Young, Western Springs, Edward J. Marika, Chicago, and Richard H. Eshhaugh, Hinsdale, llr, assignors to dwlfit 8: Company, Chicago, Ill. Filed Jan.
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US3116200A - Reconstituted leather product and method of making - Google PatentsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Wet Felting a Hat Part 2
May 15, by Charles Henry Wolfenbloode. The top hat supposedly first appeared in on the streets of London. George Dunnage a master hatter from Middlesex is credited to have introduced the hat to Britain around Regardless of its origins, the top hat had gained popularity and by the Regency Period, it was de rigueur for everyday wear for the English gentleman who would eventually be the only ones in the world who would still wear and value the hat long after all other foreigners have abandoned its use, even for formal dress that required it.
Indeed, a gentleman would risk being spat at in the street if he did not wear a hat in the past! Fred Astaire wears a silk plush topper whilst the men in the background wear silk grosgrain opera hats.
The more elegant and proper way is to wear it dead straight, especially in formal settings. How times have changed. Now, you would find it difficult to see anyone wearing a hat these days as the continuous de-formalisation of dress and manners slowly creep in.
The only places where top hats can be worn are few and far between. It is restricted to the most formal dress codes of the land. Indeed, inferior toppers can be spotted from a mile away. Here I put forward a guide to sourcing, buying and wearing a topper. You could get a bargain easily if you know how. Contrary to popular belief, not all toppers come in one single style.
The types are:. There are, of course, other types but these are the most common. Let us examine their usage and suitability. The topper can come in a variety of weights depending on use. A vintage silk top hat made by H. Truefitt belonging to the author. They are now made from normal fur felt.
Never wear this hat with evening wear, formal Town i. London events or to funerals. It can be made of wool merino cloth, satin or the better grosgrain. These are still being made. Never wear this during the day. This is to cover much of the shiny silk surface of the crown.
The wider the band the more important the person mourned for. A vintage London-made silk hat with mourning band, sold by Silk Top Hats. This is to avoid branches knocking the hat off when riding a horse. Because it is made of wool, there is no shine to it thus indicating mourning.
A lot of inferior toppers sold on the high street solely for the fashionable and trendy are of this type. The hat is felt-like and soft unlike the hard shell varieties above. There is also difference in quality where you get them from. Also, wool felt is simply blocked using an industrial press whilst other types require a shell to be blocked by hand before covering with the outer material thus making it less expensive and time consuming to make, hence the cheapness of it all.
A modern wool top hat from a fancy dress costumers. It is only appropriate for fancy dress or cheapskate magicians. These should be avoided at all costs…. An abomination if there ever was one in the top hat universe….
David Beckham recently decided to go down this route for the Royal Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton and commissioned the milliner Philip Treacy to make a top hat. These can be obtained via the same route as the first three anyway so no need to discuss them further. There are a variety of sources where you can get these toppers. Knowing where can save you a few hundred bob…. Be sure what it really is to avoid costly mistakes or passing up on a good deal!
Firstly, these are no longer made because the last looms to make the silk plush was destroyed in and secondly, they stopped making silk toppers in when the silk plush ran out.
Therefore, you can only obtain these vintage or second-hand. For an explanation of how silk hats were made, please read my blog on this subject: Method of Making Top Hats. There are several methods which you could obtain it: inherited, bought re-furbish and bought second-hand and then re-furbished if necessary.
If you inherited your topper, the chances are that it may not fit you. You may need to re-conform it to your head shape that is, if the topper in question is in your hat size, otherwise it is not worth the hassle. Buying a re-furbished topper from a hatter is another way. If you could indeed try on the hat in person, there is one way of telling if it is the correct size. Firstly, you should wear it correctly; that being dead straight and not tilted to the side or towards the back.
It should slip comfortably on without you having to force it down on your head too much. The hat should sit around an inch above the eye brows. If you can easily place two fingers in that space then the hat is too small.
If you have difficulty inserting a finger at all or the brim actually touches the ears then that hat is too large. Another thing to note is that if you are wearing it in hot weather, your head might shrink a little causing the hat feel larger than it is.
Therefore bear this in mind what hat to choose and for what occasion. Buying second hand can be surprisingly successful if you know where to look. Your first port of call is eBay where toppers crop up in a continuous line of auctions.
You will find around listings. You should wait until well after, especially winter time when there is no real demand for them. Sometimes, you can get a large hat for a significantly lower price if there is damage or flaws to it. If you go for such hats you must weight up the cost of restoring the hat. Of course, before you bid or buy you must check the photos of the hat in question very carefully.
