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Industry commercial knots and details of automobile diesel engines spare parts

Industry commercial knots and details of automobile diesel engines spare parts

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Comparing Diesel Types

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Currently, there are three major diesel competitors, Detroit Diesel, Caterpillar and Cummins. Engines like M. Moreover, the differences between the engines offered by the three companies could hardly be much more different. Experience has shown that, like most manufacturers, they make some good ones, and occasionally some not-so-good ones.

Of course, that is an utterly useless appraisal. There are a huge number of variables that come into play, that can make engine selection something that requires very careful consideration whether you're buying a new or used boat.

Last year, most did not, so this is good news for buyers wanting to do technical comparisons. There are two basic engine types, two cycle and four cycle. The former is represented by Detroit Diesel alone, while the later by both Cummins and Caterpillar and virtually all the others, for only DD makes two cycle engines. The differences between the two types is very substantial, with each having their pros and cons depending on the application of the engine. Before I get into this, let me first dispel some myths about diesels.

These engines developed their reputation for reliability and very long engine life beginning over a hundred years ago, a reputation that, for the most part, no longer holds. That reputation was based up very unsophisticated, slow turning, low horsepower engines. Today we have a "need for speed," and everyone wants to go fast. Going fast is what negates the virtues of those engines from a by-gone era.

The modern diesel is very sophisticated, complex, lighter weight and very powerful. Hence, their life span is often no more than that of a gas engine, often times even less. To say that they are delicate is not an overstatement. There is a very simple rule today that the more power you try to squeeze out of a given engine block, the less service life it will give. People can argue all they want to, but that is a fact.

Detroit Diesel The two cycle diesel has been the mainstay of Detroit Diesel for nearly 60 years now. The incredibly reliable old engine is in service world wide and powers everything from busses to generators to tug boats. Its service record is unparalleled. Two cycle and four cycle engines each have their pros and cons. The operating system of the two cycle is radically different than the four cycle, which operates more like an ordinary gas engine without spark plugs.

The Detroit Diesel engine is unique and is not offered by any other manufacturer. This engine utilizes a moderately heavy cylinder block that is quite complex in its casting. It is a long stroke, smaller bore engine than most four cycles. This gives the Detroit engine considerably higher torque at lower speed ranges, but limits its top RPM range: the longer the stroke, the slower the engine has to run. Thus, higher power at lower speeds. Altogether, the engine delivers more power from less displacement, lower speed, but higher casting weights, while fuel consumptions remain approximately the same.

The typical V-8 Detroit engine today has more than double the number of internal parts as say a Caterpillar V-8, making it a more sophisticated, but remarkably not more costly engine. Why not more expensive with all those extra parts? Well, there is a very good reason for that, which is that DD is the largest diesel engine manufacturer in the world. They sell a lot of parts, and higher production means lower cost.

Typically, DD engine parts are considerably less expensive than Caterpillar parts. Most of all 71 and 92 series can use interchangeable parts. This interchangeability also has a tremendous effect on parts costs. It also means that world wide, there are more mechanics trained to work on DD than any other.

Stocking costs are also much lower because of the interchangeability. The downside to this engine is that these numerous parts do create something of a more serious wear problem over the four cycle with fewer and less delicate parts. This situation becomes magnified with poor maintenance, and therefore they do require more care, though not necessarily at significantly higher cost. Each cylinder liner has a row of 14 oblong holes near the bottom.

After the compression stroke, the piston travels downward, past this row of holes. This is similar to the way an outboard motor works. Except that once the piston goes below the holes, called scavenging ports, the blower forces air in at high pressure from what is called the air gallery cast into the block.

Thus, the DD has not only water jackets, but air galleries cast in the block as well. This one thing that makes DD blocks more complex. The pressurized air then "scavenges" or forces out the burned gasses up through the four exhaust valves.

This enables the engine to make only two revolutions to complete the combustion cycle rather that the four required of the four cycle engine, which relies on a second upward stroke of the piston to exhaust the cylinder of burned gas. In theory, this makes the engine more efficient.

