The conservation and restoration of textiles refers to the processes by which textiles are cared for and maintained to be preserved from future damage. The field falls under the category of art conservation as well as library preservation , depending on the type of collection. Many of these artifacts require specialized care, often by a professional conservator. The goal of this article is to provide a general overview of the textile preservation process, and to serve as a jumping-off point for further research into more specialized care. Always contact a professional conservator if you are unsure of how to proceed in the preservation process. The needs of each of these locations will vary.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
FABRIC CAREVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: What are you thinking for sewing with Raw Silk Fabrics? #Customize #Fabrics
The conservation and restoration of textiles refers to the processes by which textiles are cared for and maintained to be preserved from future damage. The field falls under the category of art conservation as well as library preservation , depending on the type of collection.
Many of these artifacts require specialized care, often by a professional conservator. The goal of this article is to provide a general overview of the textile preservation process, and to serve as a jumping-off point for further research into more specialized care. Always contact a professional conservator if you are unsure of how to proceed in the preservation process. The needs of each of these locations will vary.
A private collection, for instance, is less likely to have as high a traffic flow as a museum, and may thus be able to take preservation steps that a working museum cannot such as keeping lights to a minimum for longer periods of time. The different venues may also have different problems that arise, such as the fact that many historic homes do not have climate control, and rely strongly on natural light to display their furnishings, both of which may contribute to textile decay.
The chief cause for decay in textiles is almost always the environment in which they are stored. Additionally, pests, chemicals, and pollutants may also cause damage to an antique fabric. Airborne chemicals, such as smog or cigarette smoke are also harmful to the textiles, and should be avoided if at all possible: high-efficiency air filters should be installed throughout the building to reduce the presence of airborne chemicals that may stain, discolor, or weaken fabrics.
Light can have a variety of effects on textiles over time. In some cases, it may contribute to fading or discoloration, but of more concern is the damage which the fibers may suffer under prolonged exposure to non-visible light, such as ultraviolet and infrared lighting. Ideally, textiles should be stored or displayed in as little light as possible, and preferably in total darkness.
Natural light is the most common source of ultraviolet light, and as such, care should be taken to avoid exposure to direct sunlight at all costs, and indirect sunlight whenever possible. This may mean storing or displaying textiles in an area without windows, or with blackout curtains, which can be pulled whenever the room is not in use.
If a room relies on natural light, UV screens or coatings can be applied to the windows to block harmful rays while still allowing light to pass through. These filters should be checked periodically, however, as they have a limited lifespan and may need to be replaced every few years. Fluorescent and halogen-produced light can also produce large amounts of UV radiation, though filters which fit over the bulbs are available to limit the damaging light.
One advantage of fluorescent lights is that they produce little heat , which may also be harmful to textiles. Incandescent lights produce a large amount of heat in addition to large quantities of infrared radiation, which is likewise damaging to the fibers in antique textiles.
If incandescent lights must be used, they should be placed far enough away from display cases that their heat does not affect the contents. In the case of particularly delicate textiles, display organizers might consider motion-activated or timed lighting, or lighting controlled though a visitor-activated switch, which would allow the textiles to remain in darkness when they are not under view.
However, excessive dryness may also cause damage, especially to elastic fibers, such as wool , which rely on some amount of moisture to maintain their flexibility Putnam and Finch. Additionally, temperature and humidity should be kept as constant as possible; changes in either of these may cause the textile fibers to expand and contract, which, over time, can also cause damage and deterioration to the textile.
For this reason, both storage and display areas should be fitted with monitoring equipment to gauge the temperature and humidity of rooms, display cases, enclosed storage facilities, and work areas.
Ideally, temperature should be kept around 70 degrees Fahrenheit ,  though some slight fluctuation in either direction is permissible, as long as it occurs gradually. In enclosed display or storage cases, humidity can be somewhat maintained through the use of silica gel crystals.
These crystals should not be placed in contact with the textiles, but may be placed in breathable muslin bags and hung inside the case to maintain a constant humidity;  they should be monitored periodically, however, to be sure that they are working. In areas where climate control is unavailable such as in historic buildings , the conservator can still moderate the temperature and relative humidity through use of fans, humidifiers and dehumidifiers , and portable heating or cooling units.
In addition to temperature and humidity, air flow is also a concern for textile preservation. Textiles should never be sealed in plastic or other air-tight casing unless it is part of a treatment or cleaning process. Proper circulation, combined with the suggested humidity, will help to prevent the growth of mold and mildew , which may stain or weaken antique textiles. Pests are another significant threat to textile collections, as there are a number of creatures which can cause damage to fibres.
Among the most common are clothes moths , carpet beetles , silverfish , firebrats and rodents. Clothes moths are attracted to protein fibres, and so are especially drawn to silk , wool, and feathers. An infestation might be identified through the evidence of white cocoons or the remnants thereof on the textiles, or of sighting the insects themselves. They are roughly 8 centimetres long and white in colour. Like clothes moths, carpet beetles are likewise drawn to proteins, and can be quite destructive.
