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Industry industrial products from corn and other types of grain and waste products

Industry industrial products from corn and other types of grain and waste products

Grain is the harvest ed seed of grass es such as wheat , oats , rice , and corn. Other important grains include sorghum , millet , rye , and barley. Around the globe, grains, also called cereal s, are the most important staple food. Humans get an average of 48 percent of their calorie s, or food energy, from grains.

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AGRICULTURE AS A PROVIDER OF NON-FOOD PRODUCTS

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The fact that agriculture is a provider of non-food products is not new. Agriculture, including animal rearing and forestry, has traditionally been a source of fibres, fuel, construction and other materials like hides and skins. What is new is the scale and the range of products originating in basic agricultural raw materials, creating new important outlays for farmers and for the agri-industrial sector at large. This paper aims at providing an overview of this promising area, and at underlining its significance for the economy of the sector.

Other than the traditional uses of agricultural, forestry and livestock raw materials that remain significant, new uses have developed at great speed in the last decades. To name a few of the more illustrative examples: the large scale use of feedstock and biomass to produce biofuels, the use of oilseeds to produce oleo-chemical products, the expansion on the use of starch in a wide range of products including polymers for biodegradable plastics, or the expansion on the use of fibres in the textile and automotive industry.

Fuel, fibres, starch, oils, solvents, dyes, resins, proteins, speciality chemicals and pharmaceuticals, are today to various degrees of biological, agriculture origin.

These products present significant advantages as compared to similar products from other origins, as for instance fossil fuels:. This bio-economy is also a large provider of employment outside the primary agricultural sector: in the EU non-food bio-based products account for 2. Plants can synthesise an immense range of compounds. Some non-food crop uses such as textiles are widely known.

Others may be less familiar such as plastics made from starch-based polymers. Many industrial applications of crop materials are already in use. About half of the 9m tonnes of starch produced in the EU from maize, wheat and potatoes is used for non-food purposes. In recent years there has been a strong increase in interest in particular applications, such as the use of natural fibres in building construction and as a replacement for fibreglass in composite materials for example in vehicle manufacture.

Some of these are bulk applications while others are of particular interest to small and medium-sized enterprises seeking highly innovative specialised markets. To give an idea of the significance of these new outlays to farmers, who are the producers of the raw materials, just to produce starch and oleo-chemicals more than 1.

This is an area similar to the whole utilised agriculture land in Belgium, by far and large not a marginal figure. By the same token, the share of green, renewable and biodegradable products is far from negligible in the EU. There is also a growing market for renewable lubricants, solvents and polymers. Physical, chemical and genetic sciences can combine to produce new applications. Research in this promising field is a must, and the European Commission should be encouraged to dedicate adequate resources to the development of new non-food uses of agriculture production.

One of the most striking examples of non-food uses of agriculture raw material is biofuel, in particular the use of rapeseed to produce biodiesel and of maize, wheat and sugar to produce bioethanol. In , 13 million tonnes of biofuels were produced in Europe.

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be produced from domestically cultivated and processed oilseeds rapeseed mainly, sunflower seeds and soybeans. Rapeseed used for the production of biodiesel is cultivated within the EU as a break- crop, which means basically that the agricultural product is grown after a sequence of cereal cultivation and plays a vital role in diversifying production, preventing plant diseases, managing weed and pest levels, restoring essential soil nutrient and nitrogen balance, and improving soil structure.

The introduction of alternative species break-crops into the cropping sequence boosts yield and reduce the need of inputs for the following crops. Indeed, rapeseed cultivation reduces the need for fertilisers, contributing in this way to the GHG reduction target. This is mostly due to higher use of imported palm oil linked to new plants using HVO hydrogenated vegetable oil.

Use of palm oil for biodiesel in Europe has grown to over 3 million tons per annum contributing to the expansion of palm oil deforestation in Sumatra and Indonesia,.

This is significant because UCO outside the EU is generally not a waste and is used for both feed and fuel. In Europe, maize is the main feedstock used to produce renewable ethanol 5. As a practical matter, the EU ethanol industry no longer imports its feedstock from outside Europe. Whereas in the most advanced ethanol bio refineries in Europe produced only animal feed and ethanol, today they produce ethanol, animal feed, vegetable oil, nutraceutical products, various products for human food, bio-electricity, fertilizer and other products.

