Textile recycling is the process by which old clothing and other textiles are recovered for reuse or material recovery. It is the basis for the textile recycling industry. The necessary steps in the textile recycling process involve the donation, collection, sorting and processing of textiles, and then subsequent transportation to end users of used garments, rags or other recovered materials. The basis for the growing textile recycling industry is, of course, the textile industry itself. The importance of recycling textiles is increasingly being recognized.
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- Fillings Guide
- The wool market recovery is underway says Bruce McLeish
- Mohair produced by Angora goats hits a new Australian sale record, now worth more than wool
- Wool Packing Label
- Wool stockpile cleared as prices surge to four-year highs
- The Definitive Guide To Wool Trading: What Drives Prices & How Can You Invest?
Fillings GuideVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: MERINO WOOL - What makes it so great?
This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. S;- uf.!? This report is an outgrowth of the above recommendation and deals with the economic aspects of the production, distribution, and consumption of vrool grease.
Many of the problems presented in this report are typical of those found in any industry dependent on a byproduct for its raw material. Although the wool grease industry is relatively small, it is important to many sectors of the economy. As a profitable byproduct, wool grease can be of greater significajice to the wool industry than it is at present. Wool grease is of economic significance because it is widely used in many industries and is indispensable to a few.
It ha. In this report, the marketing channels and functions as well as the structure and characteristics of the wool grease industry are described and analyzed in some detail. Grease production by the wool scouring industry and the competitive situation of the product relative to other fats and oils made it necessary to discuss the economic and technical aspects of its production and consumption. Several other objectives were attained by this study.
The average per unit cost of scouring grease wool and recovering wool grease was developed for the industry for the first time.
The present and potential production of wool grease in the United States has been estimated and compared to the uses and markets for wool grease and of lanolin. The demand characteristics of the industries using wool grease have been ascertained in order to answer the principal query of the wool scourers: "Given a certain level of production of wool grease in the United States, at what price can it be sold?
It is hoped, however, that its comprehensive- ness will lead to a better understanding of the marketing pattern for wool grease and, consequently, will aid in the development of a more orderly distribution system and assist in opening new areas of use among potential users.
The major portion of the vork vas done by Robert S. Raymond, formerly research associate of the Foundation, and nov assistant professor, Pennsylvania State University, under the direction and supervision of Stuart L. Nfendell, assistant professor, Lowell Technological Institute. The basic research design for the study, technical super- vision of the contract, and preparation of the manuscript for final publication were the responsibilities of Shelby A.
Robert, Jr. Others from the Department participating in the planning of this study were John T. Foote, Agricultural Marketing Service. The United States Department of Agriculture and the Lowell Technological Institute Research Foundation appreciate the cooperation of many individuals and organizations without whose assistance the completion of this study would not have been possible. The sources of information and assistauace in collecting the data presented in this report are too numerous to list individually.
However, special appreciation is due to E. Henry HoJjn, I. Malmstrom, A. Wagner, and Frank Fanning, wool grease refiners, whose knowledge of and experience in the refining industry were generously given to the Reseeirch Foundation. For valuable technical assistance the Research Foundation is grateful to Philip N. Dwyer, chief chemist, 0. King Company; T. Crowley and L. Among those who read all or parts of this manuscript and contributed valuable advice and suggestions are Ruth Jackendoff , director of the Department of Economics and Statistics, and Giles Hopkins, tech- nical director.
The Wool Bureau, Inc. Derby, president. Day, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Okla. Statement of purpose ij. Scope and method of study 5 Definition of terms 5 General characteristics of wool grease and lanolin. Government Printing Office Washington 25, D. A steady demand is believed to be already available to absorb the added production without unreasonably low prices.
At the same time, improvements in waste disposal which could be obtained efficiently with larger production would contribute to the abatement of stresun pollution. An increased supply of wool grease will not solve all of the industry's problems nor will fluctuations in supply and conse- quent fluctuations in price be completely eliminated.
But the same fluctuations around a higher mean annual production would have substantially less serious effects. Reductions below an already low level of wool grease production in the United States can cause severe financial loss to industrial users, who experience not only price increases but actual physical shortages.
When average annual production is high, all users can meet their absolute needs, and the imrgin for adjustment by users is much greater than when production is low. There is also reason to believe that price fluctuations would be less at a higher produc- tion level, since enough wool grease would then be available so that the needs of marginal users could be met with only minor changes in the market price.
