Did you know the very first pair of Levis were made of hemp? And did you know that hemp was planted near and around the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site to pull radioactive elements from the ground? Derived from the Cannabis Sativa plant, the fibres of hemp are well known for their durability and ruggedness. In their raw state, hemp fibres are yellowish grey to deep brown. Prior to Levis Strauss' ingenious use of hemp to create his first jean, hemp was largely used as an industrial fibre, but soon became popular in the textile world after it was used in this first pair of jeans. Materials made from hemp have been discovered in tombs dating back to 8, B.
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Plant Fibres for Textile and Technical ApplicationsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Entrepreneur turning lotus plants into luxury fabric
Fibers are natural or chemical structures that can be spun into yarns. Yarns then can be weaved, knitted, or bonded into fabrics. Fiber properties and behavior are directly related to fabric performance and care. Learning about fibers and their characteristics will help you to understand fabrics better. Four major natural fibers and 23 man-made fibers are available.
Natural fibers come from plants and animals. The plant fiberscotton and linenare made of cellulose. Animal fibers, silk and wool, are made of protein. Two classes of man-made fibers are those adapted from cellulose cellulosic and those made entirely of chemicals noncellulosic.
Noncellulosic man-made fibers often are called synthetics. Each fiber is identified by a generic name. The Textile Fiber Products Identification Act that officially established the generic fiber classifications became effective in All fibers natural or man-made , yarns, fabrics, and household textile articles includes articles of wearing apparel, draperies, floorcoverings, furnishings, beddings, and other textiles customarily used in a household , are covered by this Act.
Generic names are assigned by the Federal Trade Commission and are used to classify fibers according to their organic composition. The generic or official name is the key word you need to know and understand. The Identification Act also stipulates that the product must be labeled. The label must name the manufacturer, the country where processed or manufactured, and the generic names and percentages of all fibers in the product in amounts of five percent or more listed in order of predominance by weight.
Fibers present to the extent of less than five percent may be listed as "other fiber" or "other fibers. Some fabrics are made from a blend of two or more fibers. The fiber making up at least 50 percent of the blend will most influence fabric characteristics.
In addition to generic names, there are hundreds of trade names or trademarks. A trade name or trademark is the word or symbol used by fiber producers to distinguish their products from the products of other manufacturers. The trademark is registered with the U.
Patent Office, and the fiber manufacturer who produced that fiber is the only one allowed to use the registered name. For examples, polyester is the fiber or generic name, and Dacron is a company trademark for polyester; acrylic is the fiber or generic name, and Orlon is a company trademark for acrylic.
A basic understanding of fibers, in terms of their characteristics, uses, and care requirements will help you make wise choices when purchasing textile and clothing products. Relatively fast drying. Shrink and moth resistant. Sensitive to heat, silverfish, mildew, and acetone nail polish remover. Blouses, dresses, foundation garments, lingerie, linings, shirts, slacks, and sportswear. Found in fabrics such as brocade, crepe, double knit, faille, jersey, lace, satin, taffeta, tricot, and in blends with other man-made fibers.
Most must be dry-cleaned. If washable, use gentle cycle, mild detergent, and warm water. Drip dry and press with low temperature on wrong side while damp. Use a fabric softener to reduce static cling. Can lose body during laundering process. Retains shape, dries quickly, and is wrinkle-resistant. Resists sunlight, mildew, and insects. Sometimes has the tendency to pill. Sensitive to heat. Dresses, infant wear, knitted garments, skirts, ski wear, socks, sportswear, sweaters, and work clothes.
Found in fabrics such as fleece, pile, simulated fur, sweater knit, and in blends with natural and other man-made fibers. Usually machine washable and dryable at medium to low temperatures. Dries quickly and needs little or no pressing. Oily stains need pretreatment before washing. When pressing, use warm not hot iron. Aramid Trademark names: Kevlar, Nomex. Highly flame-resistant, high strength, and maintains shape. Protective clothing, military helmets, bullet-proof vests, and applications where fire-resistance is important.
Resists mildew and moths. Sensitive to heat and acetone nail polish remover , collects static electricity, may pill excessively, and is nonabsorbent.
