Silk has set the standard in luxury fabrics for several millennia. The origins of silk date back to Ancient China. Legend has it that a Chinese princess was sipping tea in her garden when a cocoon fell into her cup, and the hot tea loosened the long strand of silk. Ancient literature, however, attributes the popularization of silk to the Chinese Empress Si-Ling, to around B.
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- Our Journey
- Bespoke silk scarves: create your own exclusive collection!
- Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
- The Indian Textiles and Clothing Industry and Innovation Policies
- Physichochemical and Low Stress Mechanical Properties of Silk Fabrics Degummed by Enzymes
- Membership Benefits
- The modern textile industry
- The Indian Textiles and Clothing Industry and Innovation Policies
- Textile manufacturing
- Our Journey
Our JourneyVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Polyester Yarn Manufacturing Process
The search for possible alternatives to traditional flame retardants FRs is pushing the academic and industrial communities towards the design of new products that exhibit low environmental impact and toxicity, notwithstanding high performances, when put in contact with a flame or exposed to an irradiative heat flux. In this context, in the last five to ten years, the suitability and effectiveness of some biomacromolecules and bio-sourced products with a specific chemical structure and composition as effective flame retardants for natural or synthetic textiles has been thoroughly explored at the lab-scale level.
In particular, different proteins such as whey proteins, caseins, and hydrophobins , nucleic acids and extracts from natural sources, even wastes and crops, have been selected and exploited for designing flame retardant finishing treatments for several fibers and fabrics. It was found that these biomacromolecules and bio-sourced products, which usually bear key elements i.
Furthermore, the existing drawbacks and limitations of the proposed finishing approaches as well as some possible further advances will be considered. When exposed to the action of a flame or a heat flux, most textile materials easily ignite and burn: this behavior severely limits their utilization in several application fields, where fire resistance is mandatory. In this context, from the s onwards, specific additives, i. Specifically concerning fibers and fabrics, several classes of flame retardants have been developed to date, differing in chemical structure and composition, as well as the flame retardant mechanism involved [ 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ].
The development of FR finishing systems for fibers and fabrics has exhibited continuous progress, especially in the last 15—20 years, during which academic and industrial research has been focused on conceiving, synthesizing and utilizing large-scale durable treatments, either for natural mostly cellulosic or synthetic textile substrates [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ].
Indeed, effectiveness, durability i. Nonetheless, despite their effectiveness, some halogen-based products, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, decabromodiphenyl or pentabromodiphenyl ethers were recently banned by USA and EU communities, owing to their high toxicity for animals and human beings [ 19 , 20 ]. As a consequence, since the flame retardant is just retained within the fabric interstices, formaldehyde may be released during the textile service [ 19 ].
First of all, the application of the new products should be at least as easy as that of the flame retardant being replaced; then, formaldehyde should not be released during the application of the FR onto the fabric or even during service. Moreover, it is important that the new product does not modify the overall features of the treated textile, namely soft touch i.
Finally, the new flame retardant should exhibit comparable or even reduced costs with respect to the replaced counterpart. Despite the difficulty of accomplishing this with all these requirements, great efforts have been made in the last 5 to 10 years to assess the suitability of certain biomacromolecules with specific structures and chemical compositions, which may suggest their utilization in the design of flame retarded textiles [ 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ].
Undoubtedly, some proteins, nucleic acids and natural extracts may represent a novel different challenging approach to the fire retardance of fibers and fabrics, also considering that, to date, they have been utilized for different applications, very far from flame retardance.
In particular, their uses as edible films, adhesives, food emulsifiers, papermaking, leather finishing systems, and for designing environmental monitoring units and biosensors wearability are well known [ 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 ]. Several advantages may justify the current interest of the scientific and industrial community towards these biomacromolecules as potential new flame retardants: in particular, they show a low environmental impact and can be applied to textile materials by using the already existing industrial finishing plants i.
Moreover, some of the selected biomacromolecules such as whey proteins and caseins are by-products from the agro-food industry; therefore, their recovery from waste materials and valorization in flame retardant applications may represent a good starting point for avoiding their landfill confinement.
This review work is aimed at describing the main advances and the current limitations about the exploitation of biomacromolecules as effective flame retardants for textiles; in particular, their fire retardance in terms of resistance to an irradiative heat flux or to a flame spread is thoroughly correlated with the type of treated substrate natural or synthetic , the chemical structure and composition of the biomacromolecules, as well as with the achieved final dry add-on.
Finally, some perspectives concerning further developments in the exploitation of the biomacromolecules, such as low environmental impact flame retardants, are presented. The most characterizing element of whey proteins is sulphur, mainly organized in cysteine and methionine structures that justify the high nutritional values of whey proteins.
