Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products.
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Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Man is a friend of fashion in nature. The desire for better garment and apparel resulted in the development of textile fiber production and textile manufacturing process.
Primarily the natural textile fibers meet the requirements for human consumption in terms of the comfort and aesthetic trends. Cotton, wool, and silk were the important natural fibers for human clothing articles, where cotton for its outstanding properties and versatile utilization was known as the King Cotton. The advancement of fiber manufacturing introduced several man-made fibers for conventional textile products; however, cotton is to date a leading textile fiber in home textiles and clothing articles.
The chemistry of cotton fiber is the principal source of interesting and useful properties required in finished textile products [ 2 ]. Strength, softness, absorbency, dyeing and printing properties, comfort, air permeability, etc.
By cotton fiber was significant with a market share of Cotton fiber grown with increased environment-friendly properties is called organic cotton.
It is grown without using any synthetic chemicals or pesticides, fertilizers, etc. Organic cotton is produced through crop with the processing stages in an ecological environment.
Turkey, the USA, and India are the main countries producing organic cotton. The other important natural fibers used in conventional textile products are wool and silk. Wool fiber is known for its warmer properties and used mainly in winter wear mainly. Wool-based textile items are projected to witness a CAGR of 3. Importantly, wool fiber is renewable and recyclable, which supports its demand in this industry [ 3 ]. Silk fiber is known for its unmatchable softness and low linear density.
Relative to cotton and wool, natural silk is not produced in significant quantity. It is indicated to have the highest revenue growth rate of 4.
A recent study of textile fiber market share by the IHS Markit has shown the synthetic fibers consumed highest mainly represented by polyester and nylon fibers followed by cotton, cellulosics, and wool fibers Figure 1 [ 4 ]. China is the major manufacturer of synthetic fibers. The textile manufacturing processes are largely required by the fashion segment in the global textile market.
Fashion market is followed by technical textiles and household products. Grand View Research indicated fashion, technical textiles, and household as the top three sectors by application for the global textile market Figure 2 [ 3 ].
Important textile fiber product types in the market in terms of application Grand View Research . Compound annual growth rate of 4. This market was estimated at USD The growth is significantly expected in the apparel sector. China and India will remain the leading countries to experience this growth. Increasing urban population with rising disposable income is the main source of higher growth in apparel consumption. The textile manufacturing processes in the global textile industry are producing the textile yarn, fiber, fabric, and finished products including apparels.
China is indicated as the country with leading textile manufacturing facility representing around one-fourth of the global textile industry. An important aspect that has received increasing concern in textiles is the release of environmental hazard from fiber and fabric process industries. Most of the processes performed in textile manufacturing release significant toxic and hazard waste to river water, soil and air.
Particularly fiber and yarn manufacturing, chemical finishing, pre-treatment processes, dyeing, printing, coating, and drying operations are releasing toxic gases, carcinogenic materials, harmful vapor and lint, and effluent discharge. Consequently, standards and regulations are evolved to limit or eliminate the environmental depreciation.
Today the textile industry encompasses a significant number and variety of processes that are adding value in fiber. These processes may range over the yarn making through the garment stitching, fabric embossing, and composite production.
However, considering the textile fiber as the basic building unit of any textile product, the textile manufacturing may clearly be identified as the conventional and technical textiles. The conventional textile manufacturing process has a long history of converting the natural fiber into useful products including fabric, home textiles, and apparel and more recently into a technical textile through the utilization of special finishing effects Figure 3.
The synthetic and semisynthetic fiber manufacturing is diversified with the utilization of monomer, chemical agent, precursor, catalyst, and a variety of auxiliary chemicals resulting in the formation of fiber or yarn. However, such man-made fibers are perceived as a separate specialized subject and beyond the scope of this book.
Therefore, the man-made fiber manufacturing is not discussed. The innovation in textile manufacturing introduced variety in raw materials and manufacturing processes. Therefore, process control to ensure product quality is desired. Monitoring and controlling of process parameters may introduce reduction in waste, costs, and environmental impact [ 6 ].
