Forage Crops Lorann Stallones. Livestock Confinement Kelley Donham. Animal Husbandry Dean T. Stueland and Paul D. Manure and Waste Handling William Popendorf. Cattle, Sheep and Goats Melvin L.
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- Record keeping
- district wise hrd plans - Department of Agriculture & Co-operation
- Act No. 124 of 2003 relative to food production and food safety (Food Act).
- Table of Contents
- Animal husbandry
- 1 Foreign lines of credit
- Act No. 124 of 2003 relative to food production and food safety (Food Act).
- Poultry, Fisheries, Apiculture and Sericulture
Record keepingVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: FISH PRODUCTION
Humans depend upon animals for food and related by-products, work and a variety of other uses see table To meet these demands, they have domesticated or held in captivity species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and arthropods. These animals have become known as livestock, and rearing them has implications for occupational safety and health.
This general profile of the industry includes its evolution and structure, the economic importance of different commodities of livestock, and regional characteristics of the industry and workforce. The articles in this chapter are organized by occupational processes, livestock sectors and consequences of livestock rearing.
Livestock evolved over the past 12, years through selection by human communities and adaptation to new environments. Historians believe that goat and sheep were the first species of animals domesticated for human use.
Then, about 9, years ago, humans domesticated the pig. The cow was the last major food animal that humans domesticated, about 8, years ago in Turkey or Macedonia. It was probably only after cattle were domesticated that milk was discovered as a useful foodstuff. Goat, sheep, reindeer and camel milk were also used.
People of Mexico had domesticated the turkey Tannahill Humans used several other mammalian and avian species for food, as well as amphibian and fish species and various arthropods. Honey from the honey bee was an early food; smoking bees from their nest to collect honey was known in Egypt as early as 5, years ago.
Humans also domesticated many mammals for use for draught, including the horse, donkey, elephant, dog, buffalo, camel and reindeer. The first animal used for draught, perhaps with the exception of the dog, was likely the goat, which could defoliate scrub for land cultivation through its browsing. Historians believe that Asians domesticated the Asian wolf, which was to become the dog, 13, years ago.
The dog proved to be useful to the hunter for its speed, hearing and sense of smell, and the sheepdog aided in the early domestication of sheep Tannahill The people of the steppe lands of Eurasia domesticated the horse about 4, years ago.
Its use for work traction was stimulated by the invention of the horseshoe, collar harness and feeding of oats. Although draught is still important in much of the world, farmers displace draught animals with machines as farming and transportation becomes more mechanized. Some mammals, such as the cat, are used to control rodents Caras The structure of the current livestock industry can be defined by commodities, the animal products that enter the market.
Table Global meat production nearly trebled between and Over this period, per capita consumption increased from 21 to 33 kilograms per annum. Because of the limitations of available rangeland, beef production levelled off in As a result, animals that are more efficient in converting feed grain into meat, such as pigs and chickens, have gained a competitive advantage.
Both pork and poultry have been increasing in dramatic contrast to beef production. Pork overtook beef in worldwide production in the late s. Poultry may soon exceed beef production. Mutton production remains low and stagnant USDA a. Milk cows worldwide have been slowly decreasing while milk production has been increasing because of increasing production per cow USDA b.
Sources: Brown ; Platt Aquaculture production increased at an annual rate of 9. They also become a vital source of protein during times of famine DeFoliart Separating the workforce engaged in livestock rearing from other agricultural activities is difficult. Pastoral activities, such as those in much of Africa, and heavy commodity-based operations, such as those in the United States, have differentiated more between livestock and crop raising.
However, many agro-pastoral and agronomic enterprises integrate the two. In much of the world, draught animals are still used extensively in crop production. Moreover, livestock and poultry depend upon feed and forage generated from crop operations, and these operations are commonly integrated.
The principal aquaculture species in the world is the plant-eating carp. Insect production is also tied directly to crop production. The silkworm feeds exclusively on mulberry leaves; honeybees depend upon flower nectar; plants depend upon them for pollination work; and humans harvest edible grubs from various crops. Regional characteristics related to livestock rearing follow. Source: Scherf Animal husbandry has been practised in sub-Saharan Africa for more than 5, years. Nomadic husbandry of the early livestock has evolved species that tolerate poor nutrition, infectious diseases and long migrations.
