Also common in France: Nutella, the chocolate-and-hazelnut spread that kids there consume as often as their American counterparts do peanut butter. This recipe uses liquid soy lecithin , an emulsifier that helps the ingredients mix smoothly together to create a uniform spread with a winning texture. You can find it—along with everything else in the known universe—on Amazon. Before we add the dry ingredients to the conche, we give them a quick whirl in the blender to create a powder.
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Fats in Spreadable ProductsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: THE BEST LOW CARB KETO VEGETABLES!
Disclosed are methods for producing esterified propoxylated glycerols and eutectic mixtures containing one or more esterified propoxylated glycerols and one or more digestible fats. Food products containing the eutectic mixtures are also disclosed. Non-digestible fats when ingested may remain liquid in the digestive tract resulting in an undesirable side-effect of pooling and leaking from the anal sphincter.
When solid in the gut, these fats will not pool and are thus eliminated as a solid material. The food product can comprise chocolate, such as chocolate having all or substantially all of the fat being cocoa butter or a combination of cocoa butter and dairy fat, or can comprise compound chocolate comprising a vegetable fat such as palm oil, palm kernel, fractionated palm kernel oil, coconut oil and babassu oil in fractionated or hydrogenated states and any combination thereof.
The food product can be selected from at least one of a snack bar, candy, coating, topping, filling, baking chip, cookie, cracker, sweet good, snack cake, pie, granola bar, toaster pastry, potato chip, corn chip, tortilla chip, extruded snack, popcorn, pretzel, potato crisp, nut spread, dip, spread, dried fruit, meat snack, pork rind, rice cake, corn cake, dried vegetable, brownie, filled cracker, filled extruded snack, enrobed extruded snack, cheese curl, cheese crunch, cheese stick, onion ring, pizza chip, potato chip, potato skin, potato stick, veggie stick, pretzel, a nougat, malted milk balls, aerated milk chocolate, or puffed snack.
The digestible fat can include at least one cocoa butter, fractionated fat, palm kernel oil, coconut oil or babassu oil, which may be in natural, fractionated or hydrogenated states. The ratio of esterified propoxylated glycerol:digestible fat can be from about to about , from about to about , or any ratio disclosed herein. The digestible fat and the esterified propoxylated glycerol can be combined before being added to the at least one food component. In another aspect, provided is an edible product, such as one or more varieties of chocolate described herein, comprising an esterified propoxylated glycerol having a melting temperature of at least about The digestible fat can include at least one of cocoa butter, a fractionated fat, palm kernel oil, coconut oil or babassu oil in natural or hydrogenated states, or any combination thereof.
The edible product can include one or more of a candy, a snack bar, a topping, a filling, a coating, a baking chip, a cookie, a cracker, a sweet good, a snack cake, a pie, a granola bar, a toaster pastry, a potato chip, a corn chip, a tortilla chip, an extruded snack, a popcorn, a pretzel, a potato crisp, a nut spread, a dip, a spread, a dried fruit, a meat snack, a pork rind, a rice cake, a corn cake, a dried vegetable, a brownie, a filled cracker, a filled extruded snack, an enrobed extruded snack, a cheese ball, a cheese curl, a cheese crunch, a cheese stick, an onion ring, a pizza chip, a potato chip, a potato skin, a potato stick, a veggie stick, a pretzel, a nougat, malted milk balls, aerated milk chocolate, or a puffed snack.
In another aspect, a method of reducing or preventing passive oil loss of esterified propoxylated glycerol from the digestive tract of a subject is provided. The method can include administering one or more of the edible products described in the preceding paragraph, and elsewhere herein, to a subject, wherein the digestible fat is digested and absorbed and the esterified propoxylated glycerol solidifies in the digestive tract thereby reducing passive oil loss. The passive oil loss can be eliminated in the subject.
The edible product may have no discernable waxiness. The present disclosure relates to fat compositions which contain eutectic mixtures of particular esterified propoxylated glycerol and digestible fats.
EPGs are not recognizable by lipases and fat digesting enzymes, and are passed through the digestive tract essentially intact, thus providing no calories. The food products described herein have textural or taste benefits including at least one of reduced waxiness, improved mouthmelt or mouthfeel, as well as a reduction in the undesirable laxative effect of passive oil loss through the anal sphincter, which might otherwise occur following the ingestion of EPGs that are liquid at human body temperature.
