Journal of Environmental Protection Vol. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Received April 14 th , ; revised May 16 th , ; accepted June 13 th , Sachet water was introduced in Ghana to provide safe, hygienic and affordable instant drinking water to the general public. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of storage on the quality of sachet-vended water produced in the Tamale Metropolis. Two brands of sachet water were sampled freshly after production Six packs or bags , transported to the laboratory and analysed.
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Drinking of water on the production floorVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Long Term Water Storage: Water Preservers Are Bullshit!
Produced water is an inextricable part of the hydrocarbon recovery processes, yet it is by far the largest volume waste stream associated with hydrocarbon recovery. Increasingly stringent environmental regulations require extensive treatment of produced water from oil and gas productions before discharge; hence the treatment and disposal of such volumes costs the industry annually more than USD 40 billion. Consequently, for oil and gas production wells located in water-scarce regions, limited freshwater resources in conjunction with the high treatment cost for produced water discharge makes beneficial reuse of produced water an attractive opportunity.
A fifth of the population lives in areas of water scarcity, and one in eight lacks access to clean water. Currently, properly treated produced water can be recycled and used for waterflooding [produced water re-injection PWRI ] and other applications, such as crop irrigation, wildlife and livestock consumption, aquaculture and hydroponic vegetable culture, industrial processes, dust control, vehicle and equipment washing, power generation, and fire control Veil et al. These beneficial reuses directly decrease the withdrawal of potable water, a highly valuable commodity in many regions of the world.
Although produced water can potentially be treated to drinking water quality Tao et al. This includes water naturally occurring alongside hydrocarbon deposits, as well as water injected into the ground. The following are the main contaminants of concern in produced water:.
The amount of produced water, and the contaminants and their concentrations present in produced water usually vary significantly over the lifetime of a field.
Early on, the water generation rate can be a very small fraction of the oil production rate, but it can increase with time to tens of times the rate of oil produced. Treatment has three main stages.
In pre-treatment, the bulk of the oil and gas, as well as coarse particles are removed. This is followed by the main treatment, which focuses on further removal of small hydrocarbon droplets and small particles from the water. This is achieved in two steps of treatment. The primary step removes larger hydrocarbon droplets and large solid particles, as well as hydrocarbon slugs.
A secondary step goes after smaller droplets and particles, and it encompasses the bulk of the de-oiling equipment used in the upstream industry. The implementation of this last treatment depends on either the regulatory framework or an operational requirement if water is going to be re-injected for either disposal or as part of the waterflood operations in the field.
Sometimes an additional treatment is required, where the final effluent stream must have a high quality. Considering the main contaminants present in produced water, treatment goals include deoiling, desalination, degassing, suspended solids removal, organic compounds removal, heavy metal and radionuclides removal, and disinfection.
These treatment goals are essentially the same for potable, nonpotable reuse, or disposal, although the level of contaminant removal required for potable reuse can be significantly higher, depending on the quality of the produced water.
Achieving the various treatment goals requires the use of multiple treatment technologies, including physical, chemical, and biological treatment processes Ahmadun et al.
Some of the technologies employed are:. Removal of dissolved organic compounds : 1 adsorption [by activated carbon, organoclay, methylmethacrylate MMA - divinyl benzene DVB copolymer, functionalized zeolite, functionalized polymer fibers and resins]; 2 dissolved air predipitation; 3 chemical e.
Research on treatment strategies for reclamation of domestic and industrial wastewater for reuse requiring high water quality has centered around reverse osmosis RO Singh, RO can remove TDS and a wide range of dissolved organic compounds at very high efficiency.
A number of laboratory and pilot-scale studies have demonstrated that drinking water standards can be met after RO treatment in combination with a number of pretreatment processes, including membrane filtration pretreatment using microfiltration or ultrafiltraiton membranes. Tao et al. The main problem with the RO treatment is the high TDS and oil contents of produced water, which result in very high osmotic pressure and fouling of the RO membranes by hydrocarbon compounds.
The pretreatment processes remove oil droplets, suspended solids e. Many oil fields already have extensive treatment facilities for discharge requirement. These existing treatment processes can be used as the pretreatment for RO. At locations where land is more available, biological treatment could be a low-cost option for RO pretreatment. Pretreatment or posttreatment processes are also needed to remove dissolved gas and uncharged, low-molecularweight compounds, which are not removed by RO membranes.
Because the idea of using produced water as an alternative drinking water supply is still in its infancy and the quality of produced water varies greatly from location to location, little is known about the feasibility of potable reuse and the level of treatment needed. However, much can be learned from the reuse of other alternative water sources such as domestic wastewater, the reuse of which has grown rapidly in the past two decades.
