With our suppliers, partners and customers. Compliance with social-labor and environmental regulations. Arifil is a textile company dedicated to the manufacture of high quality yarns with Open-End spinning technology. We are specialized in the manufacture of coloured yarns, from a wide variety of natural, artificial and synthetic fibers. Arifil is a modern company with extensive experience in the textile sector.
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HIGH QUALITY COLOURED YARNSVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Fibre to Fabric -Class 6
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats , qiviut from muskoxen , from hide and fur clothing from bison , angora from rabbits , and other types of wool from camelids ;  additionally, the Highland and the Mangalica breeds of cattle and swine , respectively, possess woolly coats.
Wool consists of protein together with a small percentage of lipids. In this regard it is chemically quite distinct from the more dominant textile, cotton , which is mainly cellulose.
Wool is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin. These follicles are located in the upper layer of the skin called the epidermis and push down into the second skin layer called the dermis as the wool fibers grow. Follicles can be classed as either primary or secondary follicles. Primary follicles produce three types of fiber: kemp , medullated fibers, and true wool fibers.
Secondary follicles only produce true wool fibers. Medullated fibers share nearly identical characteristics to hair and are long but lack crimp and elasticity. Kemp fibers are very coarse and shed out. Wool's scaling and crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, so they stay together. Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have greater bulk than other textiles, and they hold air, which causes the fabric to retain heat. Wool has a high specific thermal resistance , so it impedes heat transfer in general.
This effect has benefited desert peoples, as Bedouins and Tuaregs use wool clothes for insulation. Felting of wool occurs upon hammering or other mechanical agitation as the microscopic barbs on the surface of wool fibers hook together. The amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers. A fine wool like Merino may have up to crimps per inch, while coarser wool like karakul may have as few as one or two.
In contrast, hair has little if any scale and no crimp, and little ability to bind into yarn. On sheep, the hair part of the fleece is called kemp. The relative amounts of kemp to wool vary from breed to breed and make some fleeces more desirable for spinning , felting , or carding into batts for quilts or other insulating products, including the famous tweed cloth of Scotland.
Wool fibers readily absorb moisture , but are not hollow. Wool can absorb almost one-third of its own weight in water. It is generally a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors, such as black, brown, silver, and random mixes. Wool ignites at a higher temperature than cotton and some synthetic fibers. It has a lower rate of flame spread , a lower rate of heat release, a lower heat of combustion, and does not melt or drip;  it forms a char that is insulating and self-extinguishing, and it contributes less to toxic gases and smoke than other flooring products when used in carpets.
Wool is usually specified for garments for firefighters, soldiers, and others in occupations where they are exposed to the likelihood of fire. Wool causes an allergic reaction in some people.
Sheep shearing is the process by which the woolen fleece of a sheep is cut off. After shearing, the wool is separated into four main categories: fleece which makes up the vast bulk , broken, bellies, and locks. The quality of fleeces is determined by a technique known as wool classing , whereby a qualified person, called a wool classer, groups wools of similar grading together to maximize the return for the farmer or sheep owner.
In Australia before being auctioned, all Merino fleece wool is objectively measured for micron , yield including the amount of vegetable matter , staple length, staple strength, and sometimes color and comfort factor.
Wool straight off a sheep, known as "greasy wool"  or "wool in the grease", contains a high level of valuable lanolin , as well as the sheep's dead skin and sweat residue, and generally also contains pesticides and vegetable matter from the animal's environment. Before the wool can be used for commercial purposes, it must be scoured, a process of cleaning the greasy wool.
Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm water or as complicated as an industrial process using detergent and alkali in specialized equipment. In commercial wool, vegetable matter is often removed by chemical carbonization. This semigrease wool can be worked into yarn and knitted into particularly water-resistant mittens or sweaters , such as those of the Aran Island fishermen.
Lanolin removed from wool is widely used in cosmetic products, such as hand creams. Raw wool has many impurities; vegetable matter, sand, dirt and yolk which is a mixture of suint sweat , grease, urine stains and dung locks. The sheep's body yields many types of wool with differing strengths, thicknesses, length of staple and impurities.
The raw wool greasy is processed into 'top'. The quality of wool is determined by its fiber diameter, crimp , yield, color, and staple strength. Fiber diameter is the single most important wool characteristic determining quality and price.
Wool taken from sheep produced for meat is typically more coarse, and has fibers 1. Damage or breaks in the wool can occur if the sheep is stressed while it is growing its fleece, resulting in a thin spot where the fleece is likely to break. Wool is also separated into grades based on the measurement of the wool's diameter in microns and also its style.
These grades may vary depending on the breed or purpose of the wool. For example:. Any wool finer than 25 microns can be used for garments, while coarser grades are used for outerwear or rugs. The finer the wool, the softer it is, while coarser grades are more durable and less prone to pilling. This style represents the top level of fineness, character, color, and style as determined on the basis of a series of parameters in accordance with the original dictates of British wool as applied by the Australian Wool Exchange AWEX Council.
