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Behind the beauty of the High Desert are many environmental factors that create challenges for any gardener, from the novice to the expert.
Learning how to work with these challenges can allow you to have a successful and beautiful garden. Some of the main factors that contribute to these difficulties are temperature, precipitation, soil types, elevation, USDA hardiness zones, and microclimates. This guide will provide you with gardening tips and techniques specific to Central Oregon so that you can have a more successful vegetable garden. Many people are attracted to semi-arid Central Oregon because of its many sunny days and clear nights.
Interestingly, on these clear nights, the ground and surface air cool significantly a phenomenon known as nighttime radiative cooling , which can lead to having frost almost any time of the year, even during the growing season. Periodically, this happens even during the hotter months of July and August. Higher elevations are especially susceptible and can have frost during the summer months. Frequent frost can negatively impact garden plants, reducing growth and yield.
Table 1 gives approximate dates of when it is safe to put frost-tolerant and frost-sensitive plants in your garden. Frost-tolerant plants are those that will not be damaged by a light frost. Frost-sensitive plants are those that may be damaged by a light frost. These temperature fluctuations often cause perennial plants to bud out prematurely, only to get nipped by frost at a later date.
Cold injury can cause damage to flower buds when closed or after they open. This explains why getting fruit to set on fruit trees in this region can be challenging. To get a better understanding of temperature fluctuations in your garden, you may want to purchase a max-min thermometer and record daily temperatures.
Spring and fall months on the high desert do not warm up and cool down gradually like they do in more temperate regions. Sudden temperature changes can damage plant tissue e. The growing season varies each year, due to low evening temperatures and frost occurrence; however, you can approximate the length of the growing season based on averages taken over the years See Table 2. The growing season ranges from 60 to growing days, with the shorter seasons occurring in the higher elevations and southern regions of Central Oregon, such as La Pine and Sunriver.
There are also many microclimates in Central Oregon. A microclimate is defined as the climate of a small area e. For example, a microclimate may be an area that is colder or warmer, wetter or drier, or more or less prone to wind. Some of the factors that affect a microclimate include cold air pockets, topography, wind, bodies of water, and the location of houses or other structures. Microclimates can affect the success of plants in your own backyard and should be considered when selecting vegetable varieties.
Precipitation, another factor that affects plant growth, is often referred to in terms of rainfall. In the high desert, natural precipitation ranges from 8 to 22 inches per year; however, most of it falls as snow during the winter. During the growing season April through September , the amount of naturally occurring precipitation for Central Oregon is only 3 to 6 inches, making supplemental irrigation a necessity for most vegetable crop production See Table 3. Central Oregon increases in elevation as you go from north to south.
The elevation in Warm Springs is 1, feet, which increases to 4, feet in La Pine. Locations at higher elevations tend to have winters that are longer and colder see Table 2. Other effects of higher elevation include lower night temperatures, especially during the growing season, and more intense sunlight year-round; if excessive, both of these factors can reduce the rate of photosynthesis and crop yield. Selecting a site for your vegetable garden will depend on where and how much space is available, and, in some cases, neighborhood regulations.
However, regardless of size, here are some of the more important factors to consider when selecting a site:. Most native soils in Central Oregon are a fine sand to sandy loam, and tend to be very sterile with minimal organic matter generally less than 1 percent.
This type of soil does not hold high quantities of water or nutrients without some modification. Amending the soil with organic material such as compost or aged manure free from weed seeds, disease pathogens, and herbicide residue will help improve water holding capacity, soil microorganism activity levels, and the overall fertility of the soil.
Ideally, sandy soils should have 2 to 3 percent organic matter. Soil testing prior to planting can be useful to determine the soil pH and nutrient levels, allowing time for adjustments. Remove weeds and sod from the planting area to avoid competition for water and nutrients.
The soil pH in Central Oregon is generally between 6. Most vegetable crops prefer a more acidic soil pH of 6. If your soil is too alkaline, add elemental sulfur in quantities of 4 to 6 pounds per square feet in the spring. Sulfur needs time to break down and gradually lower the soil pH, so the sooner 6 months to a year ahead of time you can apply it to the site before planting the better. In other parts of the country, where soil is more acidic, adding lime is a common practice to increase calcium and raise the pH; however, this is rarely needed for backyard gardening in Central Oregon.
Ideally, you want to achieve 3 to 6 percent organic matter in your site, so continually add organic matter to the planting area each season. Vegetables require more nutrients from the soil than ornamental plants, and it will be important to replenish the site as needed. It may also be important to till the soil initially to alleviate soil compaction and turn in an amendment; however, be careful not to over till which can destroy soil structure.
You can add manures to your garden area in the fall to break down over the winter. Avoid using pig, cat, and dog manure as they can harbor pathogens that affect human health. If using horse, cow, or chicken manure, allow it to age for a minimum of 6 months so that the nitrogen levels are not too high.