You should ask yourself some questions:. The first few questions are important. Sometimes, sellers are vague as to the size. Ask them to measure the inner circumference of the sweatband to make sure it is in your hat size. Note that most if not all toppers made in Europe go by English hat sizes. A hat too small cannot be stretched or altered to a bigger size.
Stretching it by force will damage the overall structure of the hat and would cause the brim to buckle or even the hat to break. The next most important thing is the condition of the silk plush. The edge of the crown is where a lot of wear can happen as this is the place where, through improper storage, the silk can be rubbed and worn off. A good topper will have little, if any, wear to the crown edge. Minor wear can be easily gotten away with. However, such wear cannot be repaired usually, in the past, when this happened the hatmaker would simply strip the old silk plush cover off and iron on a new one; an option which is, of course, no longer possible.
All they could do is maybe add blacking or stick a patch of fur plush to make it less conspicuous. Crown edge wear: one of the most common damage to the silk plush. Another common problem is with dents to the crown due to improper storage, accidents or handling. Normally, unless you actually handle the hat yourself, dents are not evident in photos unless the hat is well polished so the surface is flat enough and the hat is photographed with the flash on.
Sometimes, the dents are minor and could be gotten away with if you just dry polish it so the nap does not go completely flat against the surface thus disguising the flaws. However, if there is extensive denting then the hat requires reblocking to remove them.
To do this, the sweatband is turned out or removed completely , the slip lining is removed, the inside where the dent is is then whetted with a sponge, the hat placed on a half-block secured onto a potance frame where an iron is applied on the outside. In such a case, a new strip of goss is iron on to reinforce the area so the dent can be ironed out.
A vintage Truefitt topper with a big dent in the crown. It is a special wool twill that is no longer produced. This part is where a lot of moth damage could occur and if there is it would need refacing if the damage is extensive. If the leather sweatband is intact then that is a bonus.
Replacing the sweatband is relatively cheap. If a few stitches are loose then that can easily be repaired. A good sweatband is a must as it is the only thing protecting the hat from sweat.
A badly installed sweatband would enable sweat to seep onto the shell which soaks it up and weakens the shellac and hat. Also, if the sweatband requires replacing, make sure the leather used is the same thickness as the original as a thicker sweatband can cause the size of the hat to shrink a little.
Another way would be to stick foam or better, cork behind the sweatband but this is only a temporary measure and if the hat is too big it would not sit well and be likely to slip off. Ideally, any new replacement should be as close to the original in design. The sweatband should be hand sewn onto the underbrim with very close fine stitching using very fine silk thread.
Stiff coarse open and even weave fabric with basket weave construction used for needlework particularly cross stitch. A plain weave cotton or linen fabric used to make mens shirts suits etc. A needlepoint lace with fine net background with cord outlining design. Plain or twill fabric, woven from a cotton warp and an Angola yarn weft.
Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government
Progetto di decisione del Consiglio di associazione UE-Tunisia che modifica il protocollo n. Important legal notice. At the Euro-med Trade Ministerial Meeting in Toledo of March , it was agreed to extend this system of pan-European cumulation of origin to the Mediterranean partners, as the follow-up of the Barcelona Process launched by Barcelona Declaration adopted on 27 and 28 November At the Euromed Trade Ministerial Meeting in Palermo on 7 July , Ministers endorsed the new Protocol on rules of origin which allows the extension of the pan-European system of cumulation of origin to the Mediterranean countries. Ministers also requested the partners concerned to take the necessary steps to insert the new protocol in their agreements. In particular it is necessary to reword articles on cumulation as such but also to introduce new provisions on certification of origin, to harmonise provisions concerning the prohibition of drawback of, or exemption from, customs duties, to harmonise the processing requirements laid down in the protocols for non-originating materials to obtain originating status and to introduce amendments which would make the provisions of all protocols identical.