Methods of formulating such food products are also provided. The present disclosure provides novel methods for formulating food products, and novel food products comprising esterified propoxylated glycerol combined with digestible fat to form a eutectic mixture, having a decreased melting point below the melting points of the individual components. However, the inventor found that combining one or more EPGs with a digestible fat such as cocoa butter, margarine fat, baking shortening, butter fat produces a eutectic mixture that has a surprisingly low melting temperature, providing the food product with at least one of reduced waxiness and an improved mouthfeel.
Furthermore, upon ingestion of the food products containing the eutectic mixture, passive oil loss is reduced or eliminated, compared with the food product containing a similar amount of an EPG having the same melting temperature as the melting temperature of the eutectic mixture. The digestible portion of the eutectic fat mixture is absorbed in the digestive tract, whereas the non-absorbed EPG remains solid in the gut and is excreted in solid form.
The food product containing the eutectic mixture also exhibits reduced waxiness and improved mouthfeel compared with the food product containing the EPG but not containing the eutectic mixture. Accordingly, at least one of passive oil loss and waxiness properties of food products is reduced by forming eutectic mixtures of EPGs and digestible fats.
Prior to forming the eutectic mixture with the digestible fat, the melting point temperature of the EPG or combination of EPGs is, for example, at least about, or at least, When combinations of EPGs are used, the combination may have one of these values, or each of the EPGs in the combination may, independently, have one of these values. The term polyol fatty acid polyester includes polyols which have two or more hydroxyl groups esterified with fatty acid groups.
The polyol may be esterified with four or more fatty acid groups. Polyol fatty acid polyesters include sucrose polyesters having on average at least four, or at least about five, ester linkages per molecule of sucrose; the fatty acid chains may have from about eight to about twenty-four carbon atoms. Other polyol fatty acid polyesters are esterified linked alkoxylated glycerols, including those comprising polyether glycol linking segments, as described in U. The fatty acid acyl moiety may have a C 7 -C 23 alkyl chain.
Esterified epoxide-extended polyols such as esterified propoxylated glycerols may be generally prepared by reacting a propoxylated glycerol having from 2 to oxypropylene units per glycerol with C 10 -C 24 fatty acids or with C 10 -C 24 fatty acid esters, as described in U. Esterified propoxylated glycerols may be prepared by reacting an epoxide and a triglyceride with an aliphatic polyalcohol, as described in U.
Suitable acylated propylene oxide-extended glycerols having a propoxylation index of above about 2, in the range of from about 2 to about 8, or about 3, 4 or 5 or above, wherein the acyl groups are C 8 -C 24 , or C 14 -C 18 , compounds, as described in U. Processes for forming EPGs are disclosed, for example, in U.
Examples of C 8 to C 24 fatty acids which may be employed include, without limitation, saturated acids, such as, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, behenic acid and combinations thereof. The fatty acids may be naturally occurring or synthetically produced. Similarly, mixtures of fatty acids may be used including those mixtures obtained by splitting natural or modified triglycerides, such as babassu oil, canola oil, cocoa butter, coconut oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, jojoba oil, lard, meadowfoam oil, menhaden oil, olive oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, rice bran oil, safflower oil, sesame seed oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and tallow, or fully or partially hydrogenated mixtures or fractionated mixtures thereof.
The melting temperature of the EPG compound prior to or while forming the eutectic mixture can be altered by the particular fatty acids used to form the EPG, such as is described herein, or by altering the degree of propoxylation of the glycerol, such as is described herein. The EPG may have a degree of propoxylation of at least about, or at least, 2, 2.
In certain embodiments, the EPG has a degree of propoxylation of about 5. Such fatty acids are available from fully hydrogenated palm oil, or can be sourced from a broad range of edible oils, including, without limitation, soybean oil, canola oil, corn oil, coconut oil, palm kernel oil, sunflower oil, cottonseed oil, safflower oil, peanut oil and combinations thereof. EPG having a degree of propoxylation of 5 may, for example, incorporate fatty acids containing mostly C 16 and C 18 chains, which are readily available from edible oils including soybean oil, corn oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, cottonseed oil and peanut oil, and a significant proportion of C22 chains from high erucic acid rapeseed oil HERO.
Erucic fatty acid C can be converted to behenic acid C by conventional hydrogenation. Examples of digestible fats include, without limitation, cocoa butter, a fractionated fat, palm oil stearine, palm kernel oil, fractionated palm kernel oil, coconut oil, babassu oil, lard, tallow, butter fat or a combination thereof, in natural, fractionated or hydrogenated states.