All the processing stages in textile manufacturing from fiber production to finished fabric are experiencing enhancement in process control and evaluation. It includes textile fiber production and processing through blow room, carding, drawing, and combing; and fabric production including knitted, woven, nonwoven, and subsequent coloration and finishing and apparel manufacturing. The global textile industry, in yarn and fabric production, has strong presence and experiencing growth.
In , the yarn and fabric market was valued at USD The market consumption is forecasted for growth at CAGR of 5.
Apparel production is another important area in textile manufacturing around the textile industry chain. Probably the apparel is what an individual wear for the purpose of body coverage, beautification, or comfort.
Apparel and garment terms are used interchangeably. However, the two terms may be differentiated as apparel is an outerwear clothing and garment is any piece of clothing. The study of apparel manufacturing market includes all the clothing articles except leather, footwear, knitted product, and technical, household, and made-up items. The worldwide apparel manufacturing market was valued at USD The market enhancement is forecasted to move from to at CAGR of 4.
Traditionally, yarn manufacturing comprises a series of processes involved in converting the fiber into yarn. It was rooted in natural fibers obtained from natural plant or animal sources. Natural fibers are produced with natural impurities that were removed from the yarn in subsequent pretreatment processes. Possibly, cotton is the fiber that has rooted the yarn manufacturing from fiber bale opening, followed by the series of continuous operations of blending, mixing, cleaning, carding, drawing, roving, and spinning.
Yarn manufacturing using cotton fibers through a sequence of processing stages may be shown by process flow diagram Figure 4 [ 8 ]. All these operations are mechanical and do not require chemical application. Each processing stage in yarn manufacturing utilized the machine of specialized nature and provided quality effects in yarn production. The advancement in fiber processing and machine technology for yarn manufacturing is continuous.
The manual picking of cotton fiber is now replaced with machine picking. However, conventional systems of blending, carding, drawing, roving, and spinning are indicated important in the future [ 9 ].
Yarn diameter, hairiness, linear density, permeability, strength properties, etc. Several interesting works on the production of yarn are available that provide details of the material processing and technological control.
Introductory spinning technology is described by Lawrence [ 10 ]. It covers the rudiments of staple-yarn technology, the manufacturing process, the raw materials, and the production processes for short-staple, worsted, semi-worsted, woolen spinning, doubling, and specialty yarn. Some of the useful advanced topics discussed are staple-yarn technology, including new development in fiber preparation technology, carding technology, roller drafting, ring spinning, open-end rotor spinning, and air-jet spinning.
Peter described the yarn production technology in combination with the economics [ 11 ]. The study is useful for yarn manufacturing and its development in the textile industry. Important topics covered include review of yarn production, filament yarn production, carding and prior processes for short-staple fibers, sliver preparation, short-staple spinning, long-staple spinning, post-spinning processes, quality control, and economics of staple-yarn production.
The interlaced fibrous structure mainly used is woven, nonwoven, and knitted. Traditionally, the weaving technology was the principal source for fabric production. The important types of woven fabric produced are the basic weaves, such as plain or tabby, twill, and satin, and the fancy weaves, including pile, jacquard, dobby, and gauze.
Knitted fabric is the second major type of fabric used following the woven. It has a characteristic of accommodating the body contour and provided the ease of movement. It is particularly a comfortable form of fabric structure for sports, casual wear, and undergarment. Knitted fabrics include weft types and the warp types, raschel, and tricot. Net, lace, and braid are other useful interlaced fabric structures.
Nonwoven fabrics are rapidly increasing in market consumption. These fabrics are finding interesting uses in industrial and home applications. Nonwoven fabrics include materials produced by felting and bonding. Laminating processes are also increasing in importance, and fairly recent developments include needle weaving and the sewing-knitting process. Garment is known as a piece of clothing.
