This publication is intended as a general guide. Just because something is purchased by a farmer, it is NOT automatically tax exempt. Anyone claiming exemption must be able to show they are entitled to it. Taxable purchases from suppliers who do not collect Iowa sales tax are subject to Iowa use tax if the purchase is for use in Iowa. Anyone making these kinds of purchases regularly must register for a consumer's use tax permit.
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Fuels for use in vehicles (Excise Notice 75)VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: John Deere 4520 Re-power Time-lapse - Welker Farms Inc
A portable engine is an engine , either a steam engine or an internal combustion engine ,  that sits in one place while operating providing power to machinery , but unlike a stationary engine is portable and thus can be easily moved from one work site to another.
Mounted on wheels or skids, it is either towed to the work site or moves there via self-propulsion. Portable engines were in common use in industrialised countries from the early 19th through early 20th centuries, during an era when mechanical power transmission was widespread.
Before that, most power generation and transmission were by animal , water , wind , or human ; after that, a combination of electrification including rural electrification and modern vehicles and equipment such as tractors , trucks , cars , engine-generators , and machines with their engines built in displaced most use of portable engines.
In developing countries today, portable engines still have some use typically in the form of modern small engines mounted on boards , although the technologies mentioned above increasingly limit their demand there as well. In industrialised countries they are no longer used for commercial purposes, but preserved examples can often be seen at steam fairs driving appropriate equipment for demonstration purposes.
Portable engines during their heyday were typically towed to their work sites by draft horses or oxen , or, in the latter part of that era, motive power including self-propulsion or towing by traction engines , steam tractors , other tractors , or trucks. They were used to drive agricultural machinery such as threshing machines , milling machinery such as gristmills , sawmills , and ore mills , pumps and fans such as in mines and oil wells , and factory line shafts for machine tools , power hammers , presses , and other machines.
In common with many other areas of steam technology, the initial design and development of portable engines took place in England , with many other countries initially importing British-built equipment rather than developing their own. Early steam engines were too large and expensive for use on the average farm; however, the first positive evidence of steam power being used to drive a threshing machine was in in north Yorkshire. It was used to drive a corn threshing machine and was much cheaper to run than the horses it replaced.
Indeed, it was so successful that it remained in use for nearly 70 years, and has been preserved by the Science Museum in London. They were used to drive such barn machinery as pumps and hammer mills, bone-crushers, chaff and turnip cutters, and fixed and mobile threshing drums. It was not until about that the truly portable engine appeared, allowing the application of steam power beyond the confines of the farmyard.
William Tuxford of Boston, Lincolnshire started manufacture of an engine built around a locomotive-style boiler with horizontal smoke tubes. A single cylinder and the crankshaft were mounted on top of the boiler, and the whole assembly was mounted on four wheels: the front pair being steerable and fitted with shafts for horse-haulage between jobs. A large flywheel was mounted on the crankshaft, and a stout leather belt was used to transfer the drive to the equipment being driven.
Ransomes built an early portable in and exhibited it at the Royal Agricultural Society show that year. The next year Ransomes converted the steam engine to self driving, thus making the first traction engine.
Several Tuxford engines were displayed at the Royal Agricultural Society 's Show at Bristol in , and other manufacturers soon joined in, using the basic design of the Tuxford engine as a pattern for the majority of portable engines produced thereafter. This last manufacturer is particularly noteworthy here. In , the company won a gold medal for a portable engine at the Royal Agricultural Society's Gloucester show, and thereafter the business expanded rapidly: they established a second works, in Vienna in , to target the European market, and by the company had manufactured over 26, portable engines, many being exported all over the world.
In parallel with the early portable engine development, many engineers attempted to make them self-propelled — the fore-runners of the traction engine. In most cases this was achieved by fitting a sprocket on the end of the crankshaft, and running a chain from this to a larger sprocket on the rear axle.
These experiments met with mixed success. Other builders manufactured engines around the world. Small machine shops could assemble units with a small engine and vertical boiler and put it on wheels. Native builders erected engines in France, Italy, Sweden and Germany. However, the portable engine was never completely replaced by the traction engine.
Firstly, the portable, having no gearing , was markedly cheaper, and secondly, numerous applications benefitted from a simple steam engine that could be moved, but did not require the additional complexity of one that could move itself. Small numbers of portables continued to be built even after traction engine production ceased. Robey and Company of Lincoln were still offering portables for sale into the s. The English builders produced in the order of , portable steam engines in the hundred year time period both for home use and export abroad.
