A mobile device, wireless network and their method of operation provide fault handling in response to detection of a communications fault between a connected mobile device and the communications network. The communications network tracks location of mobile devices and stores performance data of connections between the mobile devices and the network. The performance data is referenced to expected performance data to determine whether a fault exists and a corrective action is suggested when the fault exists. The present application is a Continuation of U. Provisional Patent Application Ser.
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The IoT revolution, requiring a dramatic increase in strong, secure communication links, offers providers an opportunity to not only play a larger role but to create new value. The Internet of Things IoT has become increasingly visible thanks to the rise of intelligent thermostats, interactive fitness trackers, and the promise of autonomous vehicles.
Such technologies are compelling because they make the things around us smarter and more interactive. Connecting all these devices is what turns isolated pockets of technology into a network that generates and pools data in ways that lead to valuable insights.
Thanks to the central role of communications in many IoT deployments, how companies create value is often a function of the interaction between sensor technology and the network layer.
Linking new and legacy sensors within an IoT ecosystem often means that companies seeking to realize value from the IoT need to work closely with their communication services providers CSPs.
Such collaboration is unlikely to come easily to either party. Consumers of communications services can easily overlook the challenges associated with creating the sort of connectivity required to realize the full benefit of IoT technology. Providers of network services can be expected to have their own biases to overcome. The rise of the Internet separated communications services from the communications network they ride over.
Yet the economics of the asset intensity implied by building out near-ubiquitous, high-bandwidth, reliable, and secure wireline and wireless networks rewarded the large-scale deployment of relatively undifferentiated services.
Shifting to a more nearly bespoke set of solutions means going against a grain that runs deep. To help companies and CSPs think more carefully about how they work together and overcome any legacy of benign mutual neglect, we are well served to consider how sensor technology and network systems relate within different IoT deployments, the nature of the value created, and what that means for the collaboration required. The rise of smart, connected things—from wearable activity trackers to connected cars to the electrical grid—allows companies to compete not only on the functionality and performance of their products or services but also on the information created by the use of these products or services.
The suite of technologies that enables the Internet of Things promises to turn almost any object into a source of information about that object. This creates both a new way to differentiate products and services and a new source of value that can be managed in its own right.
Note first that the value loop is a loop : an action—the state or behavior of things in the real world—gives rise to information, which is then manipulated in order to inform future action.
For information to complete the loop and create value, it passes through the stages of the loop, each stage enabled by specific technologies. An act is monitored by a sensor that creates information. That information passed through a network so that it can be communicated , and standards—be they technical, legal, regulatory, or social—allow that information to aggregated across time and space.
Augmented intelligence is a generic term meant to capture all manner of analytical support, which collectively are used to analyze information. The loop is completed via augmented behavior technologies that either enable automated autonomous action or shape human decision in a manner that leads to improved action.
Getting information around the Value Loop allows an organization to create value; how much value is created is a function of the value drivers , which capture the characteristics of the information that makes its way around the value loop. The drivers of information value can be captured and sorted into the three categories: magnitude, risk, and time. The value loop begins with creating and communicating information in entirely new contexts. Sensor technology enables actions in the world to give rise to data—the create stage.
Networks, often provided and managed by CSPs, link create and communicate , liberating data and enabling the rest of the value loop. It is at the interface between the two that the opportunity for new forms of collaboration arises.
Unlike people, even smart machines are poorly equipped to deal with these same communication issues. In other words, dumb pipes are sufficient when connecting people; smarter pipes become more important when connecting things. Consequently, there is no one-size-fits-all combination of sensors and network connectivity.
What is being connected that is, the nature of the sensors and how it is connected that is, the nature of the network have a real impact on how value is created. In weighing how to incorporate IoT technology and applications, few companies today are starting from scratch.
These sensors, often installed decades ago, typically have limited communication or autonomous operation capabilities—they rely on human operators for activation and data collection-much less the capacity for analysis and action. So the first key decision is whether to augment existing sensors or to replace those sensors with smart, connected devices. As with many technologies, prices of IoT-enabled sensors are falling. In commercial applications, replacing existing sensors nevertheless can be expensive.
More daunting, wholesale replacement can require rethinking a business process. This combination of cost, asset life cycle, and inertia means that many solutions will rely on existing sensors augmented with either communication capabilities or additional sensors. As a company rolls out new business assets, those can be outfitted with new sensor networks.