In certain embodiments, the eutectic mixture has a Mettler drop point temperature that is at least about, or at least 0. The eutectic fat compositions may be used in food products, such as a chocolate and chocolate-flavored product, snack bar, candy, topping, filling, baking chip, cookie, cracker, sweet good, snack cake, pie, granola bar, toaster pastry, potato chip, corn chip, tortilla chip, extruded snack, popcorn, pretzel, potato crisp, nut spread, dip, spread, dried fruit, meat snack, pork rind, rice cake, corn cake, dried vegetable, brownie, filled cracker, filled extruded snack, enrobed extruded snack, cheese ball, cheese curl, cheese crunch, cheese stick, onion ring, pizza chip, potato chip, potato skin, potato stick, veggie stick, pretzel, a nougat, malted milk balls, aerated milk chocolate, or puffed snack.
In certain embodiments, eutectic mixtures of EPGs and digestible fats are formulated to simulate the sharp melting profile of cocoa butter making them suitable as a low calorie cocoa butter substitute in confectionery formulations including dark and milk chocolates, chocolate candies, snack bars, toppings, fillings, baking chips and other applications in which cocoa butter is used.
The term is intended, for example, to include standardized and non-standardized chocolates, i. Standards Of Identity, respectively, including dark chocolate, baking chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet chocolate, semi-sweet chocolate, buttermilk chocolate, skim-milk chocolate, mixed dairy product chocolate, low fat chocolate, white chocolate, non-standardized chocolates, compound chocolate and chocolate-like compositions, unless specifically identified otherwise.
Furthermore, while many different countries specifically define food products containing cocoa or cocoa products as having certain ranges or ingredients, the terms chocolate, milk chocolate, and dark chocolate as used herein, do not imply, unless stated otherwise, a specific content.
Compound chocolate is a less expensive chocolate-like product and contains fats other than cocoa butter and milk or dairy fats. It is generally composed of cocoa, vegetable fat and sweeteners, with optional additives such as milk, milk fats, dairy fats, emulsifiers, flavors and colors. Compound chocolate may contain some cocoa butter which can come, for example, from partially defatted cocoa powder or from cocoa liquor, some milk fat or a combination thereof, or may be substantially free of cocoa butter, milk fat or a combination thereof.
For example, compound chocolate can contain vegetable fats that are hard, solid or semi-solid at room temperature, such as coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil, including fractioned palm kernel oil.
Palm kernel oil, palm oil, babassu oil and coconut oils in hydrogenated, randomized or fractionated states can be used. Compound chocolate can be used in milk chocolate, candy bars, coated candies, doughnut and pastry coatings, baked goods coatings, soft fillings and a variety of other applications. Compound chocolate is a lower cost alternative to real chocolate, and typically has a comparable caloric content.
Replacing all or part of vegetable fat in compound chocolate with EPG reduces caloric value while preserving other product attributes including taste, mouthfeel, melting profile, surface sheen, resistance to bloom, snap and shelf life.
As with cocoa butter, solid EPG forms eutectic mixtures with solid or semi-solid vegetable fats resulting in reduced melting point of fat blends. When EPGs as described herein are mixed with a vegetable fat, such as fractionated palm kernel oil, a large eutectic effect may be observed, which, without wishing to be bound by any theory, may be based on the dissimilarity in fatty acids between the EPG and the vegetable oil.
Eutectic EPG vegetable fat mixtures, such as those used in compound chocolate, retain a sharp melting profile useful in confectionary product applications. Accordingly the eutectic mixtures can be used in confectionary and baked product applications, including as coatings, moulds, dipping applications, and fillings. Chocolate may take the form of solid pieces of chocolate, such as bars or novelty shapes, and may also be incorporated as an ingredient of other, more complex, confections where chocolate is combined with or used to coat other foods such as caramel, peanut butter, nougat, fruit pieces, nuts, wafers, cookies, cakes, ice cream, pastries or the like.
Since eutectic properties are the result of fat blends forming different crystal structures than their components, it is possible to influence crystallization of the blends and consequently their melting points by incorporating small amounts of fat crystal initiators or fat crystal stabilizers. Suitable stabilizers include high melting point fats composed of saturated fatty acids, predominantly stearic and palmitic acids or high melting point mono- and di-glycerides.
The stabilizer, such as Stearine 27, can induce crystal matrix formation of solid fat, for example, within the body of peanut butter, which entraps small droplets of liquid oil thus preventing its separation.
Typically the addition of a fat crystal initiator will result in a higher melting temperature of the fat or fat blend in which it is included.
