Laundry detergents have come a long way since the first bar soaps made from animal fat and lye were offered for sale in the s. The introduction of synthetic detergents to the marketplace in the s offered homemakers more options for fabric care. But it was the s that brought the most significant innovation in the laundry, the addition of enzymes that "attack" specific types of stains. It is those enzymes that separate the men from the boys when it comes to clean laundry. Every detergent manufacturer has secret ingredients and mixtures to produce their specific brands.
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Soap and detergent , substances that, when dissolved in water , possess the ability to remove dirt from surfaces such as the human skin , textiles, and other solids. The seemingly simple process of cleaning a soiled surface is, in fact, complex and consists of the following physical-chemical steps:.
If detached oil droplets and dirt particles did not become suspended in the detergent solution in a stable and highly dispersed condition, they would be inclined to flocculate or coalesce into aggregates large enough to be redeposited on the cleansed surface. In the washing of fabrics and similar materials, small oil droplets or fine, deflocculated dirt particles are more easily carried through interstices in the material than are relatively large ones.
The action of the detergent in maintaining the dirt in a highly dispersed condition is therefore important in preventing retention of detached dirt by the fabric. In order to perform as detergents surface-active agents , soaps and detergents must have certain chemical structures: their molecules must contain a hydrophobic water-insoluble part, such as a fatty acid or a rather long chain carbon group, such as fatty alcohols or alkylbenzene.
This hydrophilic part makes the molecule soluble in water. In general, the hydrophobic part of the molecule attaches itself to the solid or fibre and onto the soil, and the hydrophilic part attaches itself to the water. The first detergent or surface-active agent was soap. In a strictly chemical sense, any compound formed by the reaction of a water-insoluble fatty acid with an organic base or an alkali metal may be called a soap.
Practically, however, the soap industry is concerned mainly with those water-soluble soaps that result from the interaction between fatty acids and alkali metals. In certain cases, however, the salts of fatty acids with ammonia or with triethanolamine are also used, as in shaving preparations.
Soap has been known for at least 2, years. Soap was widely known in the Roman Empire; whether the Romans learned its use and manufacture from ancient Mediterranean peoples or from the Celts , inhabitants of Britannia, is not known.
The Celts, who produced their soap from animal fats and plant ashes , named the product saipo, from which the word soap is derived. The importance of soap for washing and cleaning was apparently not recognized until the 2nd century ce ; the Greek physician Galen mentions it as a medicament and as a means of cleansing the body.
Previously soap had been used as medicine. Although some soap manufacture developed in Germany, the substance was so little used in central Europe that a box of soap presented to the Duchess of Juelich in caused a sensation. As late as , when a German, A. Leo, sent Lady von Schleinitz a parcel containing soap from Italy, he accompanied it with a detailed description of how to use the mysterious product. The first English soapmakers appeared at the end of the 12th century in Bristol.
In the 13th and 14th centuries, a small community of them grew up in the neighbourhood of Cheapside in London. In those days soapmakers had to pay a duty on all the soap they produced.
After the Napoleonic Wars this tax rose as high as three pence per pound; soap-boiling pans were fitted with lids that could be locked every night by the tax collector in order to prevent production under cover of darkness. Soap came into such common use in the 19th century that Justus von Liebig, a German chemist, declared that the quantity of soap consumed by a nation was an accurate measure of its wealth and civilization.
Early soapmakers probably used ashes and animal fats. Simple wood or plant ashes containing potassium carbonate were dispersed in water, and fat was added to the solution. This mixture was then boiled; ashes were added again and again as the water evaporated. During this process a slow chemical splitting of the neutral fat took place; the fatty acids could then react with the alkali carbonates of the plant ash to form soap this reaction is called saponification.
Animal fats containing a percentage of free fatty acids were used by the Celts. The presence of free fatty acids certainly helped to get the process started. This method probably prevailed until the end of the Middle Ages, when slaked lime came to be used to causticize the alkali carbonate. Through this process, chemically neutral fats could be saponified easily with the caustic lye. The method of producing soap by boiling with open steam, introduced at the end of the 19th century, was another step toward industrialization.