In contrast, consumer applications often require new smart sensors—either as standalone additions to an existing asset or to be embedded in a replacement asset. Current standalone examples include smart thermostats and security systems. Sensors are also being embedded in cars, domestic appliances, and consumer electronics. In a best-efforts communication network, the customer essentially gets what is available. There are no guarantees on data speed, responsiveness, availability, error rates, or other performance attributes.
For some services, such as downloading or streaming content, this can prove bothersome: Almost everyone has experienced delays while the viewing software waits for the missing bitstream to arrive, or been forced to reboot when an Internet-based application freezes.
To compensate, many customers end up buying more bandwidth—capacity and speed—than they actually need and hope that in most circumstances this will enable a reasonable service level. Currently, almost all wireless connections provide a best-efforts approach to communications 3 —in other words, the availability, data transfer rate, packet loss rates, and latency are subject to the vagaries of contention for capacity between users, interference, and radio propagation.
In contrast, a managed-communications solution shifts to the CSP the burden of ensuring a reliable bitstream, opening the door to customer applications that demand reliable real-time or near-real-time connectivity over wide distances or other similarly demanding constraints.
The International Telecommunications Union identifies three dimensions of managed services: 4. When connecting sensors to networks—that is, when linking the create and communicate stages of the value loop—lost information and transmission delays can generate a variety of undesirable outcomes, especially when IoT-generated data are driving the operations of heavy equipment or public utilities.
Closer collaboration between network users and network service providers can help avoid such difficulties because the technologies enabling each IoT deployment can be configured to address the specific GoS and QoS performance levels required. QoE tends to take center stage when we get to analyze and act.
On the downside, managed solutions can be comparatively expensive to construct and operate—certainly more so than ad-hoc best-efforts wireless systems—but they can solve legacy issues such as requesting sensor data, managing the relationship between multiple sensor data streams, and understanding whether a sensor has failed or is just unable to communicate.
Mapping the options for sensors legacy versus new and communications networks best-efforts versus managed reveals four categories of IoT deployments, each defined by the primary dimension of value most affected by the relationship between the company deploying an IoT solution and its CSP see figure 1.
Locating a given IoT deployment and its associated value loop provides a roadmap for assessing the viability and advisability of evolving current solutions to potentially more valuable—even if more demanding—configurations. By examining each quadrant through the lens of a specific use case, we can begin to understand the value that each combination can create, as well as the implications for collaboration between a company and its CSP.
The current IoT emphasis on cost savings and IP-based solutions, with a heavy reliance on wireless communications typically a best-efforts network , has resulted in very few examples of customization, which relies on managed communications. This self-contained approach is representative of highly customized solutions. IoT systems that require high security, uninterrupted connections, and the latest technology are typically deployed in circumscribed environments running proprietary protocols over a hardwired network.
Early IoT solutions aimed to solve point problems, such as how to make a machine more productive or autonomous; the next step is using the IoT to make a system, with multiple machines, work in concert, and this requires managed communications. Second, the communications technologies required today for customized solutions are likely to follow in the footsteps of previous telecom technologies: falling costs and increasing modularization.
As quality improves and prices fall, more companies will likely find customized solutions, implemented in collaboration with a CSP, increasingly attractive. Consequently it makes sense to explore the other three categories of IoT communication deployment not only in terms of how firms are currently using the technology but also in terms of how companies might migrate their current approaches to this more demanding, but more rewarding, configuration.
Furthermore, since few companies will have the luxury of starting over with their IoT strategies, unencumbered by legacy systems or budget constraints. Consider the mining industry, where most large mine vehicles have been fitted with sensors since before anyone spoke of an Internet of Things.
Initially, this system was designed to enable data download from the vehicle; now Caterpillar can link it to a system such as MineStar 12 that allows fleet management and vehicle health monitoring over a radio link—usually The bottleneck in the create phase is the cost and complexity of measuring new vehicle attributes and fundamentally changing vehicle sensors.
But this will necessarily limit the potential value from IoT solutions. As companies look to exploit IoT capabilities more fully, one way forward is to migrate to more carefully managed networks: With long-lived assets—such as haul trucks, with sensors built into the engine—it is easier to upgrade the network than the sensors. For example, some mine haulage companies are beginning to deploy autonomous vehicles by retrofitting 14 additional sensor systems collision-avoidance sensors and positioning systems and networking them through a managed communications system.