The methods and formulations described herein may eliminate or substantially eliminate the need for a second synthetic fat in the form of a liquid partially digestible fat to make the EPG more palatable through lowering its melting point. Partially digestible fats may include, for example, EPGs, sucrose esters and polyesters and fatty acid sucrose esters and polyesters, esterified epoxide-extended polyols, polyalcohol esters such as sorbestrin , polyglycerol esters and other synthetic fat-like compounds.
The food products may be free of, essentially free of, or substantially free of one or more partially digestible fats which have a melting temperature of less than about, or less than, The amount of EPG and digestible fat present suitable for use in the food product may vary, and the relative proportions of EPG and digestible fat can be manipulated to tailor the melting point of the mixture so that is suitable for a particular food product application.
In certain embodiments, the amount of digestible fat present, by weight, is equal to or less than the amount of EPG present by weight to minimize caloric contribution.
Compositions and food products may have a ratio of EPG:digestible fat by weight of from about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , about to about , to about or about to about The digestible fat and the EPG may be combined to form a eutectic mixture prior to being added to, combined, mixed or blended with one or more other the food product components, or the EPG and digestible fat may be added separately to one or more other components of the food product, and the eutectic mixture formed from the digestible fat and the EPG in situ with the other food product component s.
The present disclosure further provides methods of reducing the waxiness of edible products measured at 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, or It will be apparent to those of skill in the art that variations may be applied to the compositions and methods described herein and in the steps or in the sequence of steps of the method described herein without departing from the concept, spirit and scope of the invention.
More specifically, it will be apparent that certain agents which are both chemically and physiologically related may be substituted for the agents described herein while the same or similar results would be achieved. All such similar substitutes and modifications apparent to those skilled in the art are deemed to be within the spirit, scope and concept of the invention.
It is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of construction and the arrangement of components set forth in the following description.
Also, it is to be understood that the phraseology and terminology used herein is for the purpose of description and should not be regarded as limiting. It also is understood that any numerical range recited herein includes all values from the lower value to the upper value. These are only examples of what is specifically intended, and all possible combinations of numerical values between and including the lowest value and the highest value enumerated are to be considered to be expressly stated in this application.
The following non-limiting examples are purely illustrative. Table 1 below shows propoxylation level, i. DSC Differential Scanning calorimetry curves were performed for 2 different samples of EPG and cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil, as well as their blends. The results are shown in FIGS. The flow chart shown in FIG. The esterification of propoxylated glycerol with fatty acids is performed under vacuum in a heated, stainless steel reactor equipped with an agitator.
The excess of fatty acids used vs. Reaction time is expected to range from hours and is determined by refractive index readings and iodine value analyses. The hydrogenated and filtered EPG is then transferred to a vacuum bleacher and pretreated with 0. Citric acid, 0. The deodorized, polished, N 2 saturated EPG is transferred to a nitrogen blanketed, agitated tank and fortified with 0. After mixing for 15 minutes to well disperse the antioxidant, EPG is poured into clean, containers.
The sealed containers are allowed to cool overnight to ambient temperature, then are transferred to a refrigerator for storage prior to shipping. A dark chocolate product is prepared on the bench from the following ingredients shown in Table
After introductory chapters which present the chemical, physical, functional and microbiological characteristics of dairy ingredients, the book addresses the technology associated with the manufacture of the major dairy ingredients, focusing on those parameters that affect their performance and functionality in food systems. The popular applications of dairy ingredients in the manufacture of food products such as dairy foods, bakery products, processed cheeses, processed meats, chocolate as well as confectionery products, functional foods, and infant and adult nutritional products, are covered in some detail in subsequent chapters. Topics are presented in a logical and accessible style in order to enhance the usefulness of the book as a reference volume. It is hoped that Dairy Ingredients for Food Processing will be a valuable resource for members of academia engaged in teaching and research in food science; regulatory personnel; food equipment manufacturers; and technical specialists engaged in the manufacture and use of dairy ingredients. Arun Kilara , Ph. He has edited two books on dairy food science.
Butter & Spreads
The Hodds U. The mixture is then churned to obtain the "artificial butter" of the Hodds patent. The Howe U. The addition of the oil during the churning step is discussed in the Lauferty U.
