Roy MacLeod , Jeffrey A. It has been said that history is a debate between the present and the past about the future. Nowhere are these lines drawn more significantly than in the study of science and war. And nowhere is the discourse more relevant, than in the study of science and technology as foundations and multipliers of military power.
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The dean of business historians continues his masterful chronicle of the transforming revolutions of the twentieth century begun in "Inventing the Electronic Century. He details these processes for nearly every major chemical and pharmaceutical firm, demonstrating why some companies forged ahead while others failed. By the end of World War II, the chemical and pharmaceutical industries were transformed by the commercializing of new learning, the petrochemical and the antibiotic revolutions.
But by the s, chemical science was no longer providing the new learning necessary to commercialize more products, although new directions flourished in the pharmaceutical industries. In the s, major drug companies, including Eli Lilly, Merck, and Schering Plough, commercialized the first biotechnology products, and as the twenty-first century began, the infrastructure of this biotechnology revolution was comparable to that of the second industrial revolution just before World War I and the information revolution of the s.
Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. Alfred Dupont Chandler. IV Paths of Learning. II The Chemical Industry.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Textile industries are responsible for one of the major environmental pollution problems in the world, because they release undesirable dye effluents. Textile wastewater contains dyes mixed with various contaminants at a variety of ranges. Therefore, environmental legislation commonly obligates textile factories to treat these effluents before discharge into the receiving watercourses. The treatment efficiency of any pilot-scale study can be examined by feeding the system either with real textile effluents or with artificial wastewater having characteristics, which match typical textile factory discharges.
Fine chemistry process development
Hitachi Group Corporate Information. Based on customers' requirements, we provide plants for the manufacture of chemical synthesis pharmaceuticals and intermediates. Multi-purpose facilities are also possible. Our sealing technologies can also make a contribution in high potency pharmaceuticals. Our EPC solutions range from bulk powders to finished pharmaceutical products. There are two main types of processes used to manufacture pharmaceuticals: chemical synthesis based on chemical reactions, and bioprocessing based on the ability of microorganisms and cells to produce useful substances. Chemical synthesis can be used to produce pharmaceutical products with relatively low molecular weights in large volumes in short timespans.
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United States Tariff Commission. Production of dyes and coaltar chemicals Continued. Production of coaltar crudes during by firms not primarily engaged in the operation of cokeoven plants and gas houses. Production and sales of coaltar intermediates Comparison of production of coaltar intermediates and
Microorganisms have become an increasingly important platform for the production of drugs, chemicals, and biofuels from renewable resources. Advances in protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology enable redesigning microbial cellular networks and fine-tuning physiological capabilities, thus generating industrially viable strains for the production of natural and unnatural value-added compounds. In this review, we describe the recent progress on engineering microbial factories for synthesis of valued-added products including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, biofuels, and chemicals. Related topics on lignocellulose degradation, sugar utilization, and microbial tolerance improvement will also be discussed. Microorganisms have been increasingly used to produce value-added compounds with numerous applications in the food, agriculture, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Examples of these value-added compounds include many antibacterial and anticancer drugs, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, industrial chemicals, and biofuels. Compared to synthetic chemistry methodologies, microbial bio-synthesis has several advantages. First, it avoids the use of heavy metals, organic solvents, and strong acids and bases, thus allowing the synthetic process to take place through an environmentally benign route. Second, enzymes usually have a relatively high substrate specificity, which helps reduce the formation of byproducts. Third, some compounds with complex structures already have natural synthetic pathways while establishing chemical synthetic routes for these complex compounds is very difficult.
The chemical industry
The synthesis of steroidal active pharmaceutical ingredients APIs such as sex hormones estrogens, androgens, and progestogens and corticosteroids is currently performed by a combination of microbiological and chemical processes. Several mycobacterial strains capable of naturally metabolizing sterols e. Most of the industrial microbial strains currently available have been improved through traditional technologies based on physicochemical mutagenesis and selection processes. Surprisingly, Synthetic Biology and Systems Biology approaches have hardly been applied for this purpose.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy , it converts raw materials oil , natural gas , air , water , metals , and minerals into more than 70, different products. The plastics industry contains some overlap, as most chemical companies produce plastic as well as other chemicals. Various professionals are deeply involved in the chemical industry including chemical engineers, scientists, lab chemists, technicians, etc. Although chemicals were made and used throughout history, the birth of the heavy chemical industry production of chemicals in large quantities for a variety of uses coincided with the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in general. One of the first chemicals to be produced in large amounts through industrial processes was sulfuric acid. In , the pharmacist Joshua Ward developed a process for its production that involved heating saltpeter, allowing the sulfur to oxidize and combine with water. It was the first practical production of sulphuric acid on a large scale. John Roebuck and Samuel Garbett were the first to establish a large-scale factory in Prestonpans, Scotland , in , which used leaden condensing chambers for the manufacture of sulfuric acid.
Engineering microbial factories for synthesis of value-added products
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Thirty years after the production of the first generation of genetically modified plants we are now set to move into a new era of recombinant crop technology through the application of synthetic biology to engineer new and complex input and output traits. The use of synthetic biology technologies will represent more than incremental additions of transgenes, but rather the directed design of completely new metabolic pathways, physiological traits, and developmental control strategies. The need to enhance our ability to improve crops through new engineering capability is now increasingly pressing as we turn to plants not just for food, but as a source of renewable feedstocks for industry. These accelerating and diversifying demands for new output traits coincide with a need to reduce inputs and improve agricultural sustainability. Faced with such challenges, existing technologies will need to be supplemented with new and far-more-directed approaches to turn valuable resources more efficiently into usable agricultural products. While these objectives are challenging enough, the use of synthetic biology in crop improvement will face public acceptance issues as a legacy of genetically modified technologies in many countries. Here we review some of the potential benefits of adopting synthetic biology approaches in improving plant input and output traits for their use as industrial chemical feedstocks, as linked to the rapidly developing biorefining industry. Several promising technologies and biotechnological targets are identified along with some of the key regulatory and societal challenges in the safe and acceptable introduction of such technology. With their ability to directly utilize CO 2 and sunlight to produce a diverse range of organic compounds, plants are an obvious route to the sustainable generation of chemicals and materials in the future.
Textile dye wastewater characteristics and constituents of synthetic effluents: a critical review
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Steroid Factory. Your Purchased test E and Cycle Lenth weeks and 2 vials but, After you Purchased 1 week you provided these negative reviews. It sounds like a storyline straight out of Breaking Bad.
United States Tariff Commission. Production of dyes and coaltar chemicals Continued. Production of coaltar crudes by firms not primarily engaged. Domestic sales price per pound of coaltar intermediates
Industrial and environmental inspection, vendor inspection, technical assistance, non-destructive testing NDT and technical staffing for all type of industries. Multidisciplinary laboratories. Testing and engineering for product development.