There are already mining applications emerging for which companies are deploying localized managed communications. For example, in many underground situations, companies deploy a wired and wireless data network for telemetry, monitoring, and limited remote operations. But these private networks, while built to a high standard and with extensive redundancy built in, cannot truly offer fully managed communications.
As with other firms and industries with IoT deployments in the cost quadrant, mine haulage companies moving toward customization demands both upgrading to new sensors and working with CSPs to implement a managed communications system. Some companies, working with last-generation sensors installed years ago, have moved to convert their existing connections into IoT functionality by dramatically upgrading the communication links between their sensors, working with CSPs to improve and control communications.
For example, in managing its wind turbines, GE tapped its existing range of sensors, including lasers that measure the wind heading for the turbine and sensors in the turbine linked to others at the wind-farm level, at the storage system, and in the distribution grid. The system analyzes tens of thousands of data points every second to integrate hundreds of megawatts into the grid. The GE system has six interconnections that communicate with each other: turbine to turbine, farm to farm, farm to grid, turbine to remote operations center, turbine to battery, and turbine to tech.
These solutions are largely focused on improving the generating capabilities of an individual wind farm. The next step for GE, and for other companies with legacy sensors and managed communications, is moving to wide-area managed communications and broader sensor networks.
Since wind power is less reliable and predictable than traditional fossil-fuel generation, power grids that aim to integrate it often struggle to match supply with demand. The bottom line: As wind power becomes a more significant component of power generation, wide-area managed-control networks will likely be necessary to effectively integrate this new power source.
So in the case of mining operations, the shift to managed communications offers significant benefits; the key tradeoff appears to be deploying a local private network or purchasing managed communications from a CSP.
In the wind-turbine situation, the choices are the same, but the wide-area nature of the communications means that a CSP solution likely makes more sense. Consumer-oriented IoT devices are a recent development, so naturally the sensors at the heart of their functions are more nearly up to date. An example is the Fitbit fitness band, the latest iteration being the Surge, 17 which measures exercise activities, heart rate, steps, and route information for example, distance, pace, gain.
However, those limitations may hamper efforts to integrate the device into a personal health-and-fitness ecosystem. Today Fitbit can be integrated with other analytics and sensors systems, but this relies on the user to create the integration and offers limited increased functionality. While part of a sophisticated ecosystem of analysis, a Fitbit band is nevertheless hamstrung by best-efforts communication. With more sophisticated communication links, a Fitbit would be able to interact with other sensors and actuators.
Finally, the Fitbit could interact with the exercise machine for more sophisticated workouts. Thus it is likely that at least some companies will shift some consumer applications from best-efforts communications to managed situations, allowing for much more complex interactions between devices and for consumer devices to take on more critical functions. Even so, making such a shift requires careful consideration: for many consumer applications, a shift from best-efforts to high-powered, top-security managed communications would be both impractical and overkill.
The basic functionality envisioned for a smart refrigerator or thermostat is not materially compromised by the momentary hiccups and delays of a Bluetooth or Wi-Fi connection, and no hacker would bother attacking such a small target. Also key: Consumer-device manufacturers sell highly standardized products to a global market, with no control over which networks consumers may use for their new IoT devices, making managing those communications problematic at best. Some consumer-facing companies will be able to make the move to the customization quadrant; many will not.
Obviously, companies constitute only half of the partnership that can get them to the customization stage, with managed communications to link and draw value from new IoT sensors. CSPs—soon to be tasked with connecting millions of new devices and users, carrying both sensor data and sensitive information 19 —will play an important role, one that both requires more from them than in the past and offers far greater opportunity to create value.
This application is based up and claims the benefit of priority for prior Non-provisional patent application Ser. Mobile data communications can enable a wide variety of services. However, mobile data providers, such as cell phone providers, mobile virtual network operators MVNO's , or mobile virtual network enablers MVNE's , have processes—for example, provisioning processes—that are tailored for standard cell phone services. In particular, an equipment provider or another type of customer for mobile data communications may desire to provide equipment enabled to use mobile data communications. In order to test that the equipment is fully functional with a mobile data communications provider, the equipment provider in the current environment most likely will be required to completely activate the equipment i. When the testing is complete, the service plan will likely be terminated, and the final customer will be required to reactivate the service plan with customer billing.
