A smoothie is made by blending raw fruits or vegetables with water, fruit juice or milk. It may also contain other ingredients such as grains, herbs or proteins. Generally a smoothie has a higher viscosity than a juice, due to the high solids content and the natural thickening effect of some ingredients, such as banana and mango. Smoothies are produced in a wide range of batch sizes, from individual portions in catering establishments to bulk production. Consequently there are many different methods used to produce smoothies and many different types of equipment are used. However the processing requirements are largely the same:.
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Manufacture of SmoothiesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Aquagel 45: A cold process universal emulsifier
Download the PDF version. Emulsions are used in a wide variety of industrial and pharmaceutical products including ocular, topical, mucosal, intravenous, intramuscular, and oral products. Even with their widespread use, they remain an underutilized drug product format. Emulsions also contain emulsifiers — materials that concentrate at the phase interface to lower the interfacial tension. Emulsifiers reduce the energy required to break the dispersed phase into droplets and prevent them from coalescing by generating a repulsive force or a physical barrier between them.
These emulsion types are shown schematically in Figure 1. A Pickering emulsion is one stabilized with ultrafine solid particles rather than molecular emulsifiers. Therefore, they remain at the droplet interface where they can provide a barrier to droplet coalescence.
Without going deeply into the relative energetic contributions, the free energy of emulsification is positive. The first corollary of this is that emulsification is rarely a spontaneous process, and hence requires the input of energy.
This energy usually comes from mechanical shear provided by various types of mixers, and the final droplet size of the emulsion is dependent on not only the chemistry but also the amount of energy applied.
High shear rotor-stator mixers are commonly used. To make even smaller nano-sized droplets, at small scale, ultrasonic devices can be used, but they are generally not practical to scale up.
High-pressure homogenizers are readily scaled and can also produce emulsions with nano-sized droplets. The emulsion phases are pumped together under high pressure into a small volume or through a small orifice — the interaction chamber where pressures in the tens of thousands of PSI create very high shear forces Figure 3. Emulsions with an average droplet size as small as 0.
Emulsions are prepared by adding one phase to the other over time, with one or both phases containing emulsifier, and applying shear. In some cases, one or both phases are heated prior to mixing to aid emulsification.
The phases are mixed until the mean droplet size is within specification. With overhead stirrers this is simply a matter of time, whereas with a high-pressure homogenizer each portion of the mixture sees only brief mixing as it passes through the interaction chamber, so once collected, the product of the first emulsification pass-through may then need to be re-fed through the machine until the desired size is obtained.
It is not uncommon to require multiple passes to achieve the desired droplet size. A second corollary of the positive free energy change of emulsification is that most emulsions are thermodynamically unstable, and over time the droplets tend to coalesce to reform the separate bulk oil and aqueous phases.
The most common emulsifiers and emulsion stabilizers are amphiphilic molecules with a polar group, the hydrophile, attached to a non-polar group, the hydrophobe, Figure 4. They may be anionic e. These are relatively small molecules that concentrate at the oiI-water interface to prevent droplets from coalescing. The anionic and cationic emulsifiers prevent droplet coalescence by imparting static charge to the droplets which renders them mutually repulsive and prevents close approach.
Higher molecular weight polymers dissolved in the continuous phase also help to stabilize the droplets against coalescence in a similar way to that of the non-ionic emulsifiers.
Sometimes, if the dispersed phase has finite solubility, the continuous phase material diffuses from the smaller droplets to the larger ones. This process, called Ostwald ripening, can be prevented by dissolving a solute into the dispersed phase that is completely insoluble in the continuous phase, before emulsification. This is effective because any loss of the dispersed phase liquid from the small droplets by Ostwald ripening causes an increase in the chemical potential of the solute in those droplets, therefore the dispersed phase material diffuses back to the small droplets.