Before acquiring horse or livestock manure, ask the supplier what the animals were fed, the origin of the feed, and what herbicides, if any, were used to spray the pasture to avoid using manure containing herbicide residue carryover. Soil temperature plays a significant role in how fast a plant grows.
If the soil is warmed to an optimum range for a particular crop, both plant growth and yield will likely increase. In a short growing season, you can warm up the soil earlier than usual by judiciously using plastic mulches in the spring or by planting in raised beds, which heat up more quickly than the ground. Consider using a green manure, or cover crop, in your garden area.
A cover crop is a type of crop planted to prevent soil erosion, nutrient leaching, and weed growth between plantings of other plants. Generally, these are quick-growing crops planted either at the end or immediately before the start of the garden season; cereal grains and legumes are the most common types of cover crops grown in Central Oregon.
Ideally, a winter-hardy, fall cover crop should be planted a month or so before heavy frosts, so the plants can establish well. When the tops of young plants are winter-killed, just leave them lying on the soil as a cover; the plants will start to regrow in the spring. Cover crops can also be planted as fillers in between a spring and fall planting of cool-season vegetables. When a cover crop grows to about 6 to 10 inches tall or starts to flower, cut the plants from their roots by mowing, weed whacking, or shearing them with pruning shears.
Then, turn all the plant material, including roots and tops, into the soil. Because soil nitrogen will be used to break down the tilled-in cover crop, it becomes unavailable to new crops. Therefore, it is important to wait 2 or 3 weeks before planting your desired crop so that soil nitrogen will be available. The use of cover crops helps build and protect garden soil and increases soil life both microorganisms and macroorganisms.
When growing, the cover crop protects the soil from exposure to weather and sun. When tilled into the soil, the cover crop adds organic matter such as cellulose and lignin, which helps give the soil good structure.
The nutrients stored within the cover crop become available to soil organisms that then release these nutrients back into the soil to become available for plants again. Incorporating cover crops into the garden rotation can greatly benefit Central Oregon soils. Recommended spring cover crops include alfalfa, clovers, peas, and vetches.
For a fall cover crop, consider winter wheat, cereal rye, triticale, winter barley, or winter peas. Composting is a great way to turn some of the garden, yard, and kitchen debris that typically goes to the landfill into an organic-rich amendment you can put back into your garden.
The resulting organic matter feeds the soil, releases nutrients for plant use, conserves moisture, and adds air space into the soil. Composting, wherever it is done, requires the correct mixture of brown material, green material, air, and moisture.
Hot composting can be very successful in Central Oregon if the pile is managed well. The most critical aspect in a hot pile is moisture.
Central Oregon compost piles are prone to drying out quickly, so it is important to check the moisture level in the pile weekly. If you are seeing ants in your compost pile, it may be too dry. For people using commercially made bins, it is important to add a dry material such as straw or shredded newspaper, either mixed with the wet waste or in alternating layers.
This absorbs some of the excess moisture and, when layered, helps control the vinegar flies that are so common to small composters.
See Backyard Composting. Vegetables can be grown in a variety of arrangements, from a few small containers up to a large plot of land and everything in between. There are some innovative design sites available online that can assist you with spacing, garden layout, and suggested crop rotation. The following are some of the more common ways to design your garden.
Traditional vegetable gardening in the ground can be achieved with either a fixed plot or a flexible one, which can be modified each year for plant placement, crop rotation, pathways, etc. Plots in the ground will need to be amended with organic material to improve the growing environment and may need to be tilled initially, if compacted. Be sure the soil is pliable to allow for unrestricted root growth. Space rows accordingly for easy harvesting, weeding, etc.
Container gardening is a great option for growing vegetables if you have limited space, time, or money to invest. Another benefit is that it eliminates the poor soil conditions and soil-borne pathogens found in traditional gardening. For a container, you can use just about anything nontoxic will not leach chemicals or heavy metals into the soil that will hold soil and moisture, but consider the following tips to assure a more successful garden.
Raised beds are a great option for Central Oregon. Compared to an in-ground bed, the soil in a raised bed will warm up more quickly in the spring and will maintain heat longer into the fall, thus extending the season.
Additional advantages of raised beds include improved soil drainage, less soil compaction, easy access, and more intensive gardening in a smaller space. For raised beds more than 12 inches deep, limit their width to no more than 6 feet wide. This will allow you to access the center of the bed without difficulty. The deeper the raised bed, the greater the need for good drainage, because a deep raised bed is basically a giant container garden. If designing a raised bed which uses structural supports such as timber or retaining wall blocks, fill the bed with a combination of soil amendments, one that will provide some organic matter and another that will allow for adequate drainage e.
