Competitive Assessment of the U. The Committee requested that the U. International Trade Commission the Commission examine the ability of the U. The Commission's report examines the composition and recent trends of the large civil aircraft LCA aerostructures industry; the process of new aerostructures development; the means and trends of government support for research and development; and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the aerostructures industries in these countries and regions, for the period and to the extent possible, "--Publisher description.
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Many variants of the Spitfire were built, using several wing configurations, and it was produced in greater numbers than any other British aircraft.
It was also the only British fighter produced continuously throughout the war. The Spitfire continues to be popular among enthusiasts; nearly 60 remain airworthy , and many more are static exhibits in aviation museums throughout the world.
The Spitfire was designed as a short-range, high-performance interceptor aircraft by R. Mitchell , chief designer at Supermarine Aviation Works, which operated as a subsidiary of Vickers-Armstrong from Mitchell pushed the Spitfire's distinctive elliptical wing with cutting-edge sunken rivets designed by Beverley Shenstone  to have the thinnest possible cross-section, helping give the aircraft a higher top speed than several contemporary fighters, including the Hawker Hurricane.
Mitchell continued to refine the design until his death in , whereupon his colleague Joseph Smith took over as chief designer, overseeing the Spitfire's development through its multitude of variants. During the Battle of Britain , from July to October , the public perceived the Spitfire to be the main RAF fighter, though the more numerous Hurricane shouldered a greater proportion of the burden against Nazi Germany 's air force, the Luftwaffe.
However, Spitfire units had a lower attrition rate and a higher victory-to-loss ratio than those flying Hurricanes because of the Spitfire's higher performance. During the battle, Spitfires were generally tasked with engaging Luftwaffe fighters—mainly Messerschmitt Bf E -series aircraft, which were a close match for them.
Much loved by its pilots, the Spitfire served in several roles, including interceptor, photo-reconnaissance, fighter-bomber, and trainer, and it continued to serve in these roles until the s. The Seafire was a carrier-based adaptation of the Spitfire that served in the Fleet Air Arm from through to the mids. As a result, the Spitfire's performance and capabilities improved over the course of its service life. Mitchell designed the Supermarine Type to fill this role.
The Type was a big disappointment to Mitchell and his design team, who immediately embarked on a series of "cleaned-up" designs, using their experience with the Schneider Trophy seaplanes as a starting point.
This design was submitted to the Air Ministry in July , but was not accepted. In November , Mitchell, with the backing of Supermarine's owner Vickers-Armstrong , started detailed design work on this refined version of the Type On 5 March ,  [nb 2] the prototype K took off on its first flight from Eastleigh Aerodrome later Southampton Airport.
At the controls was Captain Joseph "Mutt" Summers , chief test pilot for Vickers, who is quoted as saying "Don't touch anything" on landing. K was fitted with a new propeller, and Summers flew the aircraft on 10 March ; during this flight, the undercarriage was retracted for the first time. They soon discovered that the Spitfire [nb 4]  was a very good aircraft, but not perfect.
Edwardes-Jones' report was positive; his only request was that the Spitfire be equipped with an undercarriage position indicator. Interim reports were later issued on a piecemeal basis.
Although full-scale production was supposed to begin immediately, numerous problems could not be overcome for some time, and the first production Spitfire, K , did not roll off the Woolston , Southampton assembly line until mid In February , the director of Vickers-Armstrong, Sir Robert MacLean, guaranteed production of five aircraft a week, beginning 15 months after an order was placed. Supermarine was a small company, already busy building Walrus and Stranraer flying boats, and Vickers was busy building Wellington bombers.
The initial solution was to subcontract the work. As a result of the delays in getting the Spitfire into full production, the Air Ministry put forward a plan that its production be stopped after the initial order for , after which Supermarine would build Bristol Beaufighters.
The managements of Supermarine and Vickers were able to convince the Air Ministry that production problems could be overcome, and a further order was placed for Spitfires on 24 March The two orders covered the K, L, and N prefix serial numbers.
In mid, the first production Spitfire rolled off the assembly line  and was flown by Jeffrey Quill on 15 May , almost 24 months after the initial order. In , the Air Ministry approached Morris Motors Limited to ask how quickly their Cowley plant could be turned to aircraft production.