Only a few dozen of the millions of bales auctioned every year can be classified and marked 1PP. There are two categories of recycled wool also called reclaimed or shoddy wool.
Wild sheep were more hairy than woolly. The oldest known European wool textile , ca. In Roman times, wool, linen , and leather clothed the European population; cotton from India was a curiosity of which only naturalists had heard, and silks , imported along the Silk Road from China , were extravagant luxury goods.
Pliny the Elder records in his Natural History that the reputation for producing the finest wool was enjoyed by Tarentum , where selective breeding had produced sheep with superior fleeces, but which required special care. In medieval times, as trade connections expanded, the Champagne fairs revolved around the production of wool cloth in small centers such as Provins.
The network developed by the annual fairs meant the woolens of Provins might find their way to Naples , Sicily , Cyprus , Majorca , Spain , and even Constantinople.
By the end of the 14th century, Italy predominated, though Italian production turned to silk in the 16th century. The importance of wool to the English economy can be seen in the fact that since the 14th century, the presiding officer of the House of Lords has sat on the " Woolsack ", a chair stuffed with wool.
Economies of scale were instituted in the Cistercian houses, which had accumulated great tracts of land during the 12th and early 13th centuries, when land prices were low and labor still scarce. Raw wool was baled and shipped from North Sea ports to the textile cities of Flanders , notably Ypres and Ghent , where it was dyed and worked up as cloth. The English textile trade grew during the 15th century, to the point where export of wool was discouraged. Over the centuries, various British laws controlled the wool trade or required the use of wool even in burials.
The smuggling of wool out of the country, known as owling , was at one time punishable by the cutting off of a hand. After the Restoration , fine English woolens began to compete with silks in the international market, partly aided by the Navigation Acts ; in , the English crown forbade its American colonies to trade wool with anyone but England herself.
A great deal of the value of woolen textiles was in the dyeing and finishing of the woven product. In each of the centers of the textile trade, the manufacturing process came to be subdivided into a collection of trades, overseen by an entrepreneur in a system called by the English the "putting-out" system, or "cottage industry", and the Verlagssystem by the Germans.
In this system of producing wool cloth, once perpetuated in the production of Harris tweeds , the entrepreneur provides the raw materials and an advance, the remainder being paid upon delivery of the product.
Written contracts bound the artisans to specified terms. Fernand Braudel traces the appearance of the system in the 13th-century economic boom, quoting a document of Before the flowering of the Renaissance , the Medici and other great banking houses of Florence had built their wealth and banking system on their textile industry based on wool, overseen by the Arte della Lana , the wool guild: wool textile interests guided Florentine policies.
Francesco Datini , the "merchant of Prato", established in an Arte della Lana for that small Tuscan city. The sheepwalks of Castile shaped the landscape and the fortunes of the meseta that lies in the heart of the Iberian peninsula; in the 16th century, a unified Spain allowed export of Merino lambs only with royal permission. The German wool market — based on sheep of Spanish origin — did not overtake British wool until comparatively late.
The Industrial Revolution introduced mass production technology into wool and wool cloth manufacturing. Australia's colonial economy was based on sheep raising, and the Australian wool trade eventually overtook that of the Germans by , furnishing wool for Bradford , which developed as the heart of industrialized woolens production. Due to decreasing demand with increased use of synthetic fibers, wool production is much less than what it was in the past.
The result has been sharply reduced production and movement of resources into production of other commodities, in the case of sheep growers, to production of meat. Superwash wool or washable wool technology first appeared in the early s to produce wool that has been specially treated so it is machine washable and may be tumble-dried.
This wool is produced using an acid bath that removes the "scales" from the fiber, or by coating the fiber with a polymer that prevents the scales from attaching to each other and causing shrinkage. This process results in a fiber that holds longevity and durability over synthetic materials, while retaining its shape.
In December , a bale of the then world's finest wool, averaging This fleece wool tested with an average yield of This bale was produced by the Hillcreston Pinehill Partnership and measured In , a new wool suit was developed and sold in Japan that can be washed in the shower, and which dries off ready to wear within hours with no ironing required. The suit was developed using Australian Merino wool, and it enables woven products made from wool, such as suits, trousers, and skirts, to be cleaned using a domestic shower at home.
In December , the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed to be the International Year of Natural Fibres , so as to raise the profile of wool and other natural fibers.
Breeds such as Lincoln , Romney , Drysdale , and Elliotdale produce coarser fibers, and wool from these sheep is usually used for making carpets. Also, a thriving home-flock contingent of small-scale farmers raise small hobby flocks of specialty sheep for the hand-spinning market.
These small-scale farmers offer a wide selection of fleece. Organic wool is becoming more and more popular.
This wool is very limited in supply and much of it comes from New Zealand and Australia. Wool is environmentally preferable as compared to petroleum-based nylon or polypropylene as a material for carpets , as well, in particular when combined with a natural binding and the use of formaldehyde -free glues. Animal rights groups have noted issues with the production of wool, such as mulesing.