Garment design and manufacturing is the combination of art and technology. Garment manufacturing has seen several advancements in design development, computer-aided manufacturing CAD , and automation. However, the older version of garment manufacturing process is still the main theme today—that is, the cutting and joining of at least two pieces of fabric. The sewing machine has the function of joining woven or cut-knitted fabrics.
Garments are mostly produced by sewing the pieces of fabric using a sewing machine. These machines are still based on the primary format used. Today the important topics in the current garment manufacturing industry range over product development, production planning, and material selection.
Maximizing customer value with innovative textile technology and a global trade network. Hyosung is one of the world's best manufacturers of nylon textile filament, is loved by customers around the world for its nylon fibers of outstanding quality and a variety of functions, all based on production know-how accumulated over 50 years. Capitalizing from its efforts to reduce energy, Hyosung has launched the world's first ever environmentally friendly recyclable nylon, 'MIPAN regen', and is leading the world to a better place through resource recycling. As the leader in the domestic polyester fiber manufacturer, Hyosung produces various and differentiated polyester yarns from regular yarns to high functional Major Products in order to create high values for customers. As the result of restless efforts to materialize customer needs and create differentiated product markets, Hyosung has developed high technology intensive yarn including cotton-replicating polyester yarn cotna , cool touch yarn askin , odor-resistant yarn freshgear , heat generating yarn aeroheat , latent crimped yarn Xanadu and far-infrared yarn aerogear.
Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
Consumption is measured by the amount of raw cotton fibre purchased and used to manufacture textile materials. Worldwide cotton production is annually about 80 to 90 million bales The rest is produced by about 75 other countries. Raw cotton is exported from about 57 countries and cotton textiles from about 65 countries.
The term textile industry from the Latin texere, to weave was originally applied to the weaving of fabrics from fibres, but now it includes a broad range of other processes such as knitting, tufting, felting and so on. It has also been extended to include the making of yarn from natural or synthetic fibres as well as the finishing and dyeing of fabrics. In prehistoric eras, animal hair, plants and seeds were used to make fibres. Silk was introduced in China around BC, and in the middle of the 18th century AD, the first synthetic fibres were created. Silk is the only natural fibre formed in filaments which can be twisted together to make yarn. The other natural fibres must first be straightened, made parallel by combing and then drawn into a continuous yarn by spinning. The spindle is the earliest spinning tool; it was first mechanized in Europe around AD by the invention of the spinning wheel. The late 17th century saw the invention of the spinning jenny, which could operate a number of spindles simultaneously. The making of fabric had a similar history. Ever since its origins in antiquity, the hand loom has been the basic weaving machine.
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Textiles are fabrics, knitwear and other textiles made of yarn processed raw materials of vegetable, animal or synthetic origin. The textile sector is an incredibly fragmented and heterogeneous industry. This makes it dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises. It combines three important types of final products: clothing, home furnishings and industrial applications. Nowadays, it's hard to imagine a world without textiles. This applies in particular to the clothing that each of us wear every day. Clothes provide comfort and protection, and for a large group of people it is also an extremely important way to express their style and personality.
Yarn consists of several strands of material twisted together. Each strand is, in turn, made of fibers, all shorter than the piece of yarn that they form. These short fibers are spun into longer filaments to make the yarn.
Now in its revised and updated Second Edition, this volume is the most comprehensive and authoritative text in the rapidly evolving field of environmental toxicology. The book provides the objective information that health professionals need to prevent environmental health problems, plan for emergencies, and evaluate toxic exposures in patients.
Все лампы наверху погасли. Не было видно даже кнопочных электронных панелей на дверях кабинетов.
От водки у него появилось легкое головокружение. Сьюзан, подшучивая над ним, часто говорила, что напоить его не составляет никакого труда. Наполнив тяжелый хрустальный стакан водой из фонтанчика, Беккер сделал несколько жадных глотков, потянулся и расправил плечи, стараясь сбросить алкогольное оцепенение, после чего поставил стакан на столик и направился к выходу.
Когда он проходил мимо лифта, дверцы открылись.