Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table 1. The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing. This article provides an overview of the complex of food industries. Other articles in this chapter and Encyclopaedia deal with particular food industry sectors and particular hazards.
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Jensen, J. Graham and Donald L. Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing. This article provides an overview of the complex of food industries. Other articles in this chapter and Encyclopaedia deal with particular food industry sectors and particular hazards.
Many food industries depend almost entirely on local agriculture or fishing. In the past, this meant seasonal production and hiring of seasonal workers. Improvements in food processing and preservation technologies have taken some of the pressure off workers to process food quickly to prevent spoilage. This has resulted in a decrease in seasonal employment fluctuations. However, certain industries still have seasonal activities, such as fresh fruit and vegetable processing and increases in production of baked goods, chocolate and so forth for holiday seasons.
Seasonal workers are often women and foreign workers. Much of this increase can be attributed to an increased demand for processed food and drink, especially in developing countries where the market has not yet been saturated. This increase in output of food and drink products, however, has not resulted in increased employment because of intensified competition, which has resulted in decreased employment in many food industries, especially in industrialized countries.
This is due to increased productivity and mechanization in many of these industries. Demographic pressure, uneven distribution of agricultural resources and the need to insure preservation of food products to facilitate their better distribution explain the rapid technical evolution in the food industries. Constant economic and marketing pressures drive the industry to provide new and different products for market, while other operations may make the same product in the same way for decades.
Even highly industrialized facilities often resort to seemingly archaic techniques when starting new products or processes. In practice, to satisfy population requirements, there is a need not only for a sufficient quantity of foodstuffs, which presupposes an increase of production, but also strict control of sanitation to obtain the quality essential to maintain the health of the community. Only modernization of techniques justified by production volumes in a stable production environment will eliminate manual handling hazards.
In spite of the extreme diversity of the food industries, the preparation processes can be divided into handling and storage of raw materials, extraction, processing, preservation and packaging. Manipulation of the raw materials, the ingredients during processing and the finished products is varied and diverse.
Mechanical handling may involve: self-propelled in-plant transport with or without palletization or super or bulk sacks often containing several thousand pounds of dry powder material ; conveyor belts e. Storage of raw materials is most important in a seasonal industry e.
It is usually done in silos, tanks, cellars, bins or cold stores. Storage of the finished products varies according to their nature liquid or solid , the method of preserving and the method of packaging loose, in sack or super sack, in bundles, boxes or bottles ; and the respective premises must be planned to suit the conditions of handling and preserving traffic aisles, ease of access, temperature and humidity suited to product, cold-storage installations.
Commodities may be held in oxygen-deficient atmospheres or under fumigation while in storage or just before shipment. To extract a specific food product from fruit, cereals or liquids, any of the following methods may be used: crushing, pounding or grinding, extraction by heat direct or indirect , extraction by solvents, drying and filtration.
In other cases it may be the actual extraction process, as in flour milling. Heat can be used directly as a means of preparation by extraction, as in roasting e. Oils can be extracted equally well by combining and mixing the crushed fruit with solvents that are later eliminated by filtering and reheating.
The separation of liquid products is carried out by centrifuging turbines in a sugar refinery or by filtering through filter presses in breweries and in oil and fat production. Operations in processing food products are extremely varied and can be described only after individual study of each industry, but the following general procedures are used: fermentation, cooking, dehydration and distillation.
Fermentation, obtained usually by addition of a micro-organism to the previously prepared product, is practiced in bakeries, breweries, the wine and spirits industry and the cheese products industry.
Cooking occurs in many manufacturing operations: canning and preserving of meat, fish, vegetables and fruits; ready-to-serve meat-processing plants e. In other cases, cooking is done in a vacuum-sealed container and produces a concentration of the product e. Besides the drying of products by the sun, as with many tropical fruits, dehydration can be carried out in hot air fixed dryers or drying tunnels , by contact on a drying drum heated by steam, such as in the instant-coffee industry and the tea industry , vacuum drying often combined with filtering and lyophilization freeze drying , where the product is first frozen solid and then dried by vacuum in a heated chamber.
Distillation is used in the making of spirits. The fermented liquid, treated to separate grain or fruit, is vaporized in a still; the condensed vapour is then collected as liquid ethyl alcohol. Briefly, the first three methods destroy microbial life; the latter merely inhibit growth. Raw ingredients such as fish and meat, fruit or vegetables are taken fresh and preserved by one of the above methods, or a mixture of different foods are processed to form a product or dish, which is then preserved.
Such products include soups, meat dishes and puddings. Food preservation goes back to the last Ice Age, about 15, BC, when Cro-Magnon humans discovered for the first time a way of preserving food by smoking it.