Soap and detergent. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction History Use Early soap production Early synthetic detergents Soap manufacturing processes and products Raw materials and additives Alkali Fats and oils Optical brighteners Sequestering or chelating agents Abrasives Soap production processes Boiling process Continuous soapmaking—the hydrolyzer process Cold and semiboiled methods Finishing operations Anionic detergents Raw materials Processes Nonionic detergents Cationic detergents Ampholytic detergents Finishing synthetic detergents.
Soap and detergent chemical compound. Written By: A. See Article History. Wetting of the surface and, in the case of textiles, penetration of the fibre structure by wash liquor containing the detergent.
Detergents and other surface-active agents increase the spreading and wetting ability of water by reducing its surface tension—that is, the affinity its molecules have for each other in preference to the molecules of the material to be washed. Absorption of a layer of the soap or detergent at the interfaces between the water and the surface to be washed and between the water and the soil. In the case of ionic surface-active agents explained below , the layer formed is ionic electrically polar in nature.
Dispersion of soil from the fibre or other material into the wash water. This step is facilitated by mechanical agitation and high temperature; in the case of toilet soap, soil is dispersed in the foam formed by mechanical action of the hands. Preventing the soil from being deposited again onto the surface cleaned. The soap or detergent accomplishes this by suspending the dirt in a protective colloid, sometimes with the aid of special additives.
In a great many soiled surfaces the dirt is bound to the surface by a thin film of oil or grease. The cleaning of such surfaces involves the displacement of this film by the detergent solution, which is in turn washed away by rinse waters.
The oil film breaks up and separates into individual droplets under the influence of the detergent solution. Proteinic stains, such as egg, milk, and blood, are difficult to remove by detergent action alone.
The proteinic stain is nonsoluble in water, adheres strongly to the fibre, and prevents the penetration of the detergent. By using proteolytic enzymes enzymes able to break down proteins together with detergents, the proteinic substance can be made water-soluble or at least water-permeable, permitting the detergent to act and the proteinic stain to be dispersed together with the oily dirt. The enzymes may present a toxic hazard to some persons habitually exposed.
Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Anionic detergents including soap and the largest portion of modern synthetic detergents , which produce electrically negative colloidal ions in solution. Cationic detergents , which produce electrically positive ions in solution. Nonionic detergents , which produce electrically neutral colloidal particles in solution. Ampholytic , or amphoteric, detergents, which are capable of acting either as anionic or cationic detergents in solution depending on the pH acidity or alkalinity of the solution.
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Soap and detergent , substances that, when dissolved in water , possess the ability to remove dirt from surfaces such as the human skin , textiles, and other solids. The seemingly simple process of cleaning a soiled surface is, in fact, complex and consists of the following physical-chemical steps:. If detached oil droplets and dirt particles did not become suspended in the detergent solution in a stable and highly dispersed condition, they would be inclined to flocculate or coalesce into aggregates large enough to be redeposited on the cleansed surface. In the washing of fabrics and similar materials, small oil droplets or fine, deflocculated dirt particles are more easily carried through interstices in the material than are relatively large ones. The action of the detergent in maintaining the dirt in a highly dispersed condition is therefore important in preventing retention of detached dirt by the fabric. In order to perform as detergents surface-active agents , soaps and detergents must have certain chemical structures: their molecules must contain a hydrophobic water-insoluble part, such as a fatty acid or a rather long chain carbon group, such as fatty alcohols or alkylbenzene.
Producing Detergents from Fungi & Bacteria
Need to remove tomato sauce, grease, ink, or other tricky spots? Get rid of your toughest stains using our stain guide. The ingredients in your cleaning products fall into several different categories, added to provide different characteristics and cleaning functions. Search CPISI for safety assessment data from publicly available data sources on ingredients used in cleaning products. The alcohols used in light duty and liquid laundry detergents are isopropanol or ethanol ethyl alcohol. These alcohols are used at low levels in liquid detergent formulations to control viscosity, to act as a solvent for other ingredients, and to provide resistance to low and freezing temperatures encountered in shipping, warehousing, and use. Isopropanol is used in liquid hard surface cleaners.