From about onward, the requirement for a small cheap source of power on farms was increasingly taken over by internal combustion engines, such as hit-and-miss engines and, later, stationary and portable industrial versions of car and truck engines, either for belt use or built into engine-generators. Apart from threshing work, portable engines were used to drive corn-mills, centrifugal pumps , stone-crushers, dynamos , chaff -cutters, hay-balers and saw benches.
They were even used to generate electricity for floodlighting at football matches, the first instance being at Bramall Lane , Sheffield in In general, the portable engine is hauled to the work area, often a farmyard or field, and a long drive belt is fitted between the engine's flywheel and the driving wheel of the equipment to be powered.
In a number of cases, rather than being towed from site-to-site, the portable engine was semi-permanently installed in a building as a stationary steam engine , although the wheels were not necessarily removed. A more extreme use occurs where the engine is removed from the boiler and is re-used as a stationary engine.
Often, the boiler is also re-used without its wheels to provide the steam. As of , there are still examples of such dismantled portable engines working commercially in small rice mills in Burma  and, no doubt, elsewhere too. Such examples are easy to identify due to the curved saddle, below the cylinder block, that was used to mount the engine to the boiler.
Thousands of 1 horsepower portable engines were built in China, during the Great Leap Forward of Every village and peasant was encouraged to build a small iron smelter and produce pig iron.
To power the blowers to sustain the retort temperatures, small straw burning engines were built. It was all to no effect as the end pig iron was of very poor quality for any use. The most common arrangement follows the original Tuxford design. Although this closely resembles the common layout of a traction engine, the engine of a portable is usually reversed, with the cylinders at the firebox end and the crankshaft at the smokebox end.
This layout was designed to position the regulator close to the firebox, making it easier for the engineman to maintain the fire and control the engine speed from the one location. An added bonus is that the flywheel is clear of the rear road wheels so the latter can be set on a narrower track, making the engine easier to manoeuvre through field gates.
A few makers e. Fowler made their portable engines in the same style as traction engines, with the cylinder at the smokebox end. This was probably to reduce manufacturing costs, as there is no other obvious benefit of doing this. Thomas Aveling realised that, for a traction engine, it would be better to position the flywheel within reach of the driver in case he carelessly allowed the crank to stop on top dead centre  where it could not self-start and most other traction engine manufacturers followed this same idea.
This is usually a fire-tube boiler with a locomotive -type firebox. However, some designs e. This latter type were also known by British manufacturers as 'colonial' boilers, as they were mainly intended for export to 'the Colonies' , and had a high ground clearance for travelling along rough tracks.
Fuel is usually coal but the engine may be designed to use wood fuel , straw or bagasse sugar cane residue instead. A longer, circular firebox is particularly suitable for burning logs rather than shorter wood billets. Most portable engines are single-cylinder but two-cylinder engines were also built. The slide valve is usually driven by a single eccentric and no reversing gear is fitted. There is usually a belt-driven governor to keep the engine running at constant speed, even if the load fluctuates.
The engine may have one or two flywheels mounted on the same crankshaft. Where two are provided, they are mounted either side of the engine and may be of different diameters.
A smaller flywheel provides a slower speed for farmyard work e. The crankshaft drives a boiler feedwater pump which draws water from a barrel placed alongside the engine.
Many engines have a simple, but effective, feedwater heater which works by blowing a small portion of the exhaust steam into the water barrel. The barrel also acts as an oil separator. Oil in the exhaust steam rises to the top of the barrel and can be skimmed off. A tall chimney is provided to ensure a good draught for the fire. To permit negotiation of overhead obstacles, the chimney is hinged at its base, and is folded down for transport and storage. A suitably shaped bracket is usually provided towards the firebox end to support the chimney when folded.
Most designs are fitted with four wheels and no suspension of any kind. The first portables had wooden wheels, but as the engines became more powerful and heavier , fabricated steel wheels were fitted instead. The 'front' wheels are normally smaller than those at the back.
This is because they are mounted on the swivelling fore-carriage , under the smokebox, and large wheels would be liable to hit the boiler when the engine was turned around a corner. An added bonus is that a larger diameter flywheel may be fitted, providing a more steady power output. Many portable engines still survive, as they were built in large quantities and were shipped to many remote corners of the Earth. A substantial number of them have been preserved, with many restored to full working order: their relatively small size and simpler construction, compared to a traction engine , makes them a much more viable proposition for restoration by the average enthusiast.
That is, provided the boiler is in reasonable condition: boiler repairs can be very expensive; replacement boilers even more so. It is usually possible to see portable engines working at traction engine rallies and steam festivals.