EP0613620A2 - Process for the production of a dairy spread - Google Patents
Includes reconstituted plain milk that contains only dairy ingredients. Milk is usually heat-treated by pasteurization, ultra-high temperature UHT treatment or sterilization. Buttermilk is also produced by fermentation of fluid skim milk, either by spontaneous souring by the action of lactic acid-forming or aroma-forming bacteria, or by inoculation of heated milk with pure bacterial cultures cultured buttermilk. Examples include: hot chocolate, chocolate malt drinks, strawberry-flavoured yoghurt drink, lactic acid bacteria drinks, and lassi liquid obtained by whipping curd from the lactic acid fermentation of milk, and mixing with sugar or synthetic sweetener. Flavoured products are included in food categories Plain yoghurt, which does not contain flavours or colours, may be found in one of the sub-categories of Includes curdled milk.
Margarine : Is a spread used for spreading, baking, and cooking. Margarine is made mainly of hydrogenated or refined plant oils and water. While butter is made from fat from milk, margarine is made from plant oils and may also contain milk. In some locales it is colloquially referred to as "oleo", short for oleomargarine. Margarine, like butter , consists of water-in-fat emulsion, with tiny droplets of water dispersed uniformly throughout a fat phase which is in a stable crystalline form. Margarine can be used both for spreading and for baking and cooking. It is also commonly used as an ingredient in other food products, such as pastries and cookies, for its wide range of functionalities. The basic method of making margarine today consists of emulsifying a blend of hydrogenated vegetable oils with skimmed milk, chilling the mixture to solidify it and working it to improve the texture.
WO2013111058A1 - Rheologically-controlled vegetable spread oils - Google Patents
Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Food Industries Manual. Christopher G.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Vegetable oils in food technology Zeen Cindy. Vegetable oils in food technology. Hamilton A series which presents the current state of the art in chosen areas of oils and fats chemistry, including its relevance to the food and pharmaceutical indus- tries. Written at professional and reference level, it is directed at chemists and technologists working in oils and fats processing, the food industry, the oleo- chemicals industry and the pharmaceutical industry, at analytical chemists and quality assurance personnel, and at lipid chemists in academic research laboratories.
Specific oils and shortenings for food manufacturers
Fats and oils are the most abundant lipids in nature. They provide energy for living organisms, insulate body organs, and transport fat-soluble vitamins through the blood. Fats and oils are called triglycerides or triacylcylgerols because they are esters composed of three fatty acid units joined to glycerol , a trihydroxy alcohol:. If all three OH groups on the glycerol molecule are esterified with the same fatty acid, the resulting ester is called a simple triglyceride. Although simple triglycerides have been synthesized in the laboratory, they rarely occur in nature. Instead, a typical triglyceride obtained from naturally occurring fats and oils contains two or three different fatty acid components and is thus termed a mixed triglyceride. These differences in melting points reflect differences in the degree of unsaturation and number of carbon atoms in the constituent fatty acids.
Smooth & Creamy American-Pistachio Butter
Of a variety of fat-and-oil products, a group of solid emulsion fat-and-oil products can be emphasized, including margarines, vegetable-cream and vegetable-fat spreads. These products were initially developed as an alternative to butter, however, their scope of application has significantly expanded at this stage of development of the food industry. It should be noted that the structure of consumption of solid fat-and-oil products has recently changed with a decrease in the proportion of consumed butter, margarines and spreads as edible products. The reason for these changes is due to a more attentive attitude of the population towards health and the fulfillment of the recommendations of the health authorities to reduce the consumption of fats, in particular, saturated fats. Despite this fact, the consumption of solid fat-and-oil products on the whole continues to grow. To a certain degree, this is due to the fact that the scope of margarines and spreads is not limited to direct consumption as a sandwich type product. Margarine products are widely used in public catering and in the HoReCa sector, as well as in the confectionery, bakery, canning and other food industries. The formulation of margarine can include both natural and modified vegetable oils, water, milk and its derivative products, as well as various food supplements. Spreads, in comparison with margarines, have a more plastic consistency.
In Indian contest fat spreads can further classified as follows. Based on fat content spread and margarine products are as classified as follows. Site news.
Disclosed are methods for producing esterified propoxylated glycerols and eutectic mixtures containing one or more esterified propoxylated glycerols and one or more digestible fats. Food products containing the eutectic mixtures are also disclosed.
These guidelines are intended to provide a broad framework permitting the development of more specific group or individual standards, according to the requirements of individual countries. Fat spread: A fat spread is a food in the form of an emulsion mainly of the water-in-oil type , comprising principally an aqueous phase and edible fats and oils. Edible fats and oils: Foodstuffs mainly composed of triglycerides of fatty acids. They are of vegetable, animal, milk or marine origin.
Fats in Food Products pp Cite as. The fat spreads market shows considerable regional variations on a global basis.