Evidence of an infestation may take of the form of chewed holes, carcasses, or larvae, which appear as small pale worm-like insects. Silverfish and firebrats are related insects which consume starch , usually found in sizing or other treatments applied to fabrics, as well as plant-based textiles such as linen and cotton. Both are attracted to dark, moist climates, though silverfish prefer cooler temperatures, while firebrats tend towards warmer.
Both are about 12 millimetres in length and either light or dark in colouring, depending on which type is present.
Rodent infestations can be identified in the usual ways, such as seeing droppings, nests, or comparatively large chewed areas of textile where they have caused damage. In all cases, chemical means of pest control should be avoided if possible, not only due to harm to humans who come in contact with them, but because the chemicals may cause damage to the very textiles the conservator is trying to save.
For rodents, snap traps may be effective, and if needed, a professional exterminator should be called. Poison baited traps should be avoided, as the rodent could die somewhere inaccessible, and provide a breeding ground for further pests. For insects , keeping clean storage, display, and work environment is the best method of prevention. Also, sticky traps replaced often around doors, windows, and display cases may be useful for monitoring the insect population.
Furthermore, the population of carnivorous insects, such as spiders , should be observed. While such insects are not harmful to textiles by themselves, they may indicate another population of insects which are.
If the infestation can be limited to one or a few pieces, the insects may be killed through freezing of the object. The textile should be wrapped in plastic and vacuum-sealed , then brought to a freezing temperature as quickly as possible, to prevent the insects from adjusting to the cold.
The object may be left frozen for several days, but should be brought slowly back up to room temperature to avoid further damage. If chemical means must be employed, it would be best to consult with a professional conservator to be certain that the treatment will not harm the textiles themselves. Even if no signs of an infestation are present, textiles should still be inspected periodically to be certain that there is no outbreak that has gone unobserved. Additionally, when dealing with a new acquisition which shows signs of insect damage, the specimen should be quarantined until it can be determined whether the insects are still present before introducing it to the rest of the collection.
In some cases, the textiles are weakened not by outside causes such as light or pests, but by chemical reactions taking place within the fabric itself, such as the oxidation of iron-based mordants over time, which can cause darkening and discolouration in the surrounding fibres. However, as these fabrics have aged, the metals in the fibres have accelerated their decay and caused them to become extremely brittle.
In this case, the environment of the textile contributes very little to the deterioration from the metallic salts, though exposure to light may accelerate it even further. Textile preservationists should be familiar with their collections and the history and provenance of their pieces.
Chemical tests can reveal the types of dyes and mordants used, as well as any other treatments applied to the fabric. However, should handling be necessary, there are precautions  which can be taken to ensure the safety of the textile. Because our hands contain oils and acids in the skin , clean cloth gloves should be worn when handling textiles.
If gloves are unavailable, then frequent hand-washing should be undertaken to ensure that no damage is caused. For similar reasons, the working, display, and storage areas should be free of food, drink, and cigarette smoke, which can also stain or damage the fabric.
Finally, to avoid ink stains, only pencils should be used for writing or sketching in the work space. Long hair should also be tied back to allow a clear view of the working area, even when the head is bent over the table.
When working with the textiles, it should be placed on a clean, flat surface which is larger than the textile itself, so that the whole piece is supported evenly. Although it is supported, never place anything on top of the textile while it is in the flat position. When moving the textile, it is important to maintain the flat, even support of the work space. If the piece is small enough a handkerchief or sampler , for instance , it may be placed on an acid-free board or similar support and carried as if on a tray.
If the piece is too large for this a carpet or tapestry, for example , the piece may be rolled around an acid-free tube and carried by two people to its new location. Finally, antique costumes and clothing should never be worn, as the mere process of putting the clothes on and taking them off will cause damage.
One of the safest and easiest ways to clean textiles is to vacuum them. The fabric is placed on a clean, flat work surface. If the specimen is particularly delicate, or simply as a precaution, a fibreglass screen edged with twill tape may be placed over the textile. The screen allows dirt and dust to pass through, but prevents individual threads from being pulled loose or unravelled further by the suction.
Using a vacuum attachment and the lowest power setting, move the suction over the screen until the entire area has been cleaned. If needed, move the screen to a new area and begin again. Always remember to vacuum both sides of the textile, as dirt may filter through to the other side. One of the key standards of preservation is that of reversibility: anything done to preserve a piece should be able to be undone with minimal damage to the piece itself.
Because wet cleaning is a chemical process, it is not reversible, and so should be used only when absolutely necessary. Before cleaning a textile, certain questions  should be asked to determine both the best treatment for that particular combination of textile and soil, and to ascertain whether the piece is able to be cleaned, or may sustain damage during the process.
What is the chemical composition of the textile? In other words, does it have a high acid content? Were there chemicals used in its production that might contribute to how it reacts to water? Or how it may react to cleaning chemicals? What are the characteristics of the fibres? For instance, cotton and linen, being plant fibers , are both stronger wet than dry, and so may be able to withstand a more mechanical stress than something like silk.