With respect to the future market outlook for this product, the many uses for the alcohol portion of the wool grease ester and many possibilities for use of the acidic fractions are of great potential importance. However, it is also an imp ortant fact that, even when the price of wool grease has been competitive with prices of other animal and vegetable fats and oils, the uncertainty of the wool grease supply has persuaded many firms to seek less satisfactory but more plentiful substitutes.
With the wool scouring industry concentrated in the Northeastern part of the United States, the problem of stream pollution from wool scouring operations has become increasingly important. The following possibilities are pointed out to wool scourers as the result of an analysis based on the assumptions that, for mills scouring at least 3 million pounds of apparel wool annually, wool grease recovery by centrifuge is economically sound, and that, for smaller scourers, waste water treatment is as justifiable an expense as the usual payment for treatment of intake water.
The consensus in the industry is that aqueous scouring offers serious disadvantages not inherent in the solvent method. The ideal method should combine efficient, low-cost scouring with abatement of stream pollution and maximum recovery of grease.
Where technically and geogxapMcally feasible, cooperation by these mills might include one or both of the following operations : a As cost studies in this industry indicate, lowest costs for scouring can be achieved by large-scale, three-shift operation, centralized scouring enterprises.
These might be set up near the ports of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. The success of these enterprises as commission scourers to small mills would depend upoa their management's technical knowledge as much as upon their ability to reduce costs. It might be economical for these adjacent plants to pipe their waste to a single - 3 - recovery plant. If an acid -cracking system of grease recovery were used, larger mills might find a greater net return by delivering their effluent via pipeline than by centrifuging it themselves.
Some people in the industry have suggested subsidies to marginal producers to increase the production of wool grease. This might be applicable diiring wartime if wool grease were considered a strategic material important for its use in leather, cordage, rust preventives, and lubricants. Others in the industry suggested accelerated rates of depreciation on recovery equipment as a method that might also increase production.
A suggestion from one segment of the industry was that a trade association might be formed by the wool grease refiners to l promote the use of wool grease, lanolin, and derivatives, 2 act as spokesman for the industry, 3 promote research on uses, k set up trade standards, 5 collect data from all sources and make it available in one place, and 6 exchange general information among members.
In any event, the suggestion was nnde that the refiners collec- tively undertake or encourage research on the technical aspects of wool grease uses. Both private and public research facilities could be called on for this work.
Research is presently under way at the Regional Laboratories of the U. Department of Agriculture on expanded utilization of wool grease and improved methods of scouring and grease recovery. Such research, if successful, could assist in stabilizing the wool grease industry, expanding present uses and developing the many potential uses for wool grease and its components, and abating the problem of stream pollution.
The recurring shortages of this material and the attendant repercussions make such a survey important not only to producers, refiners, and industrial users, but also to potential and marginal wool grease producers and ultimate consumers,, A better understanding of the marketing pattern for vool grease can aid in the development of a more orderly distribution system and consequently open new areas of use among potential users.
Statement of Purpose Tlie ultimate purpose of this study was to make an economic appraisal of wool grease as a byproduct of the wool industry. As a profitable byproduct, wool grease can be of greater signi- ficance to the wool industry than at present.
The cost of processing wool can be reduced if a more efficient recovery of wool grease can be effected and if additional remunerative markets can be established or present markets expanded. This analysis will also yield an estimate of the prices that can be obtained throiighout the wool grease industry at given levels of production. This study touches upon several larger pertinent problems than wool grease production, and on mciny other areas of industrial activity.
Among these larger problems are stream pollution, national defense, and wool consumption. The waste from the scouring of grease wool is a powerful pollutant to the streams in the northeastern paxt of the United States.
The situation has disturbed public health officials whose duty it is to supply cities with potable water, manufacturers whose water supply must be pre- treated at increased expense, ajid many groups and individuals who use the waterways for sport and recreation. The problem of national defense is involved because, for some pmrposes, the militairy forces can find no good or close substitutes for wool grease and lanolin. The matter of wool consumption involves not only the producers of wool in the United States, "but also the processors of wool who are faced with the problems occasioned by the extensive introduction of synthetic substitutes.