Gravitational droplet sedimentation or creaming occurs when the densities of the two phases of the emulsion are dissimilar, and the viscosity of the emulsion is low enough to allow the droplets to move. To prevent phase separation in cases where the phase densities cannot be changed, it is common to increase the viscosity of the emulsion — either by dissolving thickeners in the continuous phase or formulating the emulsion with a high volume fraction of dispersed phase so that droplet packing itself gives rise to higher viscosity.
HIPEs have significant viscosity and do not tend to separate under gravity. As with most other colloidal systems, emulsions are destabilized by high concentrations of electrolytes, especially when they contain multivalent ions, and droplet aggregation and coalescence are observed.
This is well described by DLVO theory. The use of non-ionic emulsifiers and polymeric stabilizers with, or instead of, charged emulsifiers greatly increases emulsion stability in the presence of salts. This is due to that fact that destabilization is a result of the salt-induced reduction in electrostatic repulsion between charged droplets made with ionic emulsifiers.
APls can be added to the emulsion is several ways. If the emulsion is simply to be used as an elegant vehicle for API delivery, for example topically, and the API is soluble in one of the liquid phases, then it can be added to that phase before emulsification. If it is to be added to the continuous phase it may be added after a placebo emulsion has been made. If the API is to be added to the continuous phase, but is not soluble in it, it can be simply dispersed or added as a solution in a solvent that is miscible with the continuous phase.
Some APls are surface active and are added initially, as they can aid in the emulsification of the dispersed phase. When proteins are used, for example an antigen or antibody, the protein is best added last, as the high shear forces can otherwise denature it. Care must also be taken as adsorption of proteins to hydrophobic surfaces such as dispersed oil droplets, can cause them to undergo conformational change and denature, or present otherwise hidden off-target epitopes to the immune system cells.
To prepare a consistent quality product, emulsion-based pharmaceutical formulations are characterized by a number of techniques typically used for the characterization of colloids. These include particle size distribution, which can be a complex measurement if the API is in particulate form, with a similar particle size to that of the emulsion dispersed phase droplets , electrical charge of the droplets via zeta potential measurements , creaming or sedimentation rate via Turbiscan , phase separation by eye , and rheology.
For development-stage studies, a parallel plate rheometer is used to determine viscosity and complex flow characteristics, whereas in production, the Brookfield viscometer is a simpler QC tool.
Emulsions offer the formulator an elegant passive or active drug delivery vehicle. Knowledge of the potential mechanisms for formulation instability and proper formulation can yield formulations with suitable shelf life. By selecting suitable excipients, regulatory approval can be straightforward, leading to new products that have improved efficacy, safety, compliance, and can offer patent extension for life cycle management. Download the PDF version Emulsions are used in a wide variety of industrial and pharmaceutical products including ocular, topical, mucosal, intravenous, intramuscular, and oral products.
Stabilization A second corollary of the positive free energy change of emulsification is that most emulsions are thermodynamically unstable, and over time the droplets tend to coalesce to reform the separate bulk oil and aqueous phases. Conclusions Emulsions offer the formulator an elegant passive or active drug delivery vehicle.
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Emulsions: making oil and water mix
Emulsifier is an organic compound that encompasses in the same molecule two dissimilar structural groups e. It is the ingredient which binds the water and oil in a cream or lotion together permanently. The composition, solubility properties, location and relative sizes of these dissimilar groups in relation to the overall molecular configuration determine the surface activity of a compound. Emulsifiers are classified on the basis of their hydrophilic or solubilizing groups in to four categories anionic, non ionic, cationics and amphoterics. An emulsion is an ideal formulation for the administration. The emulsion form allows uniform application of a small amount of active ingredient on the surface of the skin.
Furfural residue: A valuable and recyclable emulsifier in green chemistry
Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. Look up words and phrases in comprehensive, reliable bilingual dictionaries and search through billions of online translations. Look up in Linguee Suggest as a translation of "food emulsifier" Copy. DeepL Translator Linguee.