At the Great Dorset Steam Fair , for example, portable engines may be found in the relevant demonstration areas driving saw benches, threshing machines, rock crushers and other contemporary equipment. What is thought to be the oldest surviving Marshall product, works no. This engine is also the oldest documented portable in Australia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Main article: wheel. New English Library. Richard Trevithick Lifelines 6. Shire Publications. Pride of the Road. The Encyclopedia of British Football. Spartacus Educational. Retrieved Examples of portable engines converted to stationary use, in Burma. Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, Australia. Turon Technology Museum Museum of Power. Categories : Stationary steam engines Steam engines Agricultural machinery. Hidden categories: Commons category link is on Wikidata.
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Derek Casey. With temperatures set to plummet in the coming days farmers are being advised to prepare their farms for the severe conditions. Tractors are often even more critical on farms during bad weather. Here we outline some tips on how to keep it running in cold weather. If an athlete tries to perform to maximum ability without first warming up they will likely do damage.
5 tips for post-harvest storage
Smartline is a standard ship automation system based on technology platform MCS MTU supplies drive and propulsion systems for oil platform operations around the globe. Deep in the Canadian Rockies, straddling two national parks, lies one of the largest non-polar ice fields in the world — the Columbia Icefield. ValueCare Agreements give you the power, performance and peace of mind to do just that. It takes revolutionary thinking to develop a smart rail drive system like the Hybrid PowerPack.
The hourly cost of the tractor with operator is called the machine rate. In cases where the machine and the elements of production are not rented, a calculation of the owning and operating costs is necessary to derive the machine rate. The objective in developing a machine rate should be to arrive at a figure that, as nearly as possible, represents the cost of the work done under the operating conditions encountered and the accounting system in use. Most manufacturers of machinery supply data for the cost of owning and operating their equipment that will serve as the basis of machine rates. However, such data usually need modification to meet specific conditions of operation, and many owners of equipment will prefer to prepare their own rates. For certain cash flow analyses only items which represent a cash flow are included.
I squatted down in the dirt and took stock of my inadequate tools. Over my left shoulder a massive John Deere tractor loomed. I came here to fix that tractor. Ten years ago, I started iFixit, an online, DIY community that teaches people to repair what they own. Repair is what I do, and that I was being rebuffed by a tractor was incredibly frustrating. Kyle Wiens is the co-founder and CEO of iFixit, an online repair community and parts retailer internationally renowned for their open source repair manuals and product teardowns. I tossed my wrenches and screwdrivers. The conventional tools of my trade had no power here. This job called for something different. Armed with wire, alligator clips, a handful of connectors, and a CANbus reader, I launched myself back into the cab of the tractor.
Run Tractors and Other Diesel Engines at Peak Performance
This book makes no pretensions to originality. It has taken the best from every source. The author believes the matter has been arranged in a more simple and effective manner, and that more information has been crowded into these pages than will be found within the pages of any similar book. The professional engineer, in writing a book for young engineers, is likely to forget that the novice is unfamiliar with many terms which are like daily bread to him. The present writers have tried to avoid that pitfall, and to define each term as it naturally needs definition. Moreover, the description of parts and the definitions of terms have preceded any suggestions on operation, the authors believing that the young engineer should become thoroughly familiar with his engine and its manner of working, before he is told what is best to do and not to do. If he is forced on too fast he is likely to get mixed. The test questions at the end of Chapter III. The system of questions and answers has its uses and its limitations. The authors have tried to use that system where it would do most good, and employ the straight narrative discussion method where questions could not help and would only interrupt the progress of thought.
Zero-Rated Farm Equipment
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Farming is one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. Mechanical, chemical, and environmental hazards put agricultural workers at risk for accidents. In alone, farmers died in work-related accidents. Many of these deaths are due to tractor roll-over and mishaps with other machinery. Machinery such as tractors and power tools pose the greatest injury risk on the farm. Nationwide in there were over 50, disabling injuries in agricultural operations. It is important to be safety-conscious when dealing with any job that requires the use of machinery. Statistics show that the majority of machinery-related accidents occur as the result of human negligence. The most commonly utilized pieces of equipment around the farm are tractors, trucks, wagons, mowers, spreaders, grinders, blowers, augers, post hole diggers, shredders, balers, rakes, combines, and all-terrain vehicles ATVs.
Farm Fuel. What is a Fuel Cell? The "Ene-Farm" fuel cell is a co-generation system that produces electricity through a chemical reaction between oxygen in the atmosphere and hydrogen extracted from city gas. Running the day to day tasks on a farm can be time-consuming.