This paper presents an overview of alternative uses for products of sugar beet processing, especially sucrose, as chemical raw materials for the production of biodegradable polymers. Traditionally, sucrose has not been considered as a chemical raw material, because of its use in the food industry and high sugar prices. Beet pulp and beetroot leaves have also not been considered as raw materials for chemical production processes until recently. However, current changes in the European sugar market could lead to falling demand and overproduction of sucrose.
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- How a waste product from the sugar industry could soon power the trucks that carry it
- This Indian Biotech Company is Using Agri Waste to Produce Ethanol
- Management of Sugar Industrial Wastes through Vermitechnology
- Use of sugarcane industrial by-products for improving sugarcane productivity and soil health
How a waste product from the sugar industry could soon power the trucks that carry itVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Sugarcane waste to ethanol
Sugarcane industries are age-old industrial practices in India which contribute a significant amount of by-products as waste. Handling and management of these by-products are huge task, because those require lot of space for storage. However, it provides opportunity to utilize these by-products in agricultural crop production as organic nutrient source. Therefore, it is attempted to review the potential of sugar industries by-products, their availability, and use in agricultural production.
A large number of research experiments and literatures have been surveyed and critically analyzed for the effect of sugarcane by-products on crop productivity and soil properties. Application of sugar industries by-products, such as press mud and bagasse, to soil improves the soil chemical, physical, and biological properties and enhanced the crop quality and yield.
A huge possibility of sugarcane industries by-products can be used in agriculture to cut down the chemical fertilizer requirement. If all the press mud is recycled through agriculture about 32,, 28,, 14,, , , , and tonnes t of N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, can be available and that helps in saving of costly chemical fertilizers. Application of sugarcane industries by-products reduces the recommended dose of fertilizers and improves organic matter of soil during the crop production.
It can also be used in combination with inorganic chemical fertilizers and can be packed and marketed along with commercial fertilizer for a particular cropping system. That helps in reduce the storage problem of sugarcane industries by-products across the India.
It is cultivated on about Sugarcane is a long-duration cash crop categorized under exhaustive crop Paul et al.
It requires larger amounts of macro- as well as micro-plant nutrients. High requirement of plant nutrient limits the crop yield due to scarcity of fertilizers Gholve et al. Similarly, spiralling prices coupled with a short availability of fertilizers in peak season Khandagave cause depletion of plant nutrients from the soil Kumar and Verma ; Ibrahim et al. Brazil is a large producer of sugarcane in the world. The next five major producers, in decreasing amounts of production, are India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, and Mexico Sarwar et al.
In , about 1. These industries are struggling for energy with high cost of production. It needs lower cost input and use of by-products as a fertilizer Dotaniya et al.
The sugar industry is the second largest agricultural industry in the country after the textile industry. Its importance in day-to-day life adds its value. In this respect, it has the lot of importance in Indian agriculture. Maharashtra sugar industry is one of the most notable and large-scale sugar manufacturing sectors in the country. They adopted and then spread sugar and sugarcane agriculture Mintz This crop grown like cotton and other crops at vast levels, during 19th and 20th century revolution, it had stands in front row of agricultural cash crops.
The world demand for sugar is the primary driver of sugarcane agriculture. New innovations and accelerated mechanization enhanced the sugarcane productivity in a quantum jump. In India, many industries are consuming agricultural produce as their raw material and generate various types of wastes. In which, sugarcane industries are one of them, generating huge amount of by-products, such as bagasse and press mud, which are creating the storage problem across the country.
There is a growing concern among the scientific community, policy maker, industrialist, and environmentalist for its safe disposal without compromising the ecosystem.
Sugarcane is a rich source of carbohydrates; it used as a food for human; fodder for animal in various forms and used as a fertilizer in crop production across the globe.
All above products are very important, but here, it is mainly focused on sugarcane press mud, bagasse, and molasses and their economic value in crop production. Organic waste, such as press mud or filter cake, is generated as a by-product of sugarcane industries and characterized as a soft, spongy, amorphous, and dark brown to brownish material depicted in Fig. It is generated during the purification of sugar by carbonation or sulphitation process. Both the processes separated clear juice on top and mud at the bottom.
It is considered as rejected waste material of sugarcane industries that cause problem of storage and pollution to surrounding of sugar mills on its accumulation Bhosale et al.
It contains sugar enhanced its decomposition in soil Dotaniya et al. Press mud supplies a good amount of organic manure Bokhtiar et al. The composition of SPM is also affected by variety, fertility status of soil, and also the recovery process of industries. It contains significant amounts of iron, manganese, calcium, magnesium, silicon, and phosphorus, and enhanced the suitability of SPM as a source of nutrient Yadav and Solomon Press mud, an end product of the sugar industry, is used as one of the substrates in bio-composting Chand et al.
The SPM is also generated from the alcohol distillation originating from the fermentation of sugarcane molasses; it contains a huge volume of water and plant nutrients. Therefore, it is a necessity of treating SPM to a valuable bio-fertilizer for agricultural crop production Patil et al. The integrated use of SPM with nitrogen fertilizers has enhanced the dry matter, cane, and sugar yield Bangar et al.
In , Sharma et al. Due to application of press mud, the availability of macro- and micro-nutrients in soil increases. It also supplies carbon-to-soil micro-organism, which helps during decomposition and nutrient transformation reactions. Application of press mud along with inorganic fertilizers resulted higher cane yield in Uitic haplustalf red soil Venkatakrishnan and Ravichandran Therefore, recycling organic waste by applying into agriculture land seems to be a good option, to short out the waste storage problem and shortage of plant nutrient Zaman et al.