Si usted no entiende la etiqueta, busque a alguien para que se la explique a usted en detalle. If you do not understand the label, find someone to explain it to you in detail. This Standard contains requirements for the protection of agricultural workers on farms, forests, nurseries, and greenhouses, and handlers of agricultural pesticides. It contains requirements for training, decontamination, notification, and emergency assistance.
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Articles: Growel trial in potato cultivation in Morocco Potato fertilisation — Potassium and Magnesium for high yield and good quality Introduction: I. Importance of potato cultivation in Morocco Potato cultivation dates back to Morocco since the French colonization period Anonymous, It currently ranks first among vegetables grown in the country Skiredj,
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In , India produced Indian farmers grow an amazing number that is different vegetables but potato, tomato, onion, cabbage and cauliflower account for 60 per cent of total production. It is projected that the domestic vegetable requirements will rise from current levels of 91 million tonnes to million tonnes by To increase domestic vegetable production, improvements are first needed in the vegetable seed industry.
Rice is the staple food for Asian people; it is prepared by cooking or ground as flour for bread making, thus helping to feed the rest of the world population. Various kinds of rice are produced to suit the taste of the consumers. Rice cultivation is done either in marshy, lowland areas with plenty of water or in plateau or hilly regions where natural rainfall provides adequate amounts of water. Rice can be cultivated either by hand or by partial or full mechanization, according to the technological development of the country and the need for productivity. Whatever kind of operation is done, the following step-by-step processes are necessary. Working conditions should be improved and the health hazards reduced through increased mechanization. Ergonomic interventions to organize the work and working equipment, and systematic training of the body and its movements to ensure good working methods, are essential.
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The generic IPM Guideline for vegetable crops is now available. Click here to download. The impacts of neonicotinoid use in horticulture has led to public concerns around the use of these agrichemicals in crops and as seed treatments. Public concerns focus particularly on impacts on the environment, the effect on the health of bees and colony collapse, and a decline in insect numbers in many countries, as well as human health and food safety issues.
Print friendly PDF. This publication provides general information for growing vegetables in home gardens in New Mexico. Circular B includes a map showing New Mexico growing zones, as well as a table providing crop variety recommendations, recommended planting dates, days to harvest, planting instructions, and yield information. A well-planned vegetable garden can provide nutritious, high-quality, fresh vegetables for the whole family. A ft by ft garden will provide enough growing area for an average family. Though a well-maintained vegetable garden can be a lot of work, the outdoor exercise will mean better health for all involved. These eight steps will lead to a successful garden. The types of vegetables that can be grown in home gardens in New Mexico are generally determined by the length of the growing season. There are three major growing zones in New Mexico—north, central, and south—based on the average number of frost-free days refer to Circular B. Crops like okra and watermelons have difficulty maturing in areas with short growing seasons like Los Alamos. Kale, on the other hand, does not fare well in areas with hot summer weather like Roswell.
The fruit and vegetable sector in the EU - a statistical overview
Behind the beauty of the High Desert are many environmental factors that create challenges for any gardener, from the novice to the expert. Learning how to work with these challenges can allow you to have a successful and beautiful garden. Some of the main factors that contribute to these difficulties are temperature, precipitation, soil types, elevation, USDA hardiness zones, and microclimates. This guide will provide you with gardening tips and techniques specific to Central Oregon so that you can have a more successful vegetable garden. Many people are attracted to semi-arid Central Oregon because of its many sunny days and clear nights. Interestingly, on these clear nights, the ground and surface air cool significantly a phenomenon known as nighttime radiative cooling , which can lead to having frost almost any time of the year, even during the growing season. Periodically, this happens even during the hotter months of July and August. Higher elevations are especially susceptible and can have frost during the summer months.
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In , 1. This article describes the fruit and fresh vegetables  sector in the European Union. A range of agricultural data from a number of Eurostat agricultural statistics farm structure survey , annual crop production statistics, agricultural prices, agricultural economics accounts are used, in addition to trade statistics, industrial production statistics and data on the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables in order to depict the various stages in the process of bringing fruit and vegetables from fields to the market. About 1.
Our comprehensive crop guides take you crop-by-crop through common vegetables and fruits for backyard gardeners. Each guide explains how to plant, when to plant, best harvest practices, how to save seeds, and how to deal with common pests and diseases naturally, setting you on your way to growing organic vegetables and fruits in your home garden successfully. We hope these guides help you in your gardening journey, introduce you to new crops and growing techniques, assist when you have to troubleshoot a problem, and ultimately lead you to bigger, more successful harvests. Growing artichokes as annuals that bear edible buds their first season requires an early start, but properly handled artichoke plants will prosper in a wide range of climates.
Some products are described in detail as examples for a given active ingredient AI. For more information on other products with the same AI, refer to the example.
Wael M. Elwakil, Nicholas, S.