has been a key to better care for the forest environment, as well as improved safety, productivity, growth, and fiber utilization. Improved technology in Oregon forest operations yields:. Recent innovations in logging methods combine with forest science to improve techniques for forest operations, including: low-impact harvesting, reducing fire risk, keeping forests looking healthy, well-designed road access, protecting streams, and enhancing wildlife habitat. The latest technology makes sustainable forestry and ecosystem management possible during harvesting, roading, transportation, and the full life-cycle of a forest. The sophisticated machinery in the forest today has surprising capabilities. Modern logging equipment can now process an entire tree into log lengths in one motion, thereby saving time, improving safety, and reducing impacts on the environment.
Welcome to Komatsu Forest
An award-winning forester is set on growing the industry in his small town of Stutterheim in the Eastern Cape. The Agroforestry Research Trust is a non-profit making charity, registered in England, which researches and educates about agroforestry and into all aspects of plant cropping and uses, with a focus on tree, shrub and perennial crops. We are the superior supplier of bucket trucks, forestry trucks, digger derricks, and more. Business Service. The skidder can also be used for pulling tree stumps, pushing over small trees, and preliminary grading of a logging path known as a "skid road".
Bracke Forest company
Take production planning to a whole new level. Big advantages. Even in the smallest details. The new Komatsu XC is a new and eagerly awaited harvester for thinning in hilly terrain and on soft ground. The eight wheels, combined with the well-proven Komatsu concept, ensure a machine with fantastic stability, excellent manoeuvrability and low ground pressure - which in turn means less ground damage. The Collection consists of work wear, casual wear, kids assortment and accessories.
United States. Agricultural Research Policy Advisory Committee. Research Classification Subcommittee. Appraisal of Soil Resources. Soil Plant Water Nutrient Relationships. Production of Field Crops with Improved Acceptability. Field Crops. Production of Animal Products with Improved Acceptability.
Welcome to Forest Machine and Manufacturing!
Material Processing. Tigercat specializes in the design and manufacture of tree harvesting systems and specialized machines for severe duty off road applications. Tigercat forestry systems deliver processed wood to roadside at the lowest cost per tonne.
The global market is estimated to grow, with an increasing focus on forest management activities. Furthermore, with the increasing emphasis of forest management, various goals have been taken into consideration by the forestry industry in order to enhance the quality and quantity of the yield. This, in turn, will skyrocket the demand for forestry equipment. Additionally, the increase in the investments across the forestry industry is supplementing the overall growth of the global forestry equipment market. However, the foresters and forest owners are looking after enhancing the silviculture, which allows them to inculcate forest management plans for the long-term economic, social, and environmental needs of the end-users. Furthermore, with the growth in the production of industrial roundwood, there will be a significant demand for the forestry equipment during the forecast period, which will bode well with the global forestry equipment market. The felling forestry equipment is anticipated to have the highest market share in due to the growing demand of harvesters, feller bunchers etc. On-site processing equipment in the global forestry equipment market is estimated to grow significantly during the forecast period mainly due to the increasing production of wood pellets as a power plant feedstock. Get comprehensive study about this report by, request a free sample copy.
Welcome to BCC Plant the Planet
It covers timber harvesting, forwarding and haulage to sawmills and pulp mills. We cover sawmill activities from timber handling in woodyards and at the mill through to the cutting technology and the logistics involved in carrying them to the customer for downstream processing. In addition, IFI covers biomass collection and processing. IFI fills a void within forest related industries that suppliers in timber harvesting, sawmill operations and biomass management have believed to exist for many years. Chris Cann Editor. The new John Deere ML can be factory configured for shovel-logging and directional-felling applications, making it easy to harvest logs in areas once thought impassable.
Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since Digital technology is revolutionizing industries around the globe, from manufacturing to healthcare. Even agriculture is undergoing enormous change due to technologies like variable-rate fertilization and automated harvesting. Forestry, on the other hand, has lagged behind most other industries in the adoption of digital technology.
Precision forestry: A revolution in the woods
Bracke Forest is a world leader in forest regeneration. Bracke Forest has been manufacturing forestry equipment and machines since We design our machines to ensure that conservation of soil and of the environment is taken into consideration to the greatest possible extent, without lowering the standards for technically and economically efficient forestry. We develop and manufacture scarifiers, planting machines, heads for silviculture and biomass, felling heads, and equipment for mechanised seeding.
Bracke Forest has been manufacturing forestry equipment and machines since We design our machines to ensure that conservation of soil and of the environment is taken into consideration to the greatest possible extent, without lowering the standards for technically and economically efficient forestry.
Similar technological improvements, specifically within forest seed centers and nurseries, allow for the successful and cost efficient growing of seedlings and cuttings for the forest. At Bcc Plant the Planet we understand the specific needs of our customers and in order to serve these needs we have developed a very flexible line of equipment that can be adjusted to perform in the best possible way in the most different conditions. We have complete concepts for different climate conditions and species.
A harvester is a self-propelled machine with a cutting head attachment that is capable of felling and processing stems. Harvesters may be wheeled or tracked machines with a processing head attachment. The processing head is capable of felling, delimbing, and bucking a tree to desired lengths.