In reality, all the friction caused by all those extra moving parts eats up some of the efficiency gain. Because of the drag created by the non-compression stroke, and the power to drive the blower and extra cam shaft. Even so, there is a major power gain through this design. So the DD engine is left with certain advantages such as more immediate power delivery and higher power at lower speeds.

This is one of the things that has made these engines more popular with the commercial boat industry. The four cycle engine has to throttle up to a higher RPM before a similar amount of power is delivered to the propeller. The fuel systems are both very different and yet similar.

An injection pump is sort of like a small engine with 6 or 8 cylinders and pistons that pump and supply fuel to the injector which, in a four cycle engine is nothing more than a spray nozzle like on the end of a garden hose, albeit a bit more refined. On a DD engine, each injector is operated by the dual underhead camshafts that are immediately below the head. A Detroit Diesel uses its fuel as part of the cooling system to the cylinder head and injector.

It returns a LOT of fuel back to the tank, and it is very hot. Thus, a DD has a fuel oil cooler, whereas the four cycle does not. With Detroits, you have to worry about the state of fuel return to the tank when, for example, you decide to run off of one tank only. Detroits for the most part are self-priming fuel system. Woe to the captain who gets air into the fuel system of a four cycle engine system.

You got to get that air out, or it will not run. Now here is where the DD gets all those extra working parts. Each cam shaft has three lobes per cylinder. Two to run two pairs of exhaust valves and one to run the injector.

All are actuated by roller followers placed in the head with a very short "pushrod. Unlike a 4 cycle, the fuel metering is all controlled by the injector and a throttle control lever on the injector actuated by the "rack," just a long bar that controls all injectors simultaneously.

Between the two engine types, the injectors are the main show on DD engines; the fuel pump is the big deal on 4 cycle engines -- i.

On a DD individual injectors can go bad without jeopardizing the whole system. With a 4 cycle engine, when the fuel injection pump goes, its lights out.

While the injection pump system is more reliable and requires less frequent service, the DD injectors are more efficient. The blower and turbocharger aspiration system constitutes another major difference. The four cycle engine is aspirated through intake valves next to the exhaust valves; the DD engine has only exhaust valves, but twice as many of them.

The DD cylinder heads are very complex and expensive to replace if one gets damaged, such as cracking from overheating. All those extra working parts make for more potential trouble, but also increase efficiency considerably. This why, pound for pound, DD squeezes quite a bit more horsepower out of their engines than CAT does. Compare the specs of this Cummins engine with that of a Detroit of comparable power rating. Isn't it interesting that this new Cummins engine only turns rpm?

Note that the Detroit weight includes gear, while Cummins does not, typically another lbs depending on engine size. Other significant differences include the large auxiliary drive housings on the Detroit. As mentioned, these are basically commercial engines, and the drive housing is designed to drive other components such as pumps, air compressors, even alternators through a gear drive rather than the belts you get on a four cycle.

This is the large housing you find on the back of the engine and is full of gears. This becomes significant in larger yachts where you may want to drive a powerful hydraulic pump for things like stabilizers and bow thrusters.

With a four cycle, you have to go through a lot of rigmarole setting up belt drive pumps, whereas there is a ready made pump to do whatever job you need from your Detroit. Need an air compressor? No problem, just buy it and bolt it on. No muss, no fuss. Turbochargers and Blowers Turbochargers are similar to jet engines. It has two sides and two turbines. The exhaust side has the turbine immediately after the exhaust manifold and uses the rushing hot exhaust gasses to turn it.

The other turbine is attached to the same shaft, and pulls fresh air in and forces it into the air induction system. Because the turbo gets hot, it also heats up the air on the intake side, which is why you have to have an intercooler to reduce this air temperature.

Remember, we said that the higher the intake air temperature, the lower the engine performance? You might wonder why, if the Jimmy already has a blower which I have described as doing the same job of evacuating exhaust gases , why do they put turbochargers on it?

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Currently, there are three major diesel competitors, Detroit Diesel, Caterpillar and Cummins. Engines like M. Moreover, the differences between the engines offered by the three companies could hardly be much more different. Experience has shown that, like most manufacturers, they make some good ones, and occasionally some not-so-good ones. Of course, that is an utterly useless appraisal.

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  1. Moogull

    The excellent answer, gallantly :)

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