Wool can absorb large amounts of water, but mats if washed in high temperatures. All silks become brittle with age, but weighted silks see Textile Instability above decay more quickly, and thus must be handled with extreme care. Learn the basic characteristics of the type of fibres you have, and how they have been treated before undertaking any kind of cleaning.
What colourants have been used, and how will they react to cleaning? This can apply not only to dyes but to mordants as well. Different parts of the world may have different dye processes, so here is where knowledge of when and where a textile originated, as well as a working knowledge of chemistry , can come in handy.
If in doubt as to the wash ability of a dye, apply a drop or two of water to an inconspicuous place and blot with a clean white cloth. If the dye transfers to the cloth, even in small amounts, the textile should not be washed. Are there finishes or surface treatments that must be preserved?
The subtle variations in colour, texture and finish are the signature of the human hand. Creating each product is a lengthy process rooted in the crafts-based traditions of hand spinning, dying, weaving, wood block printing and embroidery, each with its own regional specialty and character. We use both vegetable dyes and commercial dyes with the goal of minimizing our impact on the environment while striving for the best colour properties. For our bleaching process we use only hydrogen peroxide which is totally biodegradable. Caring for your Fabindia products is generally trouble free. In fact, our products are so well constructed that it is hard to wear them out.
Scrim Jim Cine Diffusion Fabric
Conservation and restoration of textiles
We are interested in making good-fitting comfortable stylish clothing with a timeless character using high quality natural fabrics. That is the spirit of good design and quality production, and in nurturing relationships with the things we own creates a genuine sensibility in the sustainable consumption of goods. When caring for the things you own, consult provided washing or care instructions. Keeping your things in good repair, necessary laundering and good storage is part of the caring process and allows you to enjoy the things you have for a longer time. Wash in cool water with mild detergent avoid harsh cleaners, do not bleach , hang in the shade to dry, iron on warm heat setting. Use moth or cedar wood balls, or camphor, when storing away during winter — dry, clean and mended. Soft and strong but also delicate.
The Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, Concise Third Edition provides the key information from the complete, twelve-volume Mark's Encyclopedia in an affordable, condensed format. Completely revised and updated, this user-friendly desk reference offers quick access to all areas of polymer science, including important advances in nanotechnology, imaging and analytical techniques, controlled polymer architecture, biomimetics, and more, all in one volume. Like the twelve-volume full edition, the Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, Concise Third Edition provides both SI and common units, carefully selected key references for each article, and hundreds of tables, charts, figures, and graphs. Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, Concise. Herman F. The compact, affordable reference, revised and updated The Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, Concise Third Edition provides the key information from the complete, twelve-volume Mark's Encyclopedia in an affordable, condensed format.
Brown Solid Wood Diwan with Shelf and Silk Fabric Upholstered Seat and Cushions
Provided our duvets are used and cared for properly, you can easily enjoy your Silk Road Desire duvet for a decade. At all times use a high quality removable duvet cover to protect your silk duvet. All of our duvets can without difficulty be cleaned, stored and maintained with the instructions below.
All of Fabindia's products are handcrafted using the finest natural fibres. The subtle variations in colour, texture and finish are the signature of the human hand. Creating each product is a lengthy process rooted in the crafts-based traditions of hand spinning, dying, weaving, wood block printing and embroidery, each with its own regional specialty and character. We use both vegetable dyes and commercial dyes with the goal of minimizing our impact on the environment while striving for the best colour properties. For our bleaching process we use only hydrogen peroxide which is totally biodegradable. Caring for your Fabindia products is generally trouble free. In fact, our products are so well constructed that it is hard to wear them out. Consider that the oldest surviving piece of cotton fabric was handwoven 3, years ago in India, the birthplace of cotton.
Caring for Silk
I have two daughters and I want the earth intact when they grow up. But it is easy to be just concerned and not do anything. I do this almost every day. There are many things that I can do towards eco-friendly living today starting with cashless payments, reading news online, refusing to eat in anything plastic etc. Another biggie conservation step is to start buying clothes made of earth-friendly fabric. Your next generation deserves to live their lives safely on this earth, and anything small you do counts. What is the need for earth-friendly fabric? This encompasses all the processes from obtaining the raw materials, pre-treatment washing, bleaching etc. All these processes involve various chemicals and toxins that cause a lot of environmental problems.
Best of all, it's an inspiration to read, allowing each of us to see our way to becoming a part of the design solution needed for a sustainable future. If you are a designer, you need this book! Designers may be surprised by the variety of projects shown that are great examples of residential sustainable interiors. Issues of sustainability and environmental consciousness have been increasingly important to designers of residential interiors. A leading firm that has built its expertise in addressing environmental concerns in residential interiors, Associates III presents solutions for the design practitioner in this book.
Silk is an investment. For example, a Mantua scarf is trans-seasonal and beyond quick trends.
Extend the life of your silk clothing and deter damaging moth larvae by following the advice below:. Silk comes from the cocoon of the silkworm, the larva or caterpillar of the silk moth which has been domesticated in China, Northern India, Korea and Japan.
Ну ладно, - вздохнул Стратмор. - Похоже, вышла какая-то путаница. - Он положил руку на плечо Чатрукьяна и проводил его к двери.