The European Commission has made a proposal in the context of a revised RED Renewable Energy Directive that would phase out to a large extent the production of conventional or first-generation biofuels, produced from feedstock.

Nevertheless, facts are very clear: EU sourced biofuels have no negative impacts on food availability and prices. On the contrary, they have a positive impact on agricultural land, environment and transport decarbonisation. If one looks more closely to the relationship between the production of conventional biofuels in the EU and the availability of food and feed, the facts are that the EU production of the main feedstocks used for producing biofuels rapeseed, wheat, maize and sugar has either increased or remained stable by quotas in the case of sugar , due to productivity gains.

European sourced biofuels have not displaced food and feed production, and have had no real impact on prices. On the contrary biofuels have helped in limiting the adverse effects of the food markets U-turn, offering some economic stability to struggling EU farmers, without adverse effects on food or feed availability.

It is estimated that the production of crop-based biofuels in the EU generates at least 6. In addition, the bioethanol industry is said to have created 70 direct and indirect jobs since the EU introduced its biofuels policy, while the biodiesel sector has generated direct and indirect jobs in the EU biodiesel production chain.

There is another very important positive impact of biofuels production in the EU — the production of protein feed as a by-product. The EU biofuels industry processing rapeseed and cereals now produces approximately 13 million tonnes annually of high protein meals that otherwise would be imported from the Americas. It should be noted that less imports from the Americas mean more feed and food availability from these regions, to the benefit of consumers all over the world, thus contributing to increased global food security.

This sector is at the heart of the climate challenge and biofuels are an alternative to fossil fuels. Biofuels in the EU must conform to strict sustainability criteria to ensure that their production and use do not cause any harm to the environment. Currently biofuels produced in the EU from EU feedstock achieve even better results. In spite of the climate and economic benefits of conventional biofuels production, and the lack of negative impacts on the availability of food and feed, the Commission is proposing to limit its use to a maximum of 3.

Its proposal put at stake as well the emergence of second generation biofuels which development needs support of a strong conventional biofuels sector. To make it even more unacceptable, the Commission seems to ignore that today the EU is a net importer of biofuels.

Well informed decisions to promote balanced and locally sourced biofuels in the EU will mean that for every additional production of locally sourced biofuels, there would be a corresponding decrease of imports of biofuels produced in third countries with uncertain sustainability practices.

There will be a decrease in feedstocks produced in third countries to be exported to the EU to produce biofuels and a decrease of feed meals imported into the EU from third countries. Moreover, those third countries could use the freed-up land resources for afforestation and food security purposes. Amongst the imported biofuels, palm oil comes first.

The one consensus element, arising from all the scientific data, is the negative impact of unsustainable palm oil, especially in the context of deforestation of highly diverse and carbon rich ecosystems. Use of palm oil for biodiesel in Europe has grown thus contributing to the expansion of palm oil deforestation in Sumatra and Indonesia. RED II should adequately respond to these concerns in the use of palm-oil based biofuels in the EU, instead of curtailing the production of sustainable EU based biofuels.

EU sourced biofuels cogenerating proteins are to be promoted if the objective is truly to fight climate change while improving food security and job creation. Indeed, it his high time to get back to facts and confront populist positions that attempt to equate conventional biofuels to hunger and deprivation.

On the contrary, conventional biofuels are a source of job creation and increased incomes, improving food security. The debate on the current Commission proposals should make the targets for the use of renewable energy in transport more ambitious, not erase them. In addition to that, the sustainability criteria for feedstock originating biofuels should promote those that deliver protein feed, replacing imports, and freeing-up land in third countries for food and feed production or environmental improvement, on top of their emissions savings.

That would benefit the environment, create jobs and growth, diminish EU dependency on imports of protein feed and oil, and improve food security overall. Agriculture, including forestry and animal rearing, has always been a provider of non- food products, a source of fibres, fuel, construction and other materials like hides and skins.

What is new is the scale and the range of products originating in basic agriculture raw materials, creating new important outlays for farmers and for the agri-industrial sector at large, and the speed at which they have developed in recent times.

The bio-economy brings 2. These products present significant advantages as compared to similar products from other origins, as for instance fossil fuels, as they benefit the environment by reducing greenhouse gases, cut waste and pollution, produce social benefits by stimulating rural communities through establishment of local industries and providing new markets for farmers, and improve the economic competitiveness of the agri-industry through development of new markets and products.