Although its importance has grown since the mids, aquaculture has contributed little to the food supply for this region. Aquaculture in this region is based upon pond farming of tilapias, and export enterprises have attempted to culture marine shrimps.
An export aquaculture industry in this region is expected to grow because Asian demand for fish is expected to increase, which will be fuelled by Asian investment and technology drawn to the region by a favourable climate and by African labour. Livestock rearing operations are mainly small-scale units in this region, but large commercial farms are establishing operations near urban centres.
In rural areas, millions of people depend on livestock for meat, milk, eggs, hides and skins, draught power and wool. China exceeds the rest of the world with million pigs; the remainder of the world has a total of million pigs. Milk production is a part of traditional agriculture in many countries of this region. At 6,, tonnes, China alone produces nearly half of the world production,. Demand for fish is expected to increase rapidly, and aquaculture is expected to meet this demand.
In this region of million people, Increased urbanization and mechanization have led to this decrease. Much of this arable land is in the moist, cool northern climates and is conducive to growing pastures for livestock.
As a result, much of the livestock raising is located in the northern part of this region. Europe contributed 8. Aquaculture has concentrated on relatively high-value species of finfish , tonnes and shellfish , tonnes. The Latin American and Caribbean region differs from other regions in many ways.
Large tracts of land remain to be exploited, the region has large populations of domestic animals and much of the agriculture is operated as large operations. Livestock represents about one-third of the agricultural production, which makes up a significant part of the gross domestic product.
Most livestock species have been imported. Among those indigenous species that have been domesticated are guinea pigs, dogs, llamas, alpacas, Muscovy ducks, turkeys and black chickens. This region contributed only 2. Most of the major livestock species were domesticated in this region goats, sheep, pigs and cattle at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Later, in North Africa, water buffaloes, dromedary camels and asses were domesticated. Some livestock raising systems that existed in ancient times still exist today.
These are subsistence systems in Arab tribal society, in which herds and flocks are moved seasonally over great distances in search of feed and water. Intensive farming systems are used in the more developed countries. Although agriculture is a major economic activity in Canada and the United States, the proportion of the population engaged in agriculture is less than 2.
Since the s, agriculture has become more intensive, leading to fewer but larger farms. The livestock industry in this region has been very dynamic. Introduced animals have been bred with indigenous animals to form new breeds. Consumer demand for leaner meats and eggs with less cholesterol is having an impact on breeding policy.
Horses were used extensively at the turn of the nineteenth century, but they have declined in numbers because of mechanization. They are currently used in the race horse industry or for recreation. The United States has imported about insect species to control more than 50 pests.
Aquaculture in this region is growing, and accounted for 3. Occupational hazards of livestock rearing may lead to injuries, asthma or zoonotic infections. In addition, livestock rearing poses several environmental and public health issues.
One issue is the effect of animal waste upon the environment. Other issues include the loss of biological diversity, risks associated with animal and product importation and food safety. Animal wastes pose potential environmental consequences of water and air pollution.
Based upon US annual discharge factors shown in table Because of their high annual discharge factor of 9. In the United States, farmers who specialize in livestock rearing do not engage in crop farming, as had been the historical practice. As a result, livestock waste is no longer systematically applied to crop land as a fertilizer.
Another problem with modern livestock raising is the high concentration of animals into small areas such as confinement buildings or feedlots. Large operations may confine 50, to , cattle, 10, pigs or , chickens to an area. In addition, these operations tend to cluster near the processing plants to shorten the transportation distance of the animals to the plants. Several environmental problems result from concentrated operations. These problems include lagoon spills, chronic seepage and runoff and airborne health effects.
Nitrate peculation into the groundwater and runoff from fields and feedlots are major contributors to water contamination. A greater use of feedlots leads to concentration of animal manure and a greater risk for contamination of groundwater.
