The coquilla nut is a seed pod from a Brazilian palm tree Fig A. It is well suited to the wood turner's lathe, in that it yields a smoothly polished surface, which is easily fashioned into resiliently hard implements. Notice the coquilla nut to the left Fig B1 where a top portion was smoothed on a turner's lathe, with a bottom portion remaining in a natural state as found on the palm tree. The nut is nearly solid, with one end indented by two small, bristle-lined cavities Fig B2. Coquilla nuts were extensively manufactured into buttons, drawer knobs, umbrella handles, bell pulls, small toys and a wide variety of novelty items, to include nutmeg graters. Notice that the stem at the top Fig C1 and the calyx on the bottom Fig C3 are beautifully rendered.
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The coquilla nut is a seed pod from a Brazilian palm tree Fig A. It is well suited to the wood turner's lathe, in that it yields a smoothly polished surface, which is easily fashioned into resiliently hard implements. Notice the coquilla nut to the left Fig B1 where a top portion was smoothed on a turner's lathe, with a bottom portion remaining in a natural state as found on the palm tree.
The nut is nearly solid, with one end indented by two small, bristle-lined cavities Fig B2. Coquilla nuts were extensively manufactured into buttons, drawer knobs, umbrella handles, bell pulls, small toys and a wide variety of novelty items, to include nutmeg graters. Notice that the stem at the top Fig C1 and the calyx on the bottom Fig C3 are beautifully rendered.
Observe that this example is "plain" and free from added ornamental turning. Nineteenth century wood turners report that when lathed, coquilla "admits of an admirable polish and of being lackered. A machine-stamped tin grater is fitted into a ring-shaped, carved-bone housing.
This assembly screws neatly inside the top cover. Observe the absence of any wood grain; freckling, seen both inside and out, is a characteristic most notable to the coquilla nut. Since the term coquilla is derived from the Portuguese name coquilho , some speculate that early Portuguese navigators were the first to import this seed into Europe.
Although historical accounts pertaining to coquilla nut seem unusually absent from European publications prior to , there is evidence that seventeenth century Europe was acquainted with this seed.
During recent maritime scientific exploration of late 17th century shipwrecks found on the floor of the North Sea, divers discovered coquilla nuts among the surrounding wreckage.
Elsewhere, excavative research at archaeological sites indicates that Dutch manufacturers fashioned "buttons" from the "nut of the Brazilian Attalea funifera palm", dating from the 17th through the 19th centuries. Because there are more than palm species world-wide, it is thought that early botanists had difficulty to decipher the genus of the palm from which the coquilla nut derived, thus little was conclusively delineated. Contradictory names and genus were established; some being published as: A.
Because of this confusion, later publications by nineteenth century botanists make brief reference to past species taxonomies, either reducing historical accounts to a short single sentence, or simply listing several of these early designations without elaboration. Throughout the nineteenth century, the British government tracked and taxed importation of "Coquilla Nuts, per ".
In England during , approximately , seeds were sold for 30s to 40s per thousand count. In , this quantity diminished to ,, while roughly 80, entered British ports in By , the media was reporting a demise in stock quality: "The supplies of this, In observing the few surviving advertisements, one learns that coquilla nut novelties were primarily produced in England during the first three-quarters of the nineteenth century:.
They supplied ornamental turners with a large variety of exotic materials. Their advertisements, as seen from the late 's through , prominently featured coquilla nuts among their expansive assortment of imported stock.
Manufactures Fashions and Politics ; his ladies fashion magazine. The article reads as follows:. In operation before , Ackermann's store traded in refined art and luxury items. Although he sold articles constructed from coquilla nuts, the type of items and their duration of availability are not known. Among his annual catalogs of antique books for sale, he expanded his catalog inventory of rare books to include several novelty "coquilla nut articles" for sale at his shop. At the age of 15 or 16, he started his own business at Rheidol Mews.
The articles to be exhibited by Mr. Over a twenty year period, Eades attempted to sustain a business as an independent ivory and wood turner in London; yet, engaging in three separate ventures, each initiative resulted in bankruptcy , , Ironically, nutmeg graters remain absent from listings of his very expansive product line. At age 48, establishing a more successful business, Eades became an "Automatic Machine" trader. Automatic machines were specialty wood lathes, that when set up, would automatically and repeatedly operate to produce a specific turning or decorative trim.
Given his prior work, Eades was well suited to this endeavor. In the 's, Richard Eyres Eades had developed his secondary career, becoming a skilled and accomplished photographer. In at age 68, he died in Edmonton, England, a London suburb. Although there is no known advertisement or written account specifically listing coquilla nut nutmeg graters, many modern collectors possess them in a variety of forms.
Based upon inspection of innumerable antique coquilla nut nutmeg graters, one concludes that these nutmeg graters were all produced by one specific, but as yet, unidentified maker. Notice that their basic design, styling, composition of materials, workmanship, and production quality are uniformly replicated across each example. No documentation pertaining to coquilla nut nutmeg graters is known to exist from any woodworker's shop advertisement, printed product label, manufacturer catalog listing, buyer's receipt or any other written source which might lead to the identification of their manufacturer.