Emulsions and Emulsifications
Emulsion: The emulsifier-paraffin mass may, on the other hand, be allowed to cool, whereupon a pasty or solid mass results. It finds use in emulsify mixer of paraffin oil and amino silicone oils to get stable milky emulsion. Paraffin wax is a tasteless and odorless, white, translucent solid.
E-mail: sabbasifood modares. The fabrication of concentrated nanoemulsions provides potential advantages such as loading capacity enhancement, storage and transportation costs reduction, and creation of novel textures. The current study investigated the capability of high power ultrasound on nanoemulsification of high concentration triglyceride using various natural emulsifiers saponin, whey protein isolate, lecithin and sucrose monopalmitate. They also presented shear-thinning behavior with relatively low consistency coefficients. Owing to such characteristics, they could have potential applicability in formulation of soft foods, creams, sauces, salad dressings, pastes, lotions, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. However, most nanoemulsions to date are diluted, but in certain applications, particularly in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, it is worthwhile to prepare concentrated nanoemulsions. For example, concentrated nanoemulsions and nanogels could potentially improve the loading capacity of liphophilic ingredients in nano-encapsulation systems for gels, creams, and pastes. Such advantages could be useful in the production of low fat foods, with a consistency similar to original one, without using fat substitutes.
Enter our world of emulsifiers and stabilisers
Biopolymer Nanostructures for Food Encapsulation Purposes , a volume in the Nanoencapsulation in the Food Industry series, guides readers on how to fabricate and apply nanostructures from different proteins, carbohydrates and chemical sources for food encapsulation purposes. This book covers recent and applied research in all disciplines of bioactive and nutrient delivery. He has been working on nanoencapsulation of food bioactives for the past 15 years. In Nov. Also in December , he was selected as one of the top national researchers by the Iranian Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology. Recently in Nov. Includes updated applications of biopolymer nanostructures from different protein, carbohydrate and chemical sources Discloses the current knowledge and potential of biopolymer nanostructures Brings the novel applications of biopolymer nanostructures for the development of bioactive delivery systems together. Milk protein nanostructures. Plant and animal protein nanostructures. Polysaccharide nanostructures.
EP0238330A2 - Modified emulsifiers, particularly for foods - Google Patents
This work investigates the stability of emulsions prepared by using octenyl succinic anhydride OSA -modified waxy maize starch in the form of granules, dissolved starch, and non-solvent precipitated starch as Pickering emulsion stabilisers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different forms of starches on the stability of emulsion using light microscopy, light scattering, and static multiple light scattering. Non-solvent precipitates were obtained through ethanol precipitation of dissolved waxy maize. The granule-based emulsions were unstable, with only a small proportion of the granules adsorbed onto oil droplets, as viewed under a light microscope. The emulsions were observed to cream after 2 hours. The results from light microscopy and multiple light scattering measurements indicated the occurrence of coalescence for all three types of emulsions. The coalescence was fastest within days for the granule stabilised system while it was slower both for the dissolved starch and non-solvent precipitate-based emulsions.
In this work, we describe a novel application of furfural residues in fabricating pH-responsive Pickering emulsions and its stable emulsion polymerization. Alkaline lignin extracted from furfural residue is soluble in basic water. However, in the acidic condition, lignin becomes insoluble and particles are formed, which could be used as an effective particular emulsifier for reversible styrene-in-water Pickering emulsions. The emulsions will break when the pH value of the aqueous phase increases.
These examples represent emulsions, which are stable mixtures of tiny droplets of one immiscible fluid within another, made possible by chemicals called emulsifiers. In both cases, emulsifiers are needed to prevent the suspended droplets from coalescing and breaking the emulsion. Anybody who has made a simple oil-and-vinegar salad dressing knows that, with enough shaking or whisking, one can make a temporary emulsion.
We'll help you make the best possible foods available to the global consumer by making the best possible ingredients and know-how available to you. With the World Health Organisation calling on governments to eliminate trans-fatty acids from the world's food supply by , and several countries already following suit, it is time for the baking industry to investigate how to produce healthier cakes without the use of partly hydrogenated oils PHOs.
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