In addition, these biomacromolecules show high water absorption and solubility, notwithstanding emulsifying and gelatinization capabilities: these specific features justify their wide use for food purposes [ 33 , 34 , 35 ]. For fire retardant purposes, cotton fabrics were impregnated with a WPI water suspensions concentration: 10 wt. The typical SEM images obtained before and after the deposition of the protein coatings are shown in Figure 1.
Reproduced with permission from [ 32 ]. Copyright , Elsevier. The thermal stability and the flame retardant features was investigated by means of thermogravimetric analyses and flame spread tests in a horizontal configuration. The results from thermogravimetric analyses are compared with untreated cotton in Table 1. In nitrogen, cotton degradation proceeds in a single step, with the pyrolysis of cellulose, which, in turn, may involve two competitive paths [ 14 , 36 ], depending on the temperature range Figure 2 ; in particular, at low temperatures, glycosyl units decompose, hence giving rise to the formation of char, while at higher temperatures, glycosyl units are likely to depolymerize, favoring the formation of gaseous combustible species.
The presence of the whey protein coating, irrespective of the structure of the protein i. In air, cotton typically degrades by three steps. On the other hand, a significant increase of the residues at T max1 indicates the formation of a quite thermally stable degradation product as a result of the first degradation step.
This degradation product is further degraded at higher temperatures, as confirmed by T max2 and T max3 values; in addition, the final residues are slightly higher than those of untreated cotton. Table 2 shows the results of the flame spread tests performed in horizontal configuration: overall, the presence of the protein coating is responsible for the decrease of the burning rate and the increase of the residues at the end of the test.
Furthermore, the coatings made of not denatured proteins seem more effective in protecting the underlying cellulosic substrate; this finding was ascribed to the better coverage of the fabric provided by the unfolded proteins, which are responsible for the formation of more compact and coherent residues as compared to denatured coatings. They differ as far as the structure and phosphorus content are concerned. Some general uses of these proteins include cheese farming main usage , whipping, emulsifying, water binding and thickening, notwithstanding their utilization in coatings for papermaking, printing, finishing of synthetic fibers and leather [ 37 ].
After drying, the final add-on was 20 wt. The results obtained from thermogravimetric analyses performed both in air and inert atmosphere are collected in Table 3. In particular, degradation involves heterolytic cleavage reactions or homolytic scissions of ester bonds, which put the char formation in competition with the production of volatile combustible species Figure 3. In parallel, intramolecular backbiting may promote chain depolymerization, with the formation of carboxyl- and vinyl-terminated oligomers, from which carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene and benzaldehyde may originate.
Competitive pathways involved in the thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation of polyester. In air, PET degradation undergoes a two-step pathway. The results from the flammability tests namely, horizontal flame spread tests and Limiting Oxygen Index — LOI — measurements are collected in Table 4 ; the presence of the caseins coating, irrespective of the type of fabric substrate, appreciably decreases the burning rate and increases the total burning time, leading to the formation of a very stable char, as revealed by the increased residues.
Moreover, all the treated fabrics achieve self-extinction, even after several flame applications. Results for untreated and caseins-treated fabrics from horizontal flame spread tests. In addition, the char-forming character of the designed systems coated on polyester or cotton-polyester blends was witnessed by the increased residue at the end of the test.
Hydrophobins are amphipathic proteins with low molar masses usually between 7 and 9 kDa produced by Filamentous fungi [ 40 ]. According to the distribution of cysteine and the clustering of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acid residues, hydrophobins can be classified as HFBI i. Conversely, HFBI cannot be dissolved in aqueous media, where they from hydrophobic aggregates [ 37 ].
The chemical structure of these proteins shows eight cysteine residues originating from four non-sequential disulphide bonds that stabilize the tertiary structure of hydrophobins; Moreover, they are capable of self-assembling amphipathic monolayers at the hydrophilic—hydrophobic interfaces, thus exhibiting surfactant-like features.
Their traditional applications are in the field of surface modifiers, protective coatings and adhesives [ 27 ], notwithstanding their uses as emulsifiers, nanoencapsulating and foaming systems in the food industry and as biosensors [ 28 ]. Their utilization for fire retardant purposes is quite recent; in this context, 5 wt.
Some typical SEM images of cotton before and after the treatment with caseins or hydrophobins are shown in Figure 4. SEM magnifications of untreated cotton A , cotton treated with caseins B and cotton treated with hydrophobins C. Reproduced with permission from [ 38 ]. The results from the thermogravimetric analyses are shown in Table 6. Similarly to the previously discussed biomacromolecules, in nitrogen, the presence of the protein anticipates the degradation of the cellulosic substrate.