EUR-Lex Access to European Union law
The seawater resistant fibre was originally used for making twines and ropes. Cellulose acetate is the acetate ester of cellulose and was invented in It is mainly used as a synthetic fibre in textiles under the names of celanese and acetate. Applications in lingerie, wedding dresses, party dresses, blouses. At present it is mostly used in blends with cotton, wool, nylon. Also used in curtains, cigarette filters, diapers and felt-tip pens.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How to make a wet felt hat
This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. GO Printer's sheets It is conceded as an axiom, that theory and practice, in the pursuit of any object, are in their natures es- sentially different and distinct. But at the same time they long for a mutual understanding each to confirm the assertions of the other, the consummation of all practical results being the mutual embrace and per- fect reconciliation of these two attributes. The writer of these pages, being a practical hatter, desires to describe intelligibly his calling, dispensing with all technical terms, at the same time conscious of being liable to receive an unfair criticism from his brother tradesmen, although perfectly innocent on their part, resulting from the prejudices engendered by the many would-be secrets that pertain to the different work-shops, together with their various modes and methods of working, all of which most generally are but trifles merely to gain a name. The practice of a trade without a knowledge of the why and the wherefore of certain usages is a sad defect in any workman, but more especially in certain trades : Hatting being one of those which depends upon second causes for its proficiency, we venture here an explana- tion with perfect confidence, hoping that the fraternity of hatters will be indulgent, and that they may pro- fit by an experience of many years in the trade, and that for one error or omission in the writing of 10 these sheets they will find compensation in the new ideas that will spring from their perusal, which may be an incentive to further improvements in the busi- ness resulting beneficially to all. Theory without practice, or practice without theory, is like groping in the dark, and perfection in no trade can be attained till every effect can be traced to its cause, and vice versa. It is much to be regretted that practical operative workmen are so diffident in writing and publishing their experience in their several trades and occupa- tions, quietly permitting theorists ignorant of the business to glean as best they can from other parties the most intricate and complicated particulars of a trade, and hence the attempt to illustrate the most useful branches of an art often results in crude and even erroneous descriptions of things of the greatest moment, and the dissemination as correct, that which is altogether at variance with the truth. In confir- mation of the above, we may instance the manufac- ture of hats as described in a work of much merit, and which is accounted as worthy of all confidence, wherein the error above spoken of is but too plainly visible.
History of clothing and textiles
The term textile industry from the Latin texere, to weave was originally applied to the weaving of fabrics from fibres, but now it includes a broad range of other processes such as knitting, tufting, felting and so on. It has also been extended to include the making of yarn from natural or synthetic fibres as well as the finishing and dyeing of fabrics. In prehistoric eras, animal hair, plants and seeds were used to make fibres.
Prohibition of drawback of, or exemption from, customs duties. Issue of movement certificates EUR. List of working or processing required to be carried out on non-originating materials in order that the product manufactured can obtain originating status. Joint declaration concerning the review of the changes to the origin rules as a result of the amendments to the Harmonized System. For the purpose of implementing this Agreement, the following products shall be considered as originating in an EFTA State:. For the purpose of implementing this Agreement, the following products shall be considered as originating in Latvia:. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 2 1 , products shall be considered as originating in an EFTA State if such products are obtained there, incorporating materials originating in Latvia, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland including Liechtenstein 2, Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Estonia, Lithuania, Turkey or the European Community in accordance with the provisions of the Protocol on rules of origin annexed to the Agreements between the EFTA States and either the European Community or each of these countries, provided that the working or processing carried out in the EFTA State concerned goes beyond the operations referred to in Article 7. It shall not be necessary that such materials have undergone sufficient working or processing. Where the working or processing carried out in an EFTA State does not go beyond the operations referred to in Article 7, the product obtained shall be considered as originating in the EFTA State concerned only where the value added there is greater than the value of the materials used originating either in the European Community or in any one of the other countries referred to in paragraph 1.
Notice 830: tariff preference - new General System of Preference rules of origin
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website. This document assists building buyers, owners or inspectors who need to identify asbestos materials or probable-asbestos in buildings by simple visual inspection. We provide photographs of asbestos containing materials and descriptive text of asbestos insulation and other asbestos-containing products to permit identification of definite, probable, or possible asbestos materials in buildings. Asbestos is safe and legal to remain in homes or public buildings as long as the asbestos materials are in good condition and the asbestos can not be released into the air. Here we provide a master list of manufactured products that contain asbestos. Our list of asbestos-containing materials is sorted by alphabetically by product or use.
An Act relating to Duties of Customs. Short title. This Act may be cited as the Customs Tariff The Customs Act shall be incorporated and read as one with this Act. The headings of the respective Divisions in Schedule A are used solely for convenience of classification and shall not in any way affect the interpretation of the Customs Tariff. Time of imposition of duties. Duties of Customs.
May 15, by Charles Henry Wolfenbloode. The top hat supposedly first appeared in on the streets of London.
These ominous looking masks juxtapose historic imagery of the plague with contemporary issues of pollution. Sergio is also an accomplished expressionist painter who has featured work at the Biennale.
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