Magnify these numbers of craftsmen throughout Great Britain or over Europe while spanning numerous decades and the identification of the actual maker of coquilla nut nutmeg graters becomes like finding a needle in the haystack. Therefore, discovering the woodworking firm that produced these nutmeg graters seems unlikely. Sometimes the form or style of nutmeg graters provides meaningful clues when attempting to establish a date or period of their manufacturer.
Turners and carvers often created coquilla nutmeg graters in the form of acorns, buckets and pears Fig, G, Fig H, Fig C , which are style revivals from earlier periods. Silver acorn shaped nutmeg graters date to the mid-eighteenth century and small silver bucket-form nutmeg graters were most common to the 's. The nineteenth century coquilla examples are nearly twice in size, and are only reminiscent to their earlier silver counterparts.
Nearing the turn of the century, pear-form luxury items, such as treenware tea caddies, were made in England and Germany. Although most guess that these coquilla nut pear-form nutmeg graters Fig C1 date to this Regency period, maybe not; this pear form was later reintroduction by the silversmiths, Thomas Hilliard and Edward Thomason of Birmingham, England.
Due to periodic reintroduction of these popular shapes and forms, no definitive production date was identified based on coquilla nut nutmeg graters forms. Upon examination, the illustrated grater assembly Fig D has a domed shaped tin grater, with machine punched rows of teeth, inserted inside a ring-shaped, lathed-bone housing.
The technology to punch-out a tin grater surface a in a dome shape and b with uniform machine-stamped teeth, evolved in England about Inspecting a large quantity of this maker's nutmeg graters, the tin graters generally appear as if punched out using the same instrument, being uniform in both size and perforation patterns usually with 10 teeth crossing the center row tapering to edge rows having only 4 teeth.
Place a half-dozen of these ring-shaped bone grater assemblies together and they appear indistinguishable from one another. Surprisingly, the ring-shaped bone graters are not interchangeable, each being created to counter thread only with its intended cover. This indicates that these grater assemblies were not being mass-produced; a feature in fabrication commonly seen prior to the mid-nineteenth century, probably before Although these nutmeg grates are commonly referred to as "coquilla nut", close scrutiny reveals that only some were constructed entirely from the coquilla nut, while others were entirely constructed using imported hardwoods and still others were created with a mixture of both coquilla and wood.
The coquilla nut grater on top Fig F1 screws into a hardwood storage receptacle on bottom Fig F2. The wood has the appearance and hardness of kingwood, striped ebony or calamander wood [the later described as "very hard, dense and heavy" with coloration of "fine chocolate colour, now deepening almost into absolute black"; reported as first imported into England in the 's].
These exotic woods were described among complete listings of imported hardwoods, as discussed within 's and 's English manuals designated to assist turners and furniture manufacturers. Although the acorn form pocket nutmeg grater Fig G is made entirely from coquilla, the bucket form pocket nutmeg grater Fig H and the bottle form nutmeg grater Fig I are lathed entirely in the same wood possibly that of kingwood, striped ebony or calamander.
The distinctive line-etched ornamental turning among this entire group of nutmeg graters is easily recognizable, and an indication that these products are works from a singular turner's shop.
Quick tooling yielded slight imperfections and uneven spacing in the ornamentation, which is characteristic to all of these nutmeg graters. The maker applied a dark stain to provide a unified facade and to camouflage the use of differing materials.
However, the stain applied to "mixed material" examples, absorbed differently, dependent on the various materials coquilla being the least absorbent. Observe the shorter table grater Fig F noticing that coquilla nut top is lighter and more orange in color than its darkened wooden base. Acorn form coquilla nut nutmeg graters are readily obtainable by present-day collectors, but table coquilla nutmeg graters are moderately rare. The bucket form example is hard to find and the bottle form nutmeg grater is very rare.
Click Me! Evidence that Dates To 17th Century Europe: Since the term coquilla is derived from the Portuguese name coquilho , some speculate that early Portuguese navigators were the first to import this seed into Europe. A Botanical Perspective: Because there are more than palm species world-wide, it is thought that early botanists had difficulty to decipher the genus of the palm from which the coquilla nut derived, thus little was conclusively delineated. The Manufacturers of the Coquilla Nut Nutmeg Grater: Based upon inspection of innumerable antique coquilla nut nutmeg graters, one concludes that these nutmeg graters were all produced by one specific, but as yet, unidentified maker.
Dating Nutmeg Graters Based on Form: Sometimes the form or style of nutmeg graters provides meaningful clues when attempting to establish a date or period of their manufacturer. Should you find information to confirm a manufacturer of coquilla nut nutmeg graters, please let us hear from you!
Sterilization and pasteurization of spices, powder, herbs and grains. A variety of microbial reduction techniques are routinely employed within the industry for reduction of pathogens. These techniques include: fumigants ethylene oxide and propylene oxide , steam and irradiation. Each technique has advantages and limitations in effectiveness, quality impact and consumer acceptance.