About 80 brokers and agents work throughout Australia. This option gives wool growers benefit from reduced transport, warehousing, and selling costs. This method is preferred for small lots or mixed butts to make savings on reclassing and testing. This method works well for tested lots, as buyers use these results to make a purchase.
Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres , suitable for use in the production of textiles , sewing , crocheting , knitting , weaving , embroidery , or ropemaking. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Yarn can be made from a number of natural or synthetic fibers. Many types of yarn are made differently though. There are two main types of yarn: spun and filament. The most common plant fiber is cotton , which is typically  spun into fine yarn for mechanical weaving or knitting into cloth.
Types of yarn
Since their development in the early s, Saffil Fibers have been used successfully to solve problems in demanding high-temperature insulation and many other specialty applications. Saffil Fibers are produced by a unique solution extrusion process which ensures the highest levels of chemical purity and lowest possible levels of shot content non-fibrous particles. The unique method of manufacture allows the fiber diameter to be strictly controlled with a median of approximately 3 microns with very low levels of fiber less than 1 micron in diameter. Safety Data Sheets. Location: France. Typical applications: Saffil Fibers are used to increase the maximum use temperature in module, board, vacuum formed shape and paper manufacture.
Acrylic and Modacrylic Fibers
Account Options Sign in. United States Census of Manufactures, : Industry statistics. Selected pages Page C Page C Title Page.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: The Fiber Side of Textile Recycling
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats , qiviut from muskoxen , from hide and fur clothing from bison , angora from rabbits , and other types of wool from camelids ;  additionally, the Highland and the Mangalica breeds of cattle and swine , respectively, possess woolly coats. Wool consists of protein together with a small percentage of lipids. In this regard it is chemically quite distinct from the more dominant textile, cotton , which is mainly cellulose. Wool is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin. These follicles are located in the upper layer of the skin called the epidermis and push down into the second skin layer called the dermis as the wool fibers grow. Follicles can be classed as either primary or secondary follicles. Primary follicles produce three types of fiber: kemp , medullated fibers, and true wool fibers.
Yarns can be described as single, or one-ply; ply, plied, or folded; or as cord, including cable and hawser types. Single , or one-ply, yarns are single strands composed of fibres held together by at least a small amount of twist; or of filaments grouped together either with or without twist; or of narrow strips of material; or of single man-made filaments extruded in sufficient thickness for use alone as yarn monofilaments. Single yarns of the spun type, composed of many short fibres, require twist to hold them together and may be made with either S-twist or Z-twist. Single yarns are used to make the greatest variety of fabrics. Ply, plied, or folded, yarns are composed of two or more single yarns twisted together. Two-ply yarn, for example, is composed of two single strands; three-ply yarn is composed of three single strands. In making ply yarns from spun strands, the individual strands are usually each twisted in one direction and are then combined and twisted in the opposite direction. When both the single strands and the final ply yarns are twisted in the same direction, the fibre is firmer, producing harder texture and reducing flexibility.
Yarn consists of several strands of material twisted together. Each strand is, in turn, made of fibers, all shorter than the piece of yarn that they form. These short fibers are spun into longer filaments to make the yarn. Long continuous strands may only require additional twisting to make them into yarns. Sometimes they are put through an additional process called texturing.
We have been manufacturing fibers from the renewable raw material wood for about 80 years. We have also secured a leadership position in the 21st century thanks to a passion for our products and technological know-how. We have adapted it to the ecological demands of the 21st century by achieving high recovery rates for chemicals. On the other hand, we implement the most advanced closed-loop lyocell production process. The pulp has to be converted and matured, then further complicated chemical processing steps follow.
Consumption is measured by the amount of raw cotton fibre purchased and used to manufacture textile materials. Worldwide cotton production is annually about 80 to 90 million bales The rest is produced by about 75 other countries. Raw cotton is exported from about 57 countries and cotton textiles from about 65 countries.
ASTM's textile standards provide the specifications and test methods for the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of textiles, fabrics, and cloths, as well as the natural and artificial fibers that constitute them. The textiles covered by these standards are commonly formed by weaving, knitting, or spinning together fibers such as glass fiber strands, wool and other animal fibers, cotton and other plant-derived fibers, yarn, sewing threads, and mohair, to name a few. These textile standards help fabric and cloth designers and manufacturers in testing textiles to ensure acceptable characteristics towards proper end-use. Additive Manufacturing Standards.
We can always guarantee the ecological sustainability of our garments, because we have developed our own global textile and manufacturing supply chain. By monitoring our source materials and the recycling process in detail, we can ensure that the quality of our products meets the standards of our clients and their customers. With the help of the best experts and suppliers in the industry, we have reached a level of textile quality that is the same, and in many cases better, than that of traditional fabrics.
Account Options Sign in. Eighty-fifth Congress, First Session, on H. United States. Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.