Agriculture land has been used in the EU to a significant extent to generate non-food products, be it biofuels, starch, oleo-chemicals or fibres, without reducing the availability of food or feed, nor having a negative impact on consumer prices. The starch and oleo- chemicals production alone mobilize over 1.

Non-food production contributes positively to farmers revenues, creates jobs in less- favoured rural areas, and increases the competitiveness of the agri-industry sector. Non-food production is a well-diversified sub-sector, with a promising future. Public policies should encourage the development of the bio-economy, through applied research and other means.

Public policies should in particular be based on facts and extend and strengthen existing mandates for biofuels, and thus contribute to decarbonisation of transport fuels. Policy Briefing Double performance of EU agri-food sectors A key condition : Empowering farmers to increase economic stability October For more than two decades the credo of policy-makers the Commission more than anyone, Council and European Parliament has been to promote a closer connection between farmers and market change, or, in the terms of […].

While, in terms of wine market dynamics, latest figures by the Spanish Wine Market Observatory OeMv presented a first analysis for the first quarter of , during which wine shipments from […]. Such a crisis reserve financed with up to 1,5 billon EUR […]. October These products present significant advantages as compared to similar products from other origins, as for instance fossil fuels: -they benefit the environment by reducing greenhouse gases -they cut waste and pollution -they produce social benefits by stimulating rural communities through establishment of local industries and providing new markets for farmers -they improve the economic competitiveness of the agri-industry through development of new markets and products This bio-economy is also a large provider of employment outside the primary agricultural sector: in the EU non-food bio-based products account for 2.

BIOFUELS One of the most striking examples of non-food uses of agriculture raw material is biofuel, in particular the use of rapeseed to produce biodiesel and of maize, wheat and sugar to produce bioethanol. Biodiesel Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be produced from domestically cultivated and processed oilseeds rapeseed mainly, sunflower seeds and soybeans. Bioethanol In Europe, maize is the main feedstock used to produce renewable ethanol 5. The EU legal framework The European Commission has made a proposal in the context of a revised RED Renewable Energy Directive that would phase out to a large extent the production of conventional or first-generation biofuels, produced from feedstock.

Written by Farm Europe. On the same subject. Download the work.

Jensen, J. Graham and Donald L.

Efficiencies of conversion technologies highly depend on the types of biomass used as raw materials that differ in contents and compositions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin structures in biomass. In some conversion technologies, such as chemical, biochemical, and hydrothermal conversion techniques, biomass materials must be first broken down into smaller molecular weight components e. In this matter, pretreatment and hydrolysis play critical roles on the yield of the product s. Biomass Volume Estimation and Valorization for Energy. Being a nonedible portion of the plant, lignocellulosic biomass materials are attractively growing the attention as sustainable and renewable energy sources.

SESSION I (contd.)

Revised June However, demand for white corn is increasing as U. Latino populations expand and the popularity of Hispanic cuisine grows. White corn is often the preferred corn variety for use in Mexican-style and other corn-based foods including tortillas, corn flakes, corn meal, grits and hominy. Domestic white corn usage accounts for about one-half of U.

Illinois Economy

The most historically American crop is also the most versatile. Corn Zea mays is essentially grass that has been cultivated and bred to the size it is today. Originally cultivated in Mexico 7, years ago, corn is now America's biggest crop and a staple of the global food supply. Corn is used in many ways other than feasting on at the dinner table or popping for movie snacks, some you might not even realize.

As a main source of nourishment for over half the world's population, rice is by far one of the most important commercial food crops.

Cereal processing , treatment of cereals and other plants to prepare their starch for human food , animal feed , or industrial use. Cereals, or grains, are members of the grass family cultivated primarily for their starchy seeds technically, dry fruits. Wheat, rice, corn maize , rye, oats, barley, sorghum, and some of the millets are common cereals; their composition is shown in the table. Starch , a carbohydrate stored in most plants, is a major constituent of the average human diet, providing a low-cost energy source with good keeping qualities. Cereals are high in starch, which may be used in pure or flour form. Starches are also obtained from such root sources as potatoes and from the pith of tropical palm trees. Various starches are used commercially in food processing and in the manufacture of laundering preparations, paper, textiles, adhesives, explosives, and cosmetics. This article treats the processing and utilization of the major cereals—wheat, rice, barley, rye, oats, corn, sorghum, millet, and buckwheat; of important starchy foods consumed in certain countries instead of cereals, including potatoes and cassava; and of soybeans, legumes widely used in the bakery industry. Wheat species are treated in detail, other cereals in a more general way.