In , this informal request for major manufacturing facilities was replaced by a formal scheme, known as the shadow factory plan , to boost British aircraft production capacity under the leadership of Herbert Austin. He was given the task of building nine new factories, and to supplement the British car manufacturing industry by either adding to overall capacity or increasing the potential for reorganisation to produce aircraft and their engines.
In , construction began on the Castle Bromwich Aircraft Factory CBAF , next to the aerodrome , and the installation of the most modern machine tools then available began two months after work started on the site. The Spitfire's stressed-skin construction required precision engineering skills and techniques that were beyond the capabilities of the local labour force, and some time was required to retrain them.
There were difficulties with management, who ignored Supermarine's tooling and drawings in favour of their own, and the workforce continually threatened strikes or "slow downs" until their demands for higher wages were met.
In spite of promises that the factory would be producing 60 per week starting in April, by May Castle Bromwich had not yet built its first Spitfire. Although resolving the problems took time, in June , 10 Mk IIs were built; 23 rolled out in July, 37 in August, and 56 in September. During the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe made concerted efforts to destroy the main manufacturing plants at Woolston and Itchen , near Southampton. The first bombing raid, which missed the factories, came on 23 August Over the next month, other raids were mounted until, on 26 September , both factories were destroyed,  with 92 people killed and a large number injured.
Most of the casualties were experienced aircraft production workers. Fortunately for the future of the Spitfire, many of the production jigs and machine tools had already been relocated by 20 September, and steps were being taken to disperse production to small facilities throughout the Southampton area. A purpose-built works, specialising in manufacturing fuselages and installing engines, was built at Star Road, Caversham in Reading.
This site also had an aircraft assembly hangar where many prototype and experimental Spitfires were assembled, but since it had no associated aerodrome, no Spitfires ever flew from Hursley. Four towns and their satellite airfields were chosen to be the focal points for these workshops:  Southampton's Eastleigh Airport ; Salisbury's High Post and Chattis Hill aerodromes; [nb 6] Trowbridge 's Keevil aerodrome;  and Reading's Henley and Aldermaston aerodromes. An experimental factory at Newbury was the subject of a Luftwaffe daylight raid, but the bombs missed their target and hit a nearby school.
Completed Spitfires were delivered to the airfields on large Commer " Queen Mary " low-loader articulated lorries trucks , there to be fully assembled, tested, then passed on to the RAF. All production aircraft were flight tested before delivery. He oversaw a group of 10 to 12 pilots responsible for testing all developmental and production Spitfires built by the company in the Southampton area.
He co-ordinated a team of 25 pilots and assessed all Spitfire developments. After a thorough preflight check, I would take off and, once at circuit height, I would trim the aircraft and try to get her to fly straight and level with hands off the stick Then I would make a careful check of the power output from the engine, calibrated for height and temperature Personally, I never cleared a Spitfire unless I had carried out a few aerobatic tests to determine how good or bad she was.
The production test was usually quite a brisk affair; the initial circuit lasted less than ten minutes and the main flight took between twenty and thirty minutes. Then the aircraft received a final once-over by our ground mechanics, any faults were rectified and the Spitfire was ready for collection. I loved the Spitfire in all of her many versions. But I have to admit that the later marks, although they were faster than the earlier ones, were also much heavier and so did not handle so well.
You did not have such positive control over them. One test of manoeuvrability was to throw her into a flick-roll and see how many times she rolled. With the later and still heavier versions, one got even less. The essence of aircraft design is compromise, and an improvement at one end of the performance envelope is rarely achieved without a deterioration somewhere else.
When the last Spitfire rolled out in February ,  a total of 20, examples of all variants had been built, including two-seat trainers , with some Spitfires remaining in service well into the s. In the mids, aviation design teams worldwide began developing a new generation fighter aircraft. The French Dewoitine D. They also featured refinements such as retractable undercarriages, fully enclosed cockpits, and low-drag, all-metal wings. These advances had been introduced on civil airliners years before, but were slow to be adopted by the military, who favoured the biplane's simplicity and manoeuvrability.
Mitchell's design aims were to create a well-balanced, high-performance fighter aircraft capable of fully exploiting the power of the Merlin engine, while being relatively easy to fly. German bombers would have to fly to the UK over the North Sea , and Germany did not have any single-engine fighters with the range to accompany them.