The evidence for this lies in the caves at Les Eyzies in the Dordogne in France, where this way of life is well portrayed in carvings, engravings and paintings. From then to the present day, although many methods have been used and still are, heat remains one of the principal cornerstones of food preservation. High-temperature processes can destroy bacteria, depending on the cooking temperature and duration. Sterilization mainly used in canneries involves submitting the already canned product to the action of steam, generally in a closed container such as an autoclave or continuous cooker.
Smoking is carried out mainly on fish, ham and bacon, assuring dehydration and giving a distinctive flavor. Ionizing radiation sterilization is used heavily on spices in some countries to reduce wastage and spoilage. However, sterilizing canned foods with radiation requires such high dosage that unacceptable flavours and odours result.
Microwave sterilization is another type of electromagnetic emission that is currently finding use in the food industry. It is used for rapidly thawing raw frozen ingredients before further processing, as well as for heating frozen cooked foods in 2 to 3 minutes. Such a method, with its low moisture content loss, preserves the appearance and flavour of the food.
Drying is a common preservation process. Sun drying is the oldest and most widely used method of food preservation. Today foodstuffs may be dried in air, superheated steam, in vacuum, in inert gas and by direct application of heat. Many types of dryers exist, the particular type being dependent on the nature of the material, the desired form of finished product and so on.
Dehydration is a process in which heat is transferred into the water in the food, which is vapourized. The water vapour is then removed. Low-temperature processes involve storage in a cold store the temperature determined by the nature of the products , freezing and deep-freezing, which allows foodstuffs to be preserved in their naturally fresh state, by various methods of slow or rapid freezing.
With freeze drying, the material to be dried is frozen and placed in a sealed chamber. The chamber pressure is reduced and maintained at a value below 1 mm Hg. Heat is applied to the material, the surface ice heats up and the resultant water vapour is drawn off by the vacuum system. As the ice boundary recedes into the material, the ice sublimes in situ and the water percolates to the surface through the pore structure of the material.
The technology, which is difficult, is a spin-off from space travel. Open-shelf stability is achieved by suitable control of acidity, redox potential, humectants and preservatives. Most developments to date have been in foods for pet animals. Whatever the preservation process, the food to be preserved has first to be prepared.
Meat preservation involves a butchery department; fish needs cleaning and gutting, filleting, curing and so on. Before fruit and vegetables can be preserved they have to be washed, cleaned, blanched, perhaps graded, peeled, stalked, shelled and stoned.
Many of the ingredients have to be chopped, sliced, minced or pressed. There are many methods of packaging food, including canning, aseptic packaging and frozen packaging. The conventional method of canning is based on the original work of Appert in France, for which in the French government awarded him a prize of 12, francs. He preserved food in glass containers. In Dartford, England, in , Donkin and Hall set up the first cannery using tinned iron containers. Today the world uses several million tonnes of tinplate annually for the canning industry, and a substantial amount of preserved food is packed into glass jars.
The process of canning consists of taking cleaned food, raw or partly cooked but not intentionally sterilized, and packing it into a can that is sealed with a lid. The can is then heated, usually by steam under pressure, to a certain temperature for a period of time to allow penetration of the heat to the centre of the can, destroying the microbial life.
The can is then cooled in air or chlorinated water, after which it is labelled and packed. Changes in processing have occurred over the years. Continuous sterilizers cause less damage to cans by impact and allow cooling and drying in a closed atmosphere. Foods can also be heat preserved in retortable pouches. These are bags of small cross-sectional area made from laminates of aluminium and heat-sealable plastics. The process is the same as for conventional canning, but better taste properties are claimed for the products because sterilization times can be reduced.
Very careful control of the retorting process is essential to avoid damage to the heat seals with subsequent bacterial spoilage. There have been recent developments in the aseptic packaging of food. The process is fundamentally different from conventional canning. In the aseptic method the food container and closure are sterilized separately, and the filling and closing are done in a sterile atmosphere. Product quality is optimal because heat treatment of the foodstuff can be controlled precisely and is independent of the size or material of the container.
Of concern is employee exposure to the sterilizing agents. It is likely that the method will become more widely used because overall it should result in energy savings. Developments on particulate foodstuffs will follow. One likely benefit in food factories will be the reduction of noise if rigid metallic containers are replaced.
Such containers may also cause problems by contaminating preserved food with lead and tin. These are minimized by new-type two-piece containers drawn from lacquered tinplate and three-piece containers with welded instead of soldered side seams.
The frozen food industry utilizes all methods of deep-freezing fresh food at temperatures below their freezing point, thus forming ice crystals in the watery tissues. The food may be frozen raw or partially cooked e. Food for freezing must be in prime condition and prepared under strict hygienic control.
This page was archived due to the coming into force of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations. Archived information is provided for reference, research or record-keeping purposes only. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. For current information visit Food. Food safety is a collective responsibility of government, industry and consumers. All food operators are responsible under Canadian law for the safety of the food they produce and distribute.