Although not usually considered a way of reuse, indirect potable reuse is realized when the treated produced water is discharged into a water body used as a drinking water source. Planned indirect potable reuse may be achieved by surface infiltration also known as aquifer soil treatment or vadose zone injection of highly treated produced water into drinking water aquifers with a relatively long hydraulic residence time.
This approach has been used for indirect potable reuse of domestic wastewater. Percolation of the treated produced water through the surface and vadose zone soil can further remove residual contaminants by filtration, adsorption, and chemical and biological degradation.
When RO is used to treat the produced water, post treatment is usually needed to ensure that the solution chemistry of the reuse water is compatible with the aquifer. For example, RO-treated recharge water typically has very low TDS and low calcium to sodium ratio, which can potentially lead to dispersion of clays and consequently clogging of the aquifer as well as leaching of heavy metal species from the soil or the aquifer formation.
This can be mitigated by strategies such as lime addition or blending with a local surface water source. Long-term impact of treated produced water on drinking water aquifer needs to be carefully studied. Direct potable reuse can be a possible option for inland production fields located in arid areas where other freshwater sources are limited, especially if the produced water is of relatively high quality. As discussed below, unknown toxic effects and public acceptance are important barriers.
These are critical issues for potable reuse of all wastewaters and are not unique to produced water. Much can be learned from reuse applications of other wastewaters. The rapid growth of the world population poses a great challenge to our drinking water supply. Agriculture and energy production draws more and more freshwater, while producing more contamination of the already scarce freshwater resource.
Potable reuse of produced water faces similar challenges to other types of wastewater. These challenges include high treatment cost, potential chronic toxicity of the treated produced water, and public acceptance. With respect to oil and gas produced water, the treatment cost strongly depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the produced water, which can vary widely among production fields and change over time within a given field, and the regulatory environment. For example, produced water from gas production, especially coalbed methane production, typically has lower TDS, oil, and grease content than that from oil production, treatment of which could potentially be competitive with other wastewater sources.
Therefore, technology solutions for potable reuse of produced water would need to be customized accordingly to the properties of the produced water and the amount of water to be treated. Because of the need for desalination and removal of a large number of organic compounds, RO will most likely be used for potable reuse applications.
Although RO is capable of removing many organic compounds at high efficiency, the combined chronic toxicity of the organic compounds existing in mixture in the RO permeate needs to be carefully evaluated before direct reuse is implemented. It has been shown that the toxicity of dissolved organic compounds in produced water can be additive Glickman The current drinking water standards were established based on the human health risk associated with individual contaminants.
A method for establishing maximum safe contaminant concentrations based on combined impact of the contaminant mixture is needed. In addition, potential formation of disinfection byproducts DBPs needs to be evaluated. Existing studies on DBP formation were mostly performed using surface water, groundwater, or reclaimed domestic wastewater. The DBP formation potential of treated produced water has not been investigated. Although the total organic carbon concentration of RO-treated produced water is low, the presence of iodide and bromide can potentially form DBPs that are much more toxic than chlorinated DBPs Woo et al.
Finally, the greatest barrier, as in domestic wastewater reuse, is probably public acceptance. Although existing technologies have been demonstrated to meet current drinking water standards Ahmadun et al. Until the human health impact of chemical mixtures are better understand, toxicity assays are necessary to address concerns on the potential synergy between toxic compounds and the possibility of undetected toxic compounds in the treated produced water.
The following are the main contaminants of concern in produced water: High level of total dissolved solids TDS Oil and grease Suspended solids Dispersed oil Dissolved and volatile organic compounds Heavy metals Radionuclides Dissolved gases and bacteria.
Chemicals additives used in production such as biocides, scale and corrosion inhibitors, and emulsion and reverse-emulsion breakers The amount of produced water, and the contaminants and their concentrations present in produced water usually vary significantly over the lifetime of a field.
Treatment Alternatives Considering the main contaminants present in produced water, treatment goals include deoiling, desalination, degassing, suspended solids removal, organic compounds removal, heavy metal and radionuclides removal, and disinfection. Some of the technologies employed are: Removal of dissolved organic compounds : 1 adsorption [by activated carbon, organoclay, methylmethacrylate MMA - divinyl benzene DVB copolymer, functionalized zeolite, functionalized polymer fibers and resins]; 2 dissolved air predipitation; 3 chemical e.
Opportunities and Challenges The rapid growth of the world population poses a great challenge to our drinking water supply. References Ahmadun, F. Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment. Journal of Hazardous Materials Bailey, B. Water Control.
Oilfield Review Spring Dal Ferro, B. Global onshore and offshore water production. Doran, G. Funston, R. Glickman, A. Kharaka, Y. Integrated Water Flood Training. Singh, R. Production of high-purity water by membrane processes. Desalination and Water Treatment. Tao, F.
Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater. Oil Gas J. Veil, J. G, Elcock, D. Prepared for the U. Department of Energy, Energy Technology Laboratory. Xu, P. Beneficial use of co-produced water through membrane treatment: technical-economic assessment.
Heavy metals are considered as one of the major contaminants that can enter into the bottled waters. Antimony Sb is a contaminant, which may leach from the polyethylene terephthalate PET bottles into the water. The aim of this study was to investigate the content of antimony and other trace elements in bottled waters which was kept in varied storage conditions and temperatures. Five time-temperature treatments were carried out on five different brands of commercially available bottled waters. Analysis of the collected data was processed by SPSS software.
How to Store Water for Drinking or Cooking
Storing raw water can be of interest in the event of a prolonged drought lowered river flow often accompanied by a change in water quality. The amount of raw water stored must be sufficient to meet the demand for water for the longest drought period forecast. Storage is also of value when there is a danger of accidental pollution capable of deteriorating the raw water quality to a point where it is unacceptable to the treatment plant. In such a case, pumping from the surface water source can be suspended and the stored water supply used, thereby preventing any interruption in production.
Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery Demonstration Plant, City of Salisbury
Using the most up-to-date and innovative technology available, Tanks West manufacture a range of Fibreglass FRP Fibre Reinforced Plastic water tanks for domestic and agricultural purposes. Water Storage tanks manufactured with FRP or as often referred to as fibreglass, can sometimes conjure thoughts of chemicals, fibres and resins leading to the opinion that the material is unsafe for the application …but contrary to belief storing potable drinking water in a fibreglass tank delivers a clean, hygienic and taint free water supply. Yes, FRP storage tanks are made with resins, but they are manufactured using resins that match the specific liquid material. So, when storing drinking water, your tank is made with resin suited and approved for potable drinking water and is compliant with the Australian Standard AS — The right material …for the right job. Tanks West have specifically designed and manufactured a range of fibreglass water tanks for the purpose of long-term storage of safe drinking water. Our uniquely formulated potable water approved resin system offers smooth, taint free, light resistant security for the storage of you most precious resource H2O.
The consistent production of high quality drinking water requires a thorough understanding of the interrelationships between water supply, treatment, design, construction, and operations. Environmental Partners has experience covering every aspect of potable water production, from source development to construction and operations. While the production of safe drinking water encompasses many services, EP has specific project experience in hydrogeology, hydraulic modeling, new source investigation, pump stations, rate studies, storage and distribution, water system master planning, and water treatment. EP has completed water treatability studies on both groundwater and surface water supplies; comprehensive facility audits and planning programs; and the design, construction, and operation of water supply, distribution, and treatment facilities. Drinking Water. Drinking Water The consistent production of high quality drinking water requires a thorough understanding of the interrelationships between water supply, treatment, design, construction, and operations. Ryan J. Mark N. Paul C. Ingrid M.
Water Production is responsible for producing high-quality drinking water that meets safe drinking water standards and in sufficient quantities to supply the needs of the citizens and businesses of San Angelo. This is done by operating raw water supply facilities, treating the potable water supply and operating high service and remote pumping stations and tanks. The City of San Angelo has five raw surface water sources: O. Ivie Reservoir, Lake Spence, O.
A drinking water purification process
Create an Account - Increase your productivity, customize your experience, and engage in information you care about. Water Production focuses on producing high-quality drinking water using native groundwater wells, surface water from the Guadalupe River and Aquifer Storage and Recovery ASR wells as water sources. In the event of an after-hour water emergency, please notify police dispatch at Skip to Main Content. Sign In. I Want To Residents Visitors Businesses Government Departments. Water Production Water Production focuses on producing high-quality drinking water using native groundwater wells, surface water from the Guadalupe River and Aquifer Storage and Recovery ASR wells as water sources.
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Drinking Water Supply, Storage & Distribution Systems
Production Giving each person enough drinking water to live is the primary objective of any human community and a pillar in the fight against poverty for international institutions. Artelia is an expert in water engineering and carries out projects involving resource protection volume and quality, impact assessment, protection of abstraction areas and aquifers, Water Framework Directive , abstraction intakes, pumping, wells , conveyance canals, tunnels, pipelines and treatment purification and desalination plants.
We use them to give you the best experience. If you continue using our website, we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on this website. The ASTR system uses six wells: four for injecting water into the aquifer and two for recovering the water.
Gwinnett County operates and maintains two of the largest and most technologically advanced water treatment plants in the state of Georgia. Located near the shores of Lake Lanier, each plant has a 6-foot diameter intake pipe capable of withdrawing a maximum monthly average of million gallons a day. We also maintain 10 water storage tanks located throughout the county with a combined capacity of nearly million gallons of water, ensuring a continuous water supply for human consumption and firefighting.