At variance, the biomacromolecule coating does not affect T max1 values but remarkably increase the final residue, hence confirming its char-forming character. These findings can also be drawn in air, where the degradation of the treated cotton involves a three-step process: the thermally stable product formed during the first degradation step which is slightly anticipated—see T max1 values in Table 6 —in the presence of the protein coating is further decomposed at higher temperatures i.
The flame spread tests carried out in the horizontal configuration Table 7 indicate that the hydrophobin coating is able to protect the underlying fabric.
SEM analyses performed on this latter show the formation of unblown bubbles, hence indicating the intumescent-like character of the protein coating due to the cleavage of the disulphide bonds and to the crosslinking of amide groups [ 27 ]. DNA Figure 5 is perhaps one of the most well-known biomacromolecules; it consists of a double helix comprising two long polymer chains of nitrogen-containing bases namely, adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine with backbones made of five-carbon sugars so-called deoxyribose units and of phosphate groups connected by ester links.
The resulting double helix exploits the H-bonds between the bases that are located side by side and specifically combined in particular, adenine bases are paired with thymine bases, while cytosine bases with guanine. One of the main advantages of this particular structure and morphology is that phosphate groups and deoxyribose units are oriented towards the outside of the biomacromolecule, hence being very easily accessible, even in the presence of a flame or an irradiative heat flux.
Among the traditional uses, this biomacromolecule is being employed for fabricating several DNA-based nanomaterials; among them, it is worth mentioning DNA-functionalized carbon nanotubes, DNA-directed nanowires and DNA-linked metal nanoparticles [ 30 ].
In addition, it has been utilized for environmental monitoring, designing drugs, for the production of industrial microorganisms and for bio-based sensors [ 31 ]. The structure and chemical composition of deoxyribonucleic acid are very intriguing as far as flame retardance is considered as this biomacromolecule shows an intumescent-like behavior [ 41 , 42 ].
In fact, it includes i deoxyribose units that act as carbon source and blowing agents, ii bases containing nitrogen for the release of ammonia and iii phosphate groups that, upon the application of a flame or an irradiative heat source, degrade to phosphoric acid, hence promoting the dehydration of the underlying fabric and the subsequent formation of a stable protective char.
Therefore, the heat and mass transfer phenomena taking place between flame and burning fabric are limited by the formed multicellular swollen carbonaceous structure, which acts as an effective physical barrier and is even able to stop the combustion reaction i.
The first pioneering article dates back to and deals with a commercially available DNA extracted from herring sperm and applied to cotton [ 43 ]. As for the proteins described in the previous paragraphs, the DNA powder was dispersed in water 2. This latter allowed the achievement of self-extinction in horizontal flame spread tests; after the flame application, the treated fabric started to burn very slowly and the flame out was achieved after just 2 s from the ignition; moreover, the sample did not ignite again, even after trying to repeatedly apply the flame.
The described fire behavior was attributed to the char-forming ability of DNA, as well as to the dilution effect in the gas phase derived from the decomposition of purine and pyrimidine bases that generate azo-compounds, capable not only od further inducing the char formation, but also of producing non-combustible gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
These promising results further stimulated the investigation towards the optimization of the final dry add-on on the treated cotton: in doing so, fabrics with 5, 10 and 19 wt. Some typical SEM pictures are shown in Figure 6. Reproduced with permission from [ 44 ]. Table 8 shows the results of the thermogravimetric analyses performed both in nitrogen and air.
Table 9 summarizes the results from the flame spread tests performed in the horizontal configuration. Again, flammability is strictly related to the DNA loading on the fabric.
More specifically, the lowest add-on i. Furthermore, 10 wt. Finally, as previously mentioned, 19 wt. Results from horizontal flame spread tests performed on untreated and DNA-treated cotton fabrics. It is noteworthy that as assessed by SEM-EDX analyses, the intumescent-like behavior of the biomacromolecules was demonstrated by the formation of several small bubbles homogeneously distributed on the burnt fibers and essentially containing carbon, oxygen and phosphorus elements.
From an overall point of view, some outcomes can be summarized as follows:. Therefore, in conclusion, it is worth underlining that the overall fire performance of the DNA-treated fabrics was strictly related to the biomacromolecule loading. Indeed, this is responsible for the formation of a continuous and homogeneous coating that covers each single fiber and the fabric interstices; this condition was satisfied only in the presence of the highest nucleic acid add-ons i.
Pursuing the research on this biomacromolecule, the impregnation of cotton was replaced with the layer-by-layer LbL technique [ 46 , 47 , 48 ], coupling DNA with chitosan in a bi-layered assembly [ 49 ]. In particular, three different numbers of bi-layers BL , namely 5, 10 and 20, were assembled on the cellulosic substrate; the corresponding dry add-ons were 5, 7 and 15 wt. Some typical SEM images are shown in Figure 7.