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Herbal And Oleoresin Extraction Plants
Thank you Your Enquiry has been sent successfully. Manufactured by making use of high-grade basic material, these products conform to the established quality parameters of the industry. These plants are used for the extraction of essential nutrients, herbal medicines and any phytochemicals from various parts of a plant or tree. These products are widely demanded in national and international market for its efficiency and high durability.
Essential oils are steam volatile oils distilled from plant materials and represent the typical flavour and aroma of a particular plant. They are found in flowers, leaves, roots, seeds and barks and find use principally in perfumery and flavourings. They are thus low-volume, very high value products. This makes them attractive crops for remote smallholders where high transport costs prevent the transport of lower value cash crops. Table 1 shows the important constituents of some common essential oils. Table 1 - Essential oils The quality of the oil obtained from a particular species will be influenced by where it is grown and how it has been processed. New producers are likely to meet with resistance from buyers as this is a very conservative market depending to a great extent on trust regarding supply and quality. Once established trading relationships are made, however, reliable markets can be gained. Lemon, lime and orange oils are also produced in very large amounts.
And while I occasionally think I am close to running out of things to write about, every once in a while, a flabbergastingly spectacular thing occurs… a totally out of context, local and amazing bit of produce or dish or item presents itself. The other day, it was a bag filled with locally grown nutmeg and mace Myristica fragrans , freshly harvested from a lone tree lovingly raised somewhere in Laguna…. I suspect not more than a handful of readers have ever seen mace and nutmeg this fresh. Unless you have been to plantations on the spice islands, or are a particularly avid foodie, this is a very rare opportunity indeed.
We previously discussed who Design Fugitives is, as a company, so our current series of blog posts are going to give some insight into who we are individually. Our diverse personalities are what make dF such a unique and creative company. To paint an accurate picture of our newest designer, Siara, we first need to capture her goofy yet caring nature. About a month after Siara joined the Design Fugitives team, she took it upon herself to spruce up the office. In an attempt at beautification, she chose some plants, named them as one does , hand-built them planter boxes, and placed them around the space. Due to the lack of direct sunlight in our office, most of the plants chosen were succulents, but we branched out and picked up a fern named Nutmeg and a hanging flower plant Brenda. However, one unfortunate afternoon, Siara took Nutmeg and Brenda on a field trip outside to get some much-needed sunshine. They spent the day happily soaking up the sun, but when Siara checked on them at the end of the day, they were sadly missing.
Triscuit Nutmeg & Cinnamon crackers
The use of essential oils EOs and their components is known since long in traditional medicine and aromatherapy for the management of various diseases, and is further increased in the recent times. The neuroprotective and anti-aging potentials of EOs and their possible mechanism of actions were evaluated by numerous researchers around the globe. Several clinically important EOs and their components from Nigella sativa , Acorus gramineus, Lavandula angustifolia, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Jasminum sambac, Piper nigrum and so many other plants are reported for neuroprotective effects. This review article was aimed to summarize the current finding on EOs tested against neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer disease AD and dementia. Furthermore, effects of EOs on other neurological disorders including anxiety, depression, cognitive hypofunction epilepsy and convulsions were also evaluated in detail. In conclusion, EOs were effective on several pathological targets and have improved cognitive performance in animal models and human subjects. Thus, EOs can be developed as multi-potent agents against neurological disorders with better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness. Essential oils EOs represent a mixture of highly complex, naturally occurring, volatile compounds synthesized by plants as secondary metabolites. The EOs are abundant in flowers, leaves, seeds, rhizomes, barks and are usually isolated via hydro-distillation, cold pressing methods Edris,
Essential oils (Practical Action Brief)
Nutmeg Myristica fragrans Hoult. Soil and climate Friable, well drained clay to red soils is suitable. This crop can be grown up to an elevation of m with - cm of rainfall, humid tropical climate. Seeds are harvested during June - July. Sown immediately after extraction in beds at a spacing of 30 cm and 2. Germination commences from 40 days and extends up to 90 days after sowing. Transplanted to poly bags 35 x 15 cm one year old seedlings are transplanted to bigger poly bags 35 x 20 cm. Seedlings transplanted to main field from 18 - 24 months.
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Sterilization and pasteurization of spices, herbs and grains
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the wild relatives of crops and cultivated species found in India, covering their distribution, phylogenetic relationships with cultivated species, traits that are of economic and breeding value, and the perceived threats. It highlights the opportunities the wild relatives of cultivated species offer in terms of new genes and allelic variability, as well as several other exploitable economic and environmental benefits that can be harnessed with their conservation and cultivation. This helps facilitate their use — both directly and as part of the breeding program for related cultivated species, filling the gaps of genetic variability in the primary gene pool.
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Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica. It is also a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter. The California nutmeg, Torreya californica , has a seed of similar appearance, but is not closely related to Myristica fragans , and is not used as a spice.