Children's sleepwear, blankets, deep-pile coats, linings, simulated fur, wigs, and hair pieces. Found in industrial, deep-pile, fleece, and fur-like fabrics. Use low temperatures for washing and pressing. Abrasion resistant, retains shape, and is resistant to moths and mildew. Absorbs and holds body oils, collects static electricity, tends to yellow, may pill, and has low moisture absorbency.
Sensitive to some insects ants, crickets, and roaches. Blouses, dresses, foundation garments, hosiery, lingerie, underwear, raincoats, ski and snow apparel, suits, windbreakers, bedspreads, curtains, and upholstery. Found in a range of woven and knitted fabrics.
Also found in blends with natural and other man-made fibers. Machine washable and dryable at medium to low temperatures. Hang promptly. Wash whites separately because they tend to pick up colors from other fabrics. Pretreat oil stains. Rinse with cold water to minimize wrinkling. Use fabric softener to reduce static cling. Abrasion-resistant and quick-drying. Resistant to mildew, insects, soils, and stains. Sensitive to heat, and may pill.
Pantyhose, underwear, knitted sportswear, hosiery, sweaters, upholstery, and hunting apparel. Found in industrial apparel and home furnishing fabrics. Machine washable and dryable at low temperatures. Do not iron. Blot stains with absorbent tissue. Rinse in cold water to minimize wrinkling. Suitable for high performance, protective apparel such as fireman's coats, astronaut's space suits, and applications where fire-resistance is important.
Generally insect-resistant. Collects static electricity, sensitive to heat, absorbs and holds body oils, and may pill. Blouses, shirts, dresses, children's wear, hosiery, insulated garments, ties, lingerie, underwear, permanent press garments, slacks, and suits.
Superior wash and wear performance. Machine wash and dry at medium to low temperatures. Hang promptly; press only if necessary. Pretreat oily stains. Some rayons wrinkle easily and become weak when wet. Sensitive to mildew and silverfish. Blouses, coats, dresses, jackets, lingerie, linings, millinery, draperies, rainwear, slacks, sport shirts, sportswear, suits, ties, work clothes, and upholstery.
Found in a range of woven and nonwoven apparel and home furnishing fabrics. Follow care label instructions precisely. Some rayons may need to be dry-cleaned. Some are washable but do not wring or twist. Drip dry and press on wrong side while damp. Spandex Trademark name: Lycra Strong, durable, lightweight, and high degree of stretch. Resists wrinkling, abrasion, and body oils.
Tends to yellow with time. Athletic apparel, bathing suits, foundation garments, golf jackets, ski pants, slacks, support and surgical hose, and any fabric or garment where elasticity is desired. Machine wash and dry at low temperatures. Wash whites separately. Drip dry or machine dry at low temperature. Do not use chlorine bleach.
Sfiligoj Smole, S. Hribernik, K. Stana Kleinschek and T. Advances in Agrophysical Research. Recently natural and made-man polymer fibres are used for preparation of functionalised textiles to achieve smart and intelligent properties. There are numerous application possibilities of these modified materials.
Ramie Fibre Processing and Value Addition
There are more than 2, different plant fibres in the world. Although most of them have no economic importance, they are still used in order to meet regional demands and needs. Plant fibres can be classified according to the part of the plant they come from, such as; 1- seed fibres cotton , 2- stem fibres linen, hemp, jute , 3- leaf fibres sisal , 4- fruit fibres coconut, zucchini fibre. Cotton: Today, cotton fibers are used in many industries for yarn and weaving and knitting fabrics, as a material used for filling pillows, quilts and mattresses, as stuffing material in interior furnishings, in producing artificial silk, smokeless gunpowder, varnish, artificial leather and cellulose. Its seeds are used in many other industries, such as for making vegetable oil, soap, oil paints and oilcloth, and the pulp is also used as fodder for animals and fertilizer.