Mobile communications page
A cellular telephone is designed to give the user maximum freedom of movement while using a telephone. Mobile communications is a hot topic. The number of mobile communicationdevices users is growing very fast. The number of mobiles cellular phones is now exceeding the number of fixed lines in many countries Finland, Japan etc.
Mobile communications page
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Humans have long dreamed of possessing the capability to communicate with each other anytime, anywhere. Kings, nation-states, military forces, and business cartels have sought more and better ways to acquire timely information of strategic or economic value from across the globe. Travelers have often been willing to pay premiums to communicate with family and friends back home. The dream is close to becoming reality.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Communication Protocols for Industrial Automation
Catharines, Ontario, Canada E-mail: mpilkington brocku. The replacement of inorganic semiconductors with molecule-based compounds for applications in current-to-light conversion has led to a significant increase in interdisciplinary collaborations worldwide, affording new improved organic-light emitting diodes OLEDs ripe for commercial applications, as well as light-emitting electrochemical cells LECs that have recently started to head to the market. This review highlights the role that transition metal coordination complexes TMCs have played in advancing the field of molecular electronics, from early conception to the advanced development of several polypyridyl complexes currently pursued for both OLED and LEC concepts. We discuss how molecular design is pivotal for fine-tuning color and optimizing power efficiencies, highlighting the key roles of the metal, cyclometalate, and ancillary polypyridyl ligands. In addition, we have surveyed the remarkable photophysical properties of third generation TMCs capable of undergoing thermally activated delayed fluorescence TADF. Since previous reviews of TADF materials are strongly biased towards organic-based systems, this overview compliments other synopses of light emitting TADF materials. The article was received on 22 Feb and first published on 16 Aug
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The IoT revolution, requiring a dramatic increase in strong, secure communication links, offers providers an opportunity to not only play a larger role but to create new value. The Internet of Things IoT has become increasingly visible thanks to the rise of intelligent thermostats, interactive fitness trackers, and the promise of autonomous vehicles. Such technologies are compelling because they make the things around us smarter and more interactive. Connecting all these devices is what turns isolated pockets of technology into a network that generates and pools data in ways that lead to valuable insights. Thanks to the central role of communications in many IoT deployments, how companies create value is often a function of the interaction between sensor technology and the network layer. Linking new and legacy sensors within an IoT ecosystem often means that companies seeking to realize value from the IoT need to work closely with their communication services providers CSPs. Such collaboration is unlikely to come easily to either party. Consumers of communications services can easily overlook the challenges associated with creating the sort of connectivity required to realize the full benefit of IoT technology.
Inter-System and Intra-System Protocols
The good old traditional analog days are in the past. Today, digital technology dictates many aspects of human lives. From entertainment to transportation, there is no escape from the digital age. Back then, car sensors were minimal and system upgrades were simple. Fast forward a couple decades and automobiles have become more technologically developed and environmentally conscious. All but the most basic vehicles have in-vehicle computers that rely on various sensors to deliver real-time precision adjustments. However, connecting all individual sensors would be too complex, so a central communication network became necessary to efficiently run the vehicle.
CAN Bus: The Central Networking System of Vehicles
Embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, and largely complex systems like hybrid vehicles, MRI, and avionics. Complexity varies from low, with a single microcontroller chip, to very high with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. Future trends in embedded systems will include revolutionary technologies such as embedded security, real-time data visualization, network connectivity, and the IoT, and deep learning capabilities. Embedded System is an electronic system or device which employs both hardware and software. A processor or controller takes input from the physical world peripherals like sensors, actuators etc. The various components have to communicate with each other to provide the anticipated output. An automobile system as such has in it many embedded systems which individually deals with controlling breaks, doors, mirrors, rare and front object indicators, engine temperature, wheel speed, tyre pressure, DVD control etc. Establishing communication among various microcontroller based systems is essential to implement a distributed embedded application. Communication Protocols are a set of rules that allow two or more communication systems to communicate data via any physical medium.
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HomePlug is the family name for various power line communications specifications under the HomePlug designation, with each offering unique performance capabilities and coexistence or compatibility with other HomePlug specifications. Some HomePlug specifications target broadband applications such as in-home distribution of low data rate IPTV , gaming, and Internet content, while others focus on low-power, low throughput, and extended operating temperatures for applications such as smart power meters and in-home communications between electric systems and appliances.
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