The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications of optical microscopes, electron microscopes, scanning tunnel microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes. The interface of microscopy with digital image acquisition methods is discussed. The recent developments and future perspectives of contemporary microscopic imaging techniques such as three-dimensional and in vivo imaging are analyzed for their clinical potentials.
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- The Fresnel Lens Makers by Thomas Tag
- Automated real-time monitoring of human pluripotent stem cell aggregation in stirred tank reactors
- Wassenaar Arrangement 2017 Plenary Agreements Implementation
- Infinity Corrected Optics
- Space & Scientific Instrumentation: earth observation, laser-satellite communication, astronomy
Looking for other ways to read this?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS - Lecture 2 - JEE Mains 2020 - Doubtnut JEE - Class 12
Sign In View Cart 0 Help. Share Email Print. Volume Details. Volume Number: Date Published: 12 July Table of Contents. Irizar; M. Melf; P. Bartsch; J. Koehler ; S. Weiss; R. Greinacher; M. Erdmann; V. Kirschner; A. Perez Albinana ; D. Martin Show Abstract. The current paper will focus on four themes.
Second, the key design drivers will be described. Third, the key optical technologies carried on board the instrument will be elaborated. Riedl; M. Harlander; C.
Schlosser; M. Kolm; R. Maurer; G. Pachot; B. Ahlers ; S. Grabarnik ; L. Gambicorti; M. Sallusti; G. Bulsa; G. Bagnasco Show Abstract. The mission objective is the operational monitoring of trace gas concentrations for atmospheric chemistry and climate applications. It will continue and improve the IASI mission in the next decades in the field of operational meteorology, climate monitoring, and characterization of atmospheric composition related to climate, atmospheric chemistry and environment.
The performance objective is mainly a spectral resolution and a radiometric error divided by two compared with the IASI first generation ones. The measurement technique is based on wide field Fourier Transform Spectrometer operating in the 3.
We present here the design of the instrument, the development status of the main units, critical technologies and subsystems and the first test results performed on engineering models. The single payload of the satellite is the hyperspectral imager HSI. The EnMAP on ground swath of 30km is sampled with 30m.
The instrument features a telescope with a 18cm aperture. In addition, the instrument features calibration capabilities using a deployable, full aperture solar diffuser in front of the telescope and on-board calibration sources that can be fed into the spectrometers. The instruments demanding requirements on thermal stability are covered by an active thermal control of the whole instrument using loop-heat pipes.
In this proceeding, we give a short overview on the design, application and current integration status of the mission, which is currently in Phase D. Active optics for next generation of space observation instruments Author s : T. Viard ; J. Blanc; C. Devilliers ; F. Champandard; B. Bailly; F. Falzon; J. Ghibaudo; D. Sucher; G.
Briche; V. Costes; C. Du Jeu Show Abstract. Thales Alenia Space has been involved in the design and the development of space observation instruments for over 40 years. This paper will explain why active optics is needed for next generation of instruments for Earth observation. We will also describe what kind of solution is preferred and why.
We will give an overview of the development status on the associated technologies. Indeed, the future missions will have to deal with better performance, better optical quality while from manufacturing point of view, the total mass, the development schedule and the final cost have to be reduced. These constraints induce a new generation of solutions based on large entrance optics associated to high lightweight ratio which naturally provide solutions sensitive to gravity deformation.
In these conditions, the enhancement of the final performance can only be guaranteed by using active optics in flight. Moreover, low mass and low cost require more compact designs which entail solutions more sensitive to misalignment.
An active positioning mechanism is then also needed in order to correct the telescope alignment during operation conditions. Thales Alenia Space has been selected by CNES to develop and qualify active optics building blocks and then to test and demonstrate the improvement that new active technologies can bring in a full size instrument representative of the next generation of observation instruments. An overview of the current development status and the achievable performances is given.
The multi-billion dollar Earth observation applications market continues to demand better spatial and temporal resolution; simply put, this means bigger apertures and more satellites. This system will allow many identical satellites to be launched into a constellation from a single launch vehicle, providing a low-cost solution to rapid-revisit high resolution imaging requirements.
Alternatively, two or three satellites could be launched in a dedicated small satellite launch vehicle, where previously only one would have fit. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. SSTL has already demonstrated low-cost 1m GSD imagery from the Carbonite-2 platform, but the deployable telescope solution presented here provides the opportunity to build on this capability by significantly improving revisit time, without the typical increase in cost.
The three-concentric barrel deployable structure and mechanisms are discussed including the associated requirements and trade-off study that led to this design.
The dynamic nature of this system exacerbates traditional optical challenges such as alignment and stray light control; solutions to these are proposed, the optical design rationale is explained and predicted imaging performance shown. The novel autonomous fine alignment system, both algorithms and mechanisms, is presented.
The last section deals with the spacecraft level implications and accommodation. Then finally the constellation level system design is shown with regards to the launch vehicle options and orbit configuration for coverage optimization; both global and target-specific. Deployable optics can bring major cost reductions to the field of Earth Observation. One of the key challenges in the development of a deployable optical system, however, is making sure that it can meet its performance targets following its deployment.
In this paper, a novel active correction system for a deployable telescope is described. The correction system co-aligns and phases the primary mirror segments and subsequently corrects remaining aberrations using a deformable mirror.
A novel phasing sensor called PistonCam can bring telescope segments into phase while the telescope is staring at extended scenes. After phasing process has been completed, a moving scene sharpness optimization technique is used to correct the remaining aberrations with a deformable mirror, The technique does not require a constant scene, unlike existing sharpness optimization techniques. As such, the telescope does not need to track a ground scene during the correction process.