To carry out the mission of home defence, the design was intended to allow the Spitfire to climb quickly to intercept enemy bombers. The Spitfire's airframe was complex. The streamlined, semi-monocoque , duralumin-skinned fuselage featured a number of compound, vertical curves built up from a skeleton of 19 formers , also known as frames, starting from frame number one, immediately behind the propeller unit, to the tail unit attachment frame. The first four frames supported the glycol header tank and engine cowlings.
Frame five, to which the engine bearers were secured, supported the weight of the engine and its accessories. This was a strengthened double frame which also incorporated the fireproof bulkhead, and in later versions of the Spitfire, the oil tank. This frame also tied the four main fuselage longerons to the rest of the airframe. The rear fuselage started at the 11th frame, to which the pilot's seat and later armour plating were attached, and ended at the 19th, which was mounted at a slight forward angle just forward of the fin.
Each of these nine frames was oval, reducing in size towards the tail, and incorporated several lightening holes to reduce their weight as much as possible without weakening them. The U-shaped frame 20 was the last frame of the fuselage proper and the frame to which the tail unit was attached. Frames 21, 22 and 23 formed the fin; frame 22 incorporated the tailwheel opening and frame 23 was the rudder post.
Before being attached to the main fuselage, the tail unit frames were held in a jig and the eight horizontal tail formers were riveted to them. A combination of 14 longitudinal stringers and four main longerons attached to the frames helped form a light, but rigid structure to which sheets of alclad stressed skinning were attached.
The fuselage plating was 24, 20, and 18 gauge in order of thickness towards the tail, while the fin structure was completed using short longerons from frames 20 to 23, before being covered in 22 gauge plating.
The skins of the fuselage, wings, and tailplane were secured by dome-headed rivets, and in critical areas such as the wing forward of the main spar where an uninterrupted airflow was required, with flush rivets. From February flush riveting was used on the fuselage, affecting all Spitfire variants.
The removable wing tips were made up of duralumin-skinned spruce formers. In , Mitchell and the design staff decided to use a semi-elliptical wing shape to solve two conflicting requirements; the wing needed to be thin to avoid creating too much drag , but it had to be thick enough to house the retractable undercarriage, armament, and ammunition. An elliptical planform is the most efficient aerodynamic shape for an untwisted wing, leading to the lowest amount of induced drag.
The ellipse was skewed so that the centre of pressure, which occurs at the quarter- chord position, aligned with the main spar, preventing the wings from twisting. Mitchell has sometimes been accused of copying the wing shape of the Heinkel He 70 , which first flew in , but as Beverley Shenstone , the aerodynamicist on Mitchell's team, explained: "Our wing was much thinner and had quite a different section to that of the Heinkel.
In any case, it would have been simply asking for trouble to have copied a wing shape from an aircraft designed for an entirely different purpose. Beverly Shenstone . A wing feature that contributed greatly to its success was an innovative spar boom design, made up of five square tubes that fitted into each other. As the wing thinned out along its span, the tubes were progressively cut away in a similar fashion to a leaf spring ; two of these booms were linked together by an alloy web, creating a lightweight and very strong main spar.
The resultant narrow undercarriage track was considered an acceptable compromise as this reduced the bending loads on the main-spar during landing.
Ahead of the spar, the thick-skinned leading edge of the wing formed a strong and rigid, D-shaped box, which took most of the wing loads. At the time the wing was designed, this D-shaped leading edge was intended to house steam condensers for the evaporative cooling system intended for the PV-XII. This used the cooling air to generate thrust , greatly reducing the net drag produced by the radiators.
Still making miracles. Fabrication Division evolves to meet large-scale systems integration. Now nearing 40, Fab is facing midlife decisions about how to add value for Boeing in the future. To support final assembly, Fab simply commits to deliver parts whenever asked.
Reducing manufacturing cost via RTM
However, with the sales of all Boeing models falling and large scale staff layoffs in , it was decided to consolidate production of the , and at Renton just 5 miles away. In December the first built at Renton flew and all s have been assembled there ever since. However not all of the is built at Renton. Also much of the sub-assembly work is outsourced beyond Boeing. Production methods have evolved enormously since the first was made in The main difference is that instead of the aircraft being assembled in one spot they are now on a moving assembly line similar to that used in car production. This has the effect of accelerating production, which not only reduces the order backlog and waiting times for customers but also reduces production costs.