Scope and Ifethod of Study This study involved all wool grease refiners, nearly all grease wool scourers in the United States, and a cross section of the industrial users. A follow- up letter was mailed to non-respondents; where practicable, a personal interview was obtained to explain the project in greater detail.
Their number and location made this the most practical and economicaJ. Information was obtained from industrial users by questionnaire, telephone, letter, and, where practicable, by personal interview. Lanolin ]J The material refined from wool grease known as technical lanolin, U. Scourer An estahlishment scouring grease vrool on a commercial basis. Refiner A lanolin manufacturer who distributes both wool grease and lanolin. General Characteristics of Wool Grease and Lanolin Wool grease is known and referred to as wool fat, lanolin, lanoline, neutral wool grease, and degras, and by various other terms.
Chemically, wool grease is a wax rather than a fat since it contains no ester of glycerol. The true waxes have long -chain monohydric alcohols in place of the glycerol. Unlike true fats such as tallow,, butter, and lard, wool grease also lanolin does not become oxidized more than enough to form a surface film tlaat acts as a protective coating, nor does it become rancid by exposure to air or during long periods in storage.
It is unlike other waxes, such as carnauba or ouricouny which harden in air and take a high, durable polish. Its outstanding property, however, is its ability to form very stable emulsions of the water-in-oil type. It is self -emulsifying, and when added to other oils, even in small amounts of 5 to 10 percent, it enables them to absorb many times their ovn weight in water.
This property enables water- soluble medicaments mixed with lanolin to be held in contact with the skin until they can be absorbed. General Supply Situation The supply of wool grease available for consumption in the United States is derived from two sources, as shown in figure 1. The principal one is the grease produced as a byproduct by 38 scourers of apparel wool that recover the wool grease from their scouring liquors.
The other and secondary source is imports. Centrifuged grease that is suitable for refining into lajio- lin is produced by 35 domestic scourers. It can be desulphurized with sodium sulphite at a cost of approximately 1 cent a pound.
Wool grease obtained by this process was sold under ceiling prices of the former Office of Price Stabilization OPS at approximately 15 cents a poimd in contrast to 20 cents a pound for centrlfxoged grease.
New Zealand merino farmer Paul Ensor says he expects the industry will continue to grow. At 15 microns it's about a quarter the width of a human hair, and much finer than other wool - able to be woven with silk but strong enough not to tear. You can't afford to have a few bad days in there. Designer Textiles chief executive Brett McIlride says the company had been sending raw merino wool to Asia for spinning, it would come back to New Zealand to be turned into fabric, then sent back to Asia to be made into garments. Now, all its fabric is made in Namh Dinh - an hour and a half south of Vietnam's capital, Hanoi - in a huge textile and garment industrial park that employs nearly people.
The wool market recovery is underway says Bruce McLeish
Mohair producers across Australia are relishing a worldwide shortage of the fibre, which has helped to drive up their prices. AMMO warehouse manager Craig Clancy, who classed the mohair, said the buoyant price was due to reduced international production and increased demand from China and Europe. Space to play or pause, M to mute, left and right arrows to seek, up and down arrows for volume. Mr Clancy said that global production was down as farmers in South Africa and the United States were not running as many Angora goats as they used to.
Mohair produced by Angora goats hits a new Australian sale record, now worth more than wool
Hollow Fibre is a synthetic man made material, consisting of hollow strands that allow air to pass through, trapping it within the strand producing loft. This fibre creates a plump cushion with a medium to firm feel, suitable for all suite, scatter and bolster cushions. Hollow fibre is great for indoor and also outdoor use as it inhibits mould growth and is also an anti-allergy filling which is similar in density and cost to feather, making it a good alternative for those suffering from allergies. Micro cluster fibre is a luxury synthetic filling, made up of small ball clusters. The small balls provide even distribution around the cushion achieving a luxuriously plump finish, good recovery and a soft to medium feel.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Exploring Australian approaches to producing cotton, timber and wool
Project 5 -- Wool Marketing and Supply Cooperative. The funds will help the cooperative in several ways. First, it will allow the cooperative to reduce operating expenses and improve the return to producers in its consignment program. Second, the cooperative will be able to continue to be a major part of the domestic wool industry; the cooperative marketed 9 percent of the U. Third, the cooperative can maintain its state-of-the-art wool grading facility. Fourth, through the grading line in Ohio and Kansas, producers can individually receive a complete grading report showing what they are producing, allowing producers with lots too small for individual producer laboratory testing to be recognized for the wool they produce and be paid a higher price than the producer who throws wool in a bag without preparation. Finally, the funds prevent the possible closure of two of the cooperative's western warehouses, which would leave many producers with only one bid for their wool throughout the Midwest. This loan was used to purchase state-of-the-art wool scouring equipment and installation of such will allow a Texas hat company to replace vintage equipment. This acquisition will allow them to keep the first stage of wool processing, scouring, competitive in this country, allowing the production of the best quality.