The technique can also be used for continuous correction of telescope deformations. The active optics system offers robust aberration correction, is computationally inexpensive and requires limited additional optical hardware. The urgent need for the precise, real-time position metrology between the optical components in a modern space camera is becoming more critical with the increased resolution, aperture, focal length, and light-weighted structure.
Gravity offload, composite material humidity desorption, temperature cyclical variation with the illumination, and micro-vibration on platform would introduce unpredictable affect to decrease the imaging quality.
The solution of the optical system disorders would mainly rely on the ground-based stimulation and on that basis, active optics compensation, which could not be accurate. This influence expands within the opto-mechanical structure complexity. This paper represents an implement solution for position and attitude metrology used for on-orbit real-time measurement. To deal with the contradiction of system accuracy and simplicity, we simplified the system to a measurement model equivalent to 6 degree of freedom Stewart Platform structure.
The works on this paper tightly coupled to the accuracy requirement of a long focal length optical system. After carefully compare the systematic requirement and balance the implementation costs, we applied the common-path, multi-channel heterodyne interferometers to accomplish the large-scaled coarse measurement for the step disturbance and small-range fine measurement to sense the ambient vibration.
The metrology accuracy analysis and error evaluation indicated an effectiveness of this metrology system, which met the requirement of our given optical system. It was indicated in this paper that the metrology method could be generalized in other optical systems and similar long focal length optical systems in the future.
Furthermore, our design features a single-stage fiber amplifier with an amplification factor of about 20 dB. This paper covers the requirements on the laser source for LISA, the design and first results of performance characterization of the laser head breadboard.
Shortt; L. Mondin; P. McNamara; K. Dahl ; S.
The Fresnel Lens Makers by Thomas Tag
These robust systems, which establish communication links by transmitting laser beams directly through the atmosphere, have matured to the point that mass-produced models are now available. Optical wireless systems offer many features, principal among them being low start-up and operational costs, rapid deployment, and high fibre-like bandwidths. These systems are compatible with a wide range of applications and markets, and they are sufficiently flexible as to be easily implemented using a variety of different architectures. Because of these features, market projections indicate healthy growth for optical wireless sales. Although simple to deploy, optical wireless transceivers are sophisticated devices.
Automated real-time monitoring of human pluripotent stem cell aggregation in stirred tank reactors
Hand tools, power tools, workshop equipment, complete van racking system, special military tools for tanks and aircrafts , light and case systems. Comprises trading and engineering companies for electronic, measuring and testing equipment including electronic components. Spheres of application: aviation, defense and electronic industries. Sales, repairs, production and upgrades of military vehicles, spare parts, weapons, ammunition and other military equipment.
TNO cooperates with companies, the public sector and other organisations, to apply our knowledge and expertise with and for others. TNO offers you the chance to do groundbreaking work and help customers and society with innovative, practical and smart solutions. On TNO Insights you can read in-depth interviews and articles. From ground-breaking climate research and satellites for observational systems, to non-invasive medical research and semiconductor production: we have a lot to thank optical scientific instruments for, including their use in space technology. The Netherlands has a strong international position in the development and implementation of innovative and optical instruments for use in space and science. Ever since its foundation, TNO has been active in the field of advanced optical instruments, and for over 50 years has been developing instruments for use in space, astronomy, scientific research and manufacturing industry. The measuring instruments contribute to dealing with important social issues, spur on science and form the basis for hi-tech industry and job opportunities in the Netherlands.
Wassenaar Arrangement 2017 Plenary Agreements Implementation
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Many companies were involved in the development and refinement of the Fresnel lens. Some supplied only the glass for the lenses, either in rough form, or both cast and polished. Other companies assembled the glass elements and performed finish work on the lens elements. Still other companies produced both the glass and the finished lenses. This story will be divided into several parts, each discussing one or more of these companies and their contribution to the development of the Fresnel lens. We will describe the development of the early Fresnel lenses and define the companies and individuals who took part in this effort. Augustin Fresnel had assistance from many sources as he developed and perfected his lens. The players in this story have become blurred by time and confused due to their unusual interrelationships. Hopefully, this story will help to alleviate the confusion.
Infinity Corrected Optics
Before Infinity corrected objectives were introduced about a decade ago, all microscopes had a fixed tube length. Microscopes that do not utilitze an infinity corrected optical system have a specified tube length - that is, a set distance from the nosepiece where the objective is attached to the point where the ocular sits in the eyetube. The Royal Microscopical Society standardized microscope tube length at mm during the nineteenth century and this standard was accepted for over years. When optical accessories such as a vertical illuminator or a polarizing accessory are added into the light path of a fixed tube length microscope the once perfectly corrected optical system now has an effective tube length greater than mm. In order to adjust for the change in tube length manufacturers were forced to place additional optical elements into the accessories in order to re-establish the mm tube length. This usually resulted in increased magnification and reduced light. German microscope manufacturer Reichert started experimenting with Infinity corrected optical systems in the s and were followed later by Zeiss and Leica.
Space & Scientific Instrumentation: earth observation, laser-satellite communication, astronomy
Sign In View Cart 0 Help. Share Email Print. Volume Details. Volume Number: Date Published: 12 July Table of Contents. Irizar; M.
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Transformation optics applies metamaterials to produce spatial variations, derived from coordinate transformations , which can direct chosen bandwidths of electromagnetic radiation. This can allow for the construction of new composite artificial devices , which probably could not exist without metamaterials and coordinate transformation. Computing power that became available in the late s enables prescribed quantitative values for the permittivity and permeability , the constitutive parameters , which produce localized spatial variations.
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