Laundry Detergent Ingredients and How They Work
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The arrangements for cleaning equipment that comes in contact with products are an essential part of a food processing plant. It must be kept in mind that food manufacturers are always obliged to maintain high hygienic standards; this applies both to the equipment and, naturally, to the staff involved in production. This obligation can be considered under three headings:. Good, wholesome, clean products that keep well and are free from health hazards are obviously good for trade; customers will buy the same product again. However, if a product is contaminated, does not keep well or is the subject of complaints to the authorities, the reverse is true, and the resulting publicity is very damaging. The potential effects of poor cleaning, poor standards and poor quality must be kept in mind at all times. Most of the customers who consume the products never see the factory or how the products are handled. They trust the company, rely on its reputation, and take it for granted that operations are carried out under the cleanest of conditions by well-trained staff who are continually aware and conscious of these factors. The law attempts to protect the customer and purchaser in respect of health and quality.
Laundry detergents are the key cleaning product used in laundry. Detergents are similar to soap, but they are less likely to form films soap scum and are not as affected by the presence of minerals in the water. Every Tide detergent contains many ingredients with long, complicated names. Bargain brands have fewer of these components and will not clean as well.
Healthy Cleaning This section is intended to be a valuable information resource about cleaning products for consumers, educators, students, media, government officials, businesses and others. Water, the liquid commonly used for cleaning, has a property called surface tension. In the body of the water, each molecule is surrounded and attracted by other water molecules. However, at the surface, those molecules are surrounded by other water molecules only on the water side. A tension is created as the water molecules at the surface are pulled into the body of the water. This tension causes water to bead up on surfaces glass, fabric , which slows wetting of the surface and inhibits the cleaning process. You can see surface tension at work by placing a drop of water onto a counter top. The drop will hold its shape and will not spread. In the cleaning process, surface tension must be reduced so water can spread and wet surfaces.
Keeping up with detergent chemistry
The origins of cleanliness date back to prehistoric times. Since water is essential for life, the earliest people lived near water and knew something about its cleansing properties. Detergents were developed in response to a shortage of animal and vegetable fats and oils during World War I and II. In addition, a substance that was resistant to hard water was needed to make cleaning more effective. At that time petroleum was found to be a plentiful source for the manufacture of detergents. According to recent trend, liquid cleansing products are outpacing the powder cleaning products.
What kind of splashes in detergents production?
The first soaps were manufactured in ancient times through a variety of methods, most commonly by boiling fats and ashes. Archeologists excavating sites in ancient Babylon have found evidence indicating that such soaps were used as far back as B. By the second century A. In Europe, the use of soap declined during the Middle Ages. However, by the fifteenth century, its use and manufacture had resumed, and an olive-oil based soap produced in Castile, Spain, was being sold in many parts of the known world. Castile soap, which is still available today, has retained its reputation as a high-quality product. During the colonial period and the eighteenth century, Americans made their own soap at home, where most continued to produce it until soap manufacture shifted away from individual homes to become an industry during the s. The first detergent, or artificial soap, was produced in Germany during World War I.
Now researchers are taking a different approach: They are manufacturing surfactants using biotechnological methods, with the assistance of fungi and bacteria. Detergents are everywhere -- in washing powders, dishwashing liquids, household cleaners, skin creams, shower gels, and shampoos. It is the detergent that loosens dirt and fat, makes hair-washing products foam up and allows creams to be absorbed quickly.
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The detergent industry is highly competitive, mostly recession proof, and, thanks to chemistry, always changing ever so slightly. It has been years, however, since cleaning chemistry has been the driving force in detergent innovation.
Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry pp Cite as. The mixture of fat and wood ashes that reacted to form soap was carried by rain to the banks of the Tiber River and was found as a clay deposit useful for cleaning clothes. The boiling of fats with ashes was recorded as early as B.