The Boeing Co. Workers have spent months and months testing and certifying dozens of pieces of manufacturing equipment on the leading edge of production technology. By late March, they expect to be making parts for the first production X aircraft. That plane will never leave the ground. Instead, Boeing will bend, pull and push its wings, flaps, fuselage and other critical structures past their designed limits to ensure the X is as strong in real life as it is on paper.
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Airbus wing plant is a model of robotic technology
Many variants of the Spitfire were built, using several wing configurations, and it was produced in greater numbers than any other British aircraft. It was also the only British fighter produced continuously throughout the war. The Spitfire continues to be popular among enthusiasts; nearly 60 remain airworthy , and many more are static exhibits in aviation museums throughout the world.
Inside a huge north Wales facility specifically designed for automation, Airbus assembles the wings of the A, currently the largest composite wings in commercial aviation. In Everett, Boeing will have to match this technology to build the giant wings of its forthcoming X. BROUGHTON, Wales — Like a cartoon space alien with a dome-like skull, an Airbus Beluga transport plane arriving from Madrid drops from the sky above this village miles northwest of London and taxis to a stop with its front end tucked inside a large building off the runway. Its bulbous forehead pops open to disgorge massive wing panels — 98 feet long and 20 feet wide — that will soon be assembled by sophisticated robots and about humans into the largest carbon-fiber composite wings now built for commercial aviation. This model of technological prowess, combined with geographical inefficiency, is what Boeing is contending against as it gears up to make its own, even larger composite wings for the X in Everett. On a recent tour of the half-million-square-foot main building, partially assembled wings glided in and out of fixed stations, drilled and fastened mostly by robotic machines. The key pieces were designed and built by Mukilteo engineering firm Electroimpact, a prime supplier to this wing facility that opened five years ago. The initial A model, which entered service last year and carries passengers, competes with the Dreamliner. It will also go up against the X, which will feature new composite wings attached to the traditional metal fuselage. To build such large composite wings is a major technological undertaking. The parts must first be fabricated from carbon-fiber tape infused with epoxy resin that is baked to hardness in massive high-pressure ovens called autoclaves.
Triumph, Gulfstream Agree on Shift in G650 Work
Business jet aircraft also known as "biz-jets" typically carry passengers and are primarily used as transportation by business executives and government officials. In the early days of flight, before World War I, aircraft were constructed entirely of wood and canvas. They were shaped and joined by skilled craftsmen, many of whom were drawn from other woodworking trades. Every aircraft was unique, reflecting many different thoughts and constant design changes. The beginning of World War I brought a sudden demand for thousands of aircraft. This meant that factories had to accommodate large-scale manufacture and assembly of aircraft components by unskilled workers. Small companies grew into major manufacturers capable of producing many different types of aircraft in large numbers.
Ultimate Rock Climbing Skin Care Handbook
Sitemap Feedback. Material requirements for aircraft building: 1. Aluminium was widely used in subsonic aircraft. Aerotechnics of supersonic speeds faced with elevated temperatures of the aircraft skin for which aluminium can not be applied due to low heat resistance. Structural materials reliably operating in complicated combination of force and temperature fields under the influence of corrosive media, radiation and high pressures were required.
Hand hygiene is step one in maintaining properly functioning skin. Start your day and your climbing session with a thorough hand washing, and keep your mitts free of grease and oils while climbing.
The Andalusian aerospace industry plays an important role in the development of the AM programme — a reflection of the work capacity and technology of the companies located in the region. The Tablada plant is also responsible for manufacturing components, although the majority of the parts of the HTP come from different companies and locations, including Andalusian firms such as Alestis, Carbures, Airgrup, the Airbus San Pablo site , Meupe and Consur.
On a structural level, the organisation empowers Airbus plants responsible for delivering aircraft components to the individual Airbus final assembly lines, and provides the necessary resources and leverage. In addition, more support will be given to engineering and the supply chain for dealing with day-to-day challenges. This ensures a further integration into operations to secure deliveries. The larger Airbus production organisation has accountability for final assembly line commitments.
Пуля попала в корпус мотоцикла и рикошетом отлетела в сторону. Беккер изо всех сил старался удержаться на шоссе, не дать веспе съехать на обочину.
Я должен добраться до ангара.