List of textile fibres
We know it can be difficult to understand exactly what sustainable fashion means, and the material your clothing is made from plays a BIG role in its environmental impact. There are a lot of different sustainable fibres and fabrics out there, many of which are on this list. It's a list in progress, and when new fibres enter the market we will continue to update them here. Alpaca Wool Alpaca wool is made from the fleece of the South American alpaca, although often softer than sheep's wool and also hypoallergenic.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Processing Hemp Fibers - Combing Spinning
Learn More:. Some of the tree-related facts with regard to viscose rayon are chilling--while cotton plants are replaced seasonally on the farm, pine trees, for example, take years to regenerate after harvesting for viscose rayon. Furthermore, nearly 30 percent of the viscose rayon used in the fashion industry are harvested from ancient and endangered forests worldwide. The harvested trees go through a harsh chemical process to remove everything bark, lignin, etc. Both of these molecular qualities combine to make cotton fiber much stronger than rayon fiber. The same two molecular properties also lead to the amazing fact that cotton fibers increase in strength when wet, whereas viscose rayon fibers lose strength when wet. Improved wet strength is important for nonwovens like dry wipes that are used to absorb spills, and also for added strength in pre-moistened wet wipes. Higher wet strength is also an asset for medical products that are used to clean and protect, absorb bodily fluids, and even to support organs during surgery.
Series on Fibres: Turning Hemp into Fabric
Ramie fibre comes under bast fibre category, which can be classified as underutilised fibres. The high potential of ramie fibre is not fully exploited due to various techno-economic reasons. It is one of the strongest natural fibres having rich cellulose content. Apart from textile uses, ramie fibre can be utilised for the production of various diversified products.
Sustainable Fibres and Textiles provides a whole-lifecycle approach to the subject of sustainable textiles, from fiber production, through manufacturing and low-energy care and recycling. The scientific, industrial, regulatory and social aspects of this lifecycle are explored by an expert author team who bring global perspectives to this important subject. The first part of the book provides detailed coverage of the sustainable production of textiles, with chapters devoted to each of the main fiber types, including new biosynthetic fibers, such as textiles produced from Polylactic Acid PLA. The second part examines sustainable production methods, focusing on low carbon production technologies and sustainable, low-pollution methods of processing and dyeing fabrics. The final sections explore the benefits of textiles designed to enable low-energy fabric care via both finishes used to treat the fabric and better care labelling. Re-use and recycling options are also covered, as are ethical aspects, such as fair trade fabrics. Sustainable Fibres and Textiles. Presents an integrated understanding of sustainability through the whole supply-chain — from agriculture, through manufacturing and fabric care, to recycling Teachers users how to make optimal choices of fiber and manufacturing technologies to achieve the sustainable production of high-quality apparel and other textile products Provides a wider understanding of emerging regulatory frameworks that will shape the future of sustainable textiles. One Sustainable fibre production.
Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
Chemical Technology. Elsevier , Chemical Technology is based on lectures the author gave at the Technische Hochschule of Karlsruhe and at the University of Freiburg. Part 1 of this book deals with chemical technology and describes subjects dealing with apparatus, unit operations, and chemical economics. The text reviews industrial chemical reactions, raw materials preparation for reaction, thermal and catalytic processes, and a history of chemical technology.
Plant Fibres for Textile and Technical Applications
Fibers are natural or chemical structures that can be spun into yarns. Yarns then can be weaved, knitted, or bonded into fabrics. Fiber properties and behavior are directly related to fabric performance and care. Learning about fibers and their characteristics will help you to understand fabrics better. Four major natural fibers and 23 man-made fibers are available. Natural fibers come from plants and animals.
Popular Mechanics. Popular Mechanics inspires, instructs and influences readers to help them master the modern world.
Just kidding! And there are two major reasons why:. Rayon was invented over years ago, and was widely commercially produced starting in the s.
Thousands of detail drawings and carefully researched text by experts in the field guide readers in the design of interior spaces that perform as well as delight. Including all-new material on computer technologies and design practices influencing contemporary interior design projects, Interior Graphic Standards, Second Edition makes it easy for designers to stay current with recent trends. This new edition includes:.
Textile fibres or textile fibers see spelling differences can be created from many natural sources animal hair or fur, insect cocoons as with silk worm cocoons , as well as semisynthetic methods that use naturally occurring polymers, and synthetic methods that use polymer-based materials, and even minerals such as metals to make foils and wires. The textile industry requires that fibre content be provided on content labels. These labels are used to test textiles under different conditions to meet safety standards for example, for flame-resistance , and to determine whether or not a textile is machine washable or must be dry-cleaned.