The results from the flame spread tests performed in horizontal configuration are shown in Table 11 , together with the limiting oxygen index values. SEM micrographs of untreated cotton a and fabrics coated with 5 b , 10 c and 20 d BL. Reproduced with permission from [ 49 ]. First, it is noteworthy that the number of bi-layers the deposited LbL architectures are made of significantly affects the flammability of cotton. Self-extinction is achieved only with the highest number of deposited bi-layers i.
The results are summarized in Table
Please fill in your details to download the Table of Contents of this report for free. We also do customization of these reports so you can write to us at mi fibre2fashion. Printing plays a special role in value addition of silk for both apparel and finished products. In the local market, printed silk has a higher share than many other natural and synthetic fibers.
Bespoke silk scarves: create your own exclusive collection!
From its plant at Naroda, Reliance spearheaded the manufacturing and marketing of the most iconic brand in the history of textiles in India — 'Vimal'. Our manufacturing division at Naroda houses one of the largest and most modern textile complexes in the world, an achievement recognised by The World Bank. Through Vimal, we brought in a new era in fabrics. Vimal became not only a flagship brand of Reliance, but also one of the most trusted in brands the country. It is also the first major retail chain in the country.
Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Man is a friend of fashion in nature. The desire for better garment and apparel resulted in the development of textile fiber production and textile manufacturing process. Primarily the natural textile fibers meet the requirements for human consumption in terms of the comfort and aesthetic trends.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: SEWING HOW-TO: Hem Sheer And Silk Fabric Using A Zigzag Stitch
Contents - Previous - Next. Silk weaving has reached a very high standard of industrial efficiency. In fact, today a number of varieties of silk fabrics are produced on handlooms and sophisticated power looms. This requires different qualities of raw silk. In order to assist the weaving industry in the selection of the required raw silk, it must be first tested and classified. Further, the raw silk reeling industry requires well-defined standards, which can only be achieved by silk testing. As the demand for silk is global and a number of countries compete in the trade of raw silk, it is necessary that there should be industry standards for raw silk quality so as to enable buyers to purchase raw silk at internationally accepted grades. This is the reason why all raw silk produced should be classified following testing. The testing of raw silk is based on the procedure laid down by the International Silk Association I.
The Indian Textiles and Clothing Industry and Innovation Policies
Both industrialized and developing countries now have modern installations capable of highly efficient fabric production. In addition to mechanical improvements in yarn and fabric manufacture, there have been rapid advances in development of new fibres, processes to improve textile characteristics, and testing methods allowing greater quality control. The modern textile industry is still closely related to the apparel industry, but production of fabrics for industrial use has gained in importance. The resulting wide range of end uses demands a high degree of specialization.
It is an important sector of the economy in terms of output and investment and employs nearly 35 million people, making it the second-highest employer in the country behind agriculture. It has a direct link with the rural economy and the agricultural sector. The salient features of the Indian textiles industry are that it has a strong raw materials production base, a vast pool of skilled and unskilled labour, freely available cheap labour, export potential and a low level of dependency upon imports. This is a traditional, well-established industry which is enjoying considerable demand in both the domestic and the global markets. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Authors Authors and affiliations K.
Physichochemical and Low Stress Mechanical Properties of Silk Fabrics Degummed by Enzymes
The search for possible alternatives to traditional flame retardants FRs is pushing the academic and industrial communities towards the design of new products that exhibit low environmental impact and toxicity, notwithstanding high performances, when put in contact with a flame or exposed to an irradiative heat flux. In this context, in the last five to ten years, the suitability and effectiveness of some biomacromolecules and bio-sourced products with a specific chemical structure and composition as effective flame retardants for natural or synthetic textiles has been thoroughly explored at the lab-scale level. In particular, different proteins such as whey proteins, caseins, and hydrophobins , nucleic acids and extracts from natural sources, even wastes and crops, have been selected and exploited for designing flame retardant finishing treatments for several fibers and fabrics. It was found that these biomacromolecules and bio-sourced products, which usually bear key elements i. Furthermore, the existing drawbacks and limitations of the proposed finishing approaches as well as some possible further advances will be considered. When exposed to the action of a flame or a heat flux, most textile materials easily ignite and burn: this behavior severely limits their utilization in several application fields, where fire resistance is mandatory.
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The modern textile industry
Silvia Mara Bortoloto Damasceno Barcelos. E-mail: silviabortoloto hotmail.
The Indian Textiles and Clothing Industry and Innovation Policies
RSD-NH 2 was in-house synthesized by methacrylate and polyethylene polyamine in methanol, which has abundant amino and imino groups. However, the characterization of silver nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles are easy to agglomerate in solution.
Please fill in your details to download the Table of Contents of this report for free. We also do customization of these reports so you can write to us at mi fibre2fashion.
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