Indira's Objective Agriculture for competitive exams in agriculture discipline contain 21 chapters covering all related discipline. The chapters included such as: General agriculture, Agricultural climatology, Genetics and plant breeding, Agricultural biotechnology, Plant physiology, Plant biochemistry, Agricultural microbiology, Seed science, Agronomy, Soil science, Entomology, Plant pathology, Horticulture, Agricultural extension, Agricultural economics, Animal husbandry and dairying, Agricultural statistics, Research methodology and appendix have been given due importance and whole syllabus was covered as per ICAR syllabus and guidelines. Each chapter contains multiple choice questions and total about 25 thousand objective questions with multiple choice have been framed and arranged sequentially for the easy understanding of the students. Recent information and development in the field of agriculture have been incorporated in the book.
district wise hrd plans - Department of Agriculture & Co-operation
To keep records is simply to collect relevant information that can help you to take good decisions and to keep track of activities, production and important events on a farm. Records can be about any performance of the animals, economic development, or any activity of the farmer or veterinarian. It is important to keep record keeping simple, and to keep records systematic. If records should be of use for the farmer, than they must be complete none missing , they should be true collected carefully. When record can't be trusted because they are not complete or true, time should not be spent on it at all.
Act No. 124 of 2003 relative to food production and food safety (Food Act).
Humans depend upon animals for food and related by-products, work and a variety of other uses see table To meet these demands, they have domesticated or held in captivity species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and arthropods. These animals have become known as livestock, and rearing them has implications for occupational safety and health. This general profile of the industry includes its evolution and structure, the economic importance of different commodities of livestock, and regional characteristics of the industry and workforce. The articles in this chapter are organized by occupational processes, livestock sectors and consequences of livestock rearing. Livestock evolved over the past 12, years through selection by human communities and adaptation to new environments.
Integration of livestock in fish culture is an old age system of practice. Ducks, poultry, pig, cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat are common in mixed farming. Nowadays rabbit also incorporated in integrated livestock cum fish culture. Due to progressive shrinking of farm holding to obtain maximum output adoption of mixed farming system with livestock and fish become very popular in wetland and water shed areas of the country. The by-product utilization of one sub-system e. To avoid environmental problems with animal excreta apart from manure production the animal excreta could be efficiently utilized as feed for fish and the end product is valuable animal protein, which is very much needed in India. States like West Bengal.
Table of Contents
No Departmernt Areas of Cadre of No. Popularising Production technologies Farmers of Production technologies of 1 Village level. Production Tech.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Animal husbandry. Souvik Chowdhury. Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Search Wikipedia Animal husbandry From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Main page Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other Contents products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock. Featured content Current events Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated, from around Random article 13, BC onwards, antedating farming of the first crops. By the time of early civilisations such as ancient Egypt, cattle, Donate to Wikipedia sheep, goats and pigs were being raised on farms. Wikipedia store Major changes took place in the Columbian Exchange when Old World livestock were brought to the New World, and then Interaction in the British Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century, when livestock breeds like the Dishley Longhorn cattle and Help Lincoln Longwool sheep were rapidly improved by agriculturalists such as Robert Bakewell to yield more meat, milk, and About Wikipedia wool.
Poultry, Fisheries, Apiculture and Sericulture. Recommend Documents. Formal diagnostic survey using semi-structured questionnaire. Sericulture - FAO communities for value-addition activities and empower them to engage in 'market realities'. Sericulture is an activity where every part can be used for multiple purposes.
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The aim of this Act is to secure a supply to the market of healthy and safe food, including beverages, and to protect health, quality and consumer interests along the whole food production and distribution chain and to secure an environmentally friendly production. The Act shall further enhance good health of plants and animals and shall apply to all matters regarding health of animals and plants. The Act consists of 35 sections divided into 7 Chapters. Keyword: Fish products, International trade, Internal trade, Institution. Keyword: Internal trade, Animal production. Keyword: Aquaculture, Fish disease. Search Search. Abstract The aim of this Act is to secure a supply to the market of healthy and safe food, including beverages, and to protect health, quality and consumer interests along the whole food production and distribution chain and to secure an environmentally friendly production.
Act No. 124 of 2003 relative to food production and food safety (Food Act).
Forage Crops Lorann Stallones. Livestock Confinement Kelley Donham. Animal Husbandry Dean T. Stueland and Paul D.
Poultry, Fisheries, Apiculture and Sericulture
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Теперь ей стало удобнее толкать. Створки давили на плечо с неимоверной силой. Не успел Стратмор ее остановить, как она скользнула в образовавшийся проем. Он попытался что-то сказать, но Сьюзан была полна решимости.
Стратмор кивнул. Сейф Бигглмана представляет собой гипотетический сценарий, когда создатель сейфа прячет внутри его ключ, способный его открыть.