Fish feed - particularly in extensive pond fish culturing practices - is of plant origin, of which cereal grains form percent. In modern agriculture cereals are harvested mostly with combine harvesters, which reap, thresh and clean the grain. However, during the harvesting of cereals such as maize the grain often has a high moisture content which requires further treatment and conservation, so as to store it without any loss. The most frequent treatment is drying, during which a physical change takes place, i. Respiration is markedly influenced by temperature. The higher the temperature the more intensive respiration becomes, and the greater the carbon dioxide generated. To approach this ideal condition, the following should be noted: i Only dry cereals should be harvested, if possible.
A food production wiki for public health professionals
Jensen, J. Graham and Donald L. Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Logs to Lumber - An aerial journey through the sawmill
Biologics are bacterial and viral vaccines, antigens, antitoxins and analogous products, serums, plasmas and other blood derivatives for therapeutically protecting or treating humans and animals. Bulks are active drug substances used to manufacture dosage- form products, process medicated animal feeds or compound prescription medications. Diagnostic agents assist the diagnosis of diseases and disorders in humans and animals. Diagnostic agents may be inorganic chemicals for examining the gastrointestinal tract, organic chemicals for visualizing the circulatory system and liver and radioactive compounds for measuring the function of organ system. Drugs are substances with active pharmacological properties in humans and animals. Drugs are compounded with other materials, such as pharmaceutical necessities, to produce a medicinal product. Ethical pharmaceuticals are biological and chemicals agents for preventing, diagnosing or treating disease and disorders in humans or animals.
Ingredient Storage and Handling
All the contents of www. The Project envisages the development of a common methodology for the preparation, storage, dissemination and evaluation of scientific literature in electronic format. As the project develops, new journal titles are being added in the library collection. The objective of the site is to implement an electronic virtual library, providing full access to a collection of serial titles, a collection of issues from individual serial titles, as well as to the full text of articles. The access to both serial titles and articles is available via indexes and search forms. The site will be constantly updated both in form and content, according to the project's advancements. SciELO interface provides access to its serials collection via an alphabetic list of titles or a subject list or a search form by word of serial titles, publisher names, city of publication and subject. The interface also provides access to the full text of articles via author index or subject index , or by a search form on article elements such as author names, words from title, subject, words from the full text and publication year. Click an hypertext link at the top to call the corresponding access page.
Salmonella and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli EHEC are of serious concern in wheat flour and its related products but little is known on their survival and thermal death kinetics. This study was undertaken to determine their long-term viability and thermal inactivation kinetics in flour. Plate counting on tryptic soy agar TSA and enrichment were used to assess long-term survival. At room temperature, EHEC serovars and Salmonella were quantifiable for 84 and days, and were detectable for the duration of the experiment after and days, respectively. A number of studies have reported that vegetative bacterial species can survive during prolonged storage in dry foods Eglezos, ; Forghani et al. The traditional process given to wheat grains to produce flour does not normally involve an antimicrobial step which results in a relatively stable microbiological load during flour production Manthey et al. The presence of pathogenic bacteria poses a serious risk to consumers because of cross contamination or consumers handling habits such as ingesting raw cookie dough Rose et al. Recently, it has been clear that cereal foods also have the potential to transmit bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli EHEC.
Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food , or of one form of food into other forms. Food processing includes many forms of processing foods, from grinding grain to make raw flour to home cooking to complex industrial methods used to make convenience foods. Primary food processing is necessary to make most foods edible, and secondary food processing turns the ingredients into familiar foods, such as bread. Tertiary food processing has been criticized for promoting overnutrition and obesity, containing too much sugar and salt, too little fiber, and otherwise being unhealthful in respect to dietary needs of humans and farm animals. Primary food processing turns agricultural products, such as raw wheat kernels or livestock, into something that can eventually be eaten.
Ingredient Storage and Handling
It is a fact that one of the basic conditions of ensuring the food safety at high levels is supplying low-risk raw materials. Producing the flour and flour products in accordance with food safety begins with obtaining safe wheat. It is stated in the notification that the flour should be produced in accordance with food safety.
Flour food safety: FAQs and answers
To ensure consistent and high-level product safety, transparent actions and detailed information from all parties throughout the supply chain is required. Creating an unbroken chain of safety requires strict compliance with regulations and standards for raw materials, production processes, distribution and end-use applications.
Figure 1. Figure 2. Wheat Figure 1A flour is the product obtained by grinding whole wheat kernels, sometimes called berries Figure 1B. A wheat kernel consists of three parts — the bran, germ, and endosperm Figure 2.
Не успел он приняться за чтение отчета службы безопасности, как его мысли были прерваны шумом голосов из соседней комнаты. Бринкерхофф отложил бумагу и подошел к двери. В приемной было темно, свет проникал только сквозь приоткрытую дверь кабинета Мидж.