Biomass as Raw Material for Production of High‐Value Products

Corn , Zea mays , also called Indian corn or maize , cereal plant of the grass family Poaceae and its edible grain. Corn is used as livestock feed, as human food, as biofuel, and as raw material in industry. In the United States the colourful variegated strains known as Indian corn are traditionally used in autumn harvest decorations. Corn was first domesticated by native peoples in Mexico about 10, years ago.

The United States has become a service economy and many states, Illinois included, generate most of their revenue through service industries. In terms of revenue generated, Illinois' top five agricultural products are corn for grain, soybeans, hogs, cattle and calves, and dairy products. Hogs are the most important livestock product in the state, followed by beef cattle, milk, chickens and eggs.

Corn and wheat are among the most important cereals worldwide, representing many of the calories and proteins consumed. Tortillas and tortilla-related products are among the fastest-growing segments of the food industry and represent a sizeable portion of those calories. This book will guide food scientists, product developers, and nutritionists through the fascinating science and technology behind the production of corn and wheat flour tortillas. This title is the most comprehensive English-language book of its kind. It fully describes the technology, nutritional value, and quality control measures of corn and wheat flour tortillas, tortilla chips, and related products. It accomplishes this through pages of quality text, complemented by easy-to-understand facts, figures, tables, and summaries that seamlessly guide users to an understanding of the fundamental underlying principles that optimize tortilla production and guide product development. Edited by the renowned food science educators in tortilla production, this book provides high-quality training at both the academic and corporate levels. Sergio O. He has published seven books, over 30 chapters, and over refereed articles in journals. He has been a consultant to various national and international companies in the food industry.

From: Waste Management for the Food Industries, Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities worldwide than any other type of crop and of food products, although many other types of cereals (e.g. maize and barley) are used.

Cereal processing

The fact that agriculture is a provider of non-food products is not new. Agriculture, including animal rearing and forestry, has traditionally been a source of fibres, fuel, construction and other materials like hides and skins. What is new is the scale and the range of products originating in basic agricultural raw materials, creating new important outlays for farmers and for the agri-industrial sector at large. This paper aims at providing an overview of this promising area, and at underlining its significance for the economy of the sector. Other than the traditional uses of agricultural, forestry and livestock raw materials that remain significant, new uses have developed at great speed in the last decades. To name a few of the more illustrative examples: the large scale use of feedstock and biomass to produce biofuels, the use of oilseeds to produce oleo-chemical products, the expansion on the use of starch in a wide range of products including polymers for biodegradable plastics, or the expansion on the use of fibres in the textile and automotive industry. Fuel, fibres, starch, oils, solvents, dyes, resins, proteins, speciality chemicals and pharmaceuticals, are today to various degrees of biological, agriculture origin. These products present significant advantages as compared to similar products from other origins, as for instance fossil fuels:. This bio-economy is also a large provider of employment outside the primary agricultural sector: in the EU non-food bio-based products account for 2.

10 Ways We Use Corn

Distillers grains are a cereal byproduct of the distillation process. There are two main sources of these grains. The traditional sources were from brewers. More recently, ethanol biofuel plants are a growing source. It is created in distilleries by drying mash , and is subsequently sold for a variety of purposes, usually as fodder for livestock especially ruminants. Corn -based distillers grains from the ethanol industry are commonly sold as a high protein livestock feed that increases efficiency and lowers the risk of subacute acidosis in beef cattle.

Distillers grains

Starch is our strength. We manufacture top quality starch products using modern and environmentally-sensitive methods. The raw materials: corn, potatoes and wheat.

The increase in human population in Europe over the last decades has influenced greatly the demand for food products of animal origin. In consequence this requires a considerable development of animal production. The main interest in this paper is focused on the monogastric animal, mainly swine and poultry.

Sorghum bicolor L. Moench [ Poaceae ]. Sorghum vulgare Pers.

United States. Bureau of the Census. Meat products 20A1 2 Cigarettes 21A1. Proprietors and working partners number.

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