Wool Packing Label
A New Year and wool season is upon us. Hopefully we will see rain and relief from the drought and better lamb prices in While wool prices did decrease last year, prices came down from record highs and did not fall too far all things considered. Wool has continued to be a bright spot for the sheep industry.
Overview of Global Wool Demand and Supply June 1, Although wool prices have pulled back in the last 12 months, they still remain at very high levels. Can these favorable wool prices be sustained? To answer this question, Wilcox explained that the world wool production will fall slightly in 1. Australia and Uruguay expect no change in production while the United Kingdom and Brazil predict a lift in wool production. There is very little raw-wool stock available around the world and the production of medium micron wools is declining. The first six months of reflected an economic recovery, better consumer confidence and better retail sales in some markets. Wool prices were competitive with other fibers as cotton prices surged and the price of synthetic fiber was higher. This positive mood in the wool textile industry led to a higher demand for raw wool in this time period.
Wool stockpile cleared as prices surge to four-year highs
A nice shade of green appeared on the AWEX market reports this week indicating rising prices. It was a welcome sight for all after a shaky start on Wednesday which saw the indicator slip 30 cents a kilogram and a few people thought 'here we go again'. However, with a smattering of demand, a resolution of sorts in Hong Kong, and generally a better tone about the industry buyers hit the pedal to ensure they could fill the orders on hand in the meagre selection available. With pre-sale withdrawals and passed-in wools mounting up, only a paltry 22, bales were available across the nation. Whilst several early-stage processors have reduced production levels in recent weeks, wool is still required to feed the machinery and there had been some decision making by a select few across the industry that the current levels were too cheap to ignore. The quality of the offering in medium Merino wool is still making it difficult for buyers to purchase the correct quality, and the holes left behind tend to drag down the Micron Price Guides for this category. Many in the industry are questioning why the market dropped so low, so quickly. It has been broadly agreed that the wool market was defying logic and had perhaps become a victim of its small size. Others looked to blame the buying fraternity, or the Chinese early stage processing industry because there is very little other early-stage processing industry but this level of finger-pointing highlights a lack of knowledge or understanding of the industry. China is 75 per cent of the early-stage processing industry, as this volume of Australian wool is exported there, but those trading and processing there have been as confused as anyone about the wool market of late.
The Definitive Guide To Wool Trading: What Drives Prices & How Can You Invest?
This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. S;- uf.!? This report is an outgrowth of the above recommendation and deals with the economic aspects of the production, distribution, and consumption of vrool grease. Many of the problems presented in this report are typical of those found in any industry dependent on a byproduct for its raw material. Although the wool grease industry is relatively small, it is important to many sectors of the economy. As a profitable byproduct, wool grease can be of greater significajice to the wool industry than it is at present. Wool grease is of economic significance because it is widely used in many industries and is indispensable to a few. It ha.
Synthetic Elastomeric Yarn is commonly referred to as spandex yarn which was first produced in the s by the German textile manufacturer Bayer Fibers. Spandex was originally designed to be a synthetic replacement for natural latex rubber. Bayer Fibers produced their brand of spandex under the name of Dorlastan. Subsequently, DuPont Fibers, produced their brand of spandex under the name, Lycra.
The activity of recovery of wool textile waste from textile companies is one of the main processes carried out by Pistoni Srl, an Italian company with 30 years of experience in the field of rehabilitation and upgrading of the industrial textile waste. Pistoni S.
Last Updated on May 15, Wool is a textile fiber obtained mainly from shearing the fleece of sheep. It is a fabric prized for its durability, comfort and resiliency. Wool plays an important role in producing items such as clothing, blankets, carpets and upholstery.
Layouts and Work Methods for Wool Warehouses. Tarvin Flannis Webb. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service , - 36 sayfa.