Application of bagasse and press mud improved the physical condition of soil by reducing bulk density and enhanced macro-spore for a better root growth, and ultimate enhanced the cane yield Patil and Shingate Incorporation of press mud in crop field enhanced the soil quality parameters and sugarcane yield and cane juice quality Sarwar et al. The press mud reported as a valuable plant nutrient and may affect physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil Kumar and Verma ; Nehra and Hooda ; Rangaraj et al.
Application of press mud in sugarcane cultivation is attributed in various growth and yield parameters, such as weight and number of millable cane at harvest Indirajith ; Srivastava et al. Therefore, its positive effect on soil properties land application of press mud is becoming a common farm practice in the sub-continent countries of Pakistan and India Ghulam et al.
It is the by-product of sugarcane industries during the extraction of juice from cane. It is dry pulpy residue and fibrous in nature. In summer seasons, in local markets, we can see bagasse heaps at sugarcane juice corner. It is used as a bio-fuels or in industrial level; it is used as a binding material. Apart from this 0. The application of bagasse in agricultural crop production system can be reduced the application rate of fertilizers. It produced organic acids, which mobilized the insoluble P from soil to soil solution in labile form.
During application, it is suggested that these bagasse properly chopped; and applied one month prior to seed sowing in the field for proper decomposition.
Rate of decomposition is also affected by temperature, moisture, and population and diversity of soil micro-organisms.
At industrial level, it is using for energy generation; in Brazil, It is produced during sugar production from raw juice. It is a viscous liquid which can be separated by massecuite. Composition of molasses variable depending upon classification method, variety of cane, and soil type Sardar et al. Molasses is one of the most economically important by-products of sugar industries.
This has many industrial uses, viz. Molasses containing large fractions of fermentable sugars which is diluted three times with good water and allowed to ferment in the presence of yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisae either by batch or continuous process of fermentation.
The organic constituents present in higher concentration undergo reduction generating unpleasant odour.
Bio-methanation is one of the options to treat such organically rich raw spentwash. With the adoption of primary treatment, million cubic feet of methane gas per annum is generated in India which is used for steam generation and to run the boilers. Bio-methanated spentwash, a plant extracts and microbial residue, is rich in plant nutrients, and can be utilized in agriculture as liquid manure. Spentwash, press mud, and other agro-based industrial bio-resources can be bio-composted into nutrient rich organic products, which can serve as one of the components in integrated nutrient management INM.
India is the largest producer and consumer of sugar in the world. Among the several industries, sugar industry is the most important which not only contributes substantially to the economic development of the country, but also provides ample employment opportunities directly or indirectly.
Government of India has solved the problem of disposal of molasses by encouraging the industries to set up distilleries to manufacture alcohol using molasses as raw material, while the press mud can be used for compost making and bagasse for power generation.
Sugarcane pre-dominantly grows in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, and sugar beet predominantly grows in colder temperate regions of the world. Several workers throughout the world have characterized these bio-resources from the point of their utilization in agriculture, and reported that these bio-resources could be used in agriculture for improving the soil fertility and productivity, growth, and yield of crops.
Under the present trend of exploitative agriculture, inherent soil fertility can no longer be maintained on a sustainable basis. The nutrient supplying capacity of soil declines steadily under continuous and intensive cropping Shukla et al. The use of optimum levels of N, P, and K has failed to maintain yield levels, probably due to increasing secondary and micronutrient deficiencies and also unfavorable alterations in the physical and chemical properties of soil.
Apart from the fertility and productivity issues, the use of chemical fertilizers is also becoming increasingly difficult due to their high costs and scarcity during peak season.
Alternative means of providing nutrients needs to be explored. In this context, the utilization of by-products and industries wastes serves as sources of macro-, secondary, and micro-nutrients. Sugarcane is a heavy feeder; it required higher amount of nitrogenous, phosphatic, and potassic fertilizers for a better healthy crop. For healthier food products, people using organic fertilizer are heaving negligible amount of chemical fertilizers.
It is gaining more attention, nowadays, than chemical fertilizers. It enhanced the soil organic matter and supply plant nutrient in a long way, by the significant improvement in soil physio-chemical properties.
Sugarcane residues, such as bagasse and press mud, both are by-product of sugar industries and their disposal and management is very difficult. Use of these by-products in agriculture field will solve disposal problem.
These residues may produce different types of organic acids during microbial decomposition Bhattacharyya et al. Sugar content in the organic residues may enhance organic acid production in the soil. These organic acids may enhance phosphorus use efficiency PUE and indirectly improve crop yield and quality. Use of these sugarcane by-products also play a crucial role in phosphorus availability, because it produces various ions on decomposition, which compete with phosphate for binding sites in soils, and ultimately reduces the phosphorus fixation.
Organic sources have traditionally played an important role in maintaining soil productivity.
Sugarcane today is considered as one of the best converters of solar energy into biomass and sugar. It is a rich source of food sucrose, jaggery and syrup , fibre cellulose , fodder green leaves and tops of cane plant, bagasse, and molasses and to some extent press mud , fuel and chemical. The main by-products are bagasse, molasses and press mud. The other products and their by-products of less commercial value are green leaves and tops, trash, boiler ash and effluent generated by sugar industry and distillery.
This Indian Biotech Company is Using Agri Waste to Produce Ethanol
There are few images more identifiably Australian than the lush green sugarcane fields of northern Queensland as trucks wait to gather their sweet harvest. While 30 percent of the crop yields sugar products, accounting for 95 percent of the revenue, the other two thirds left after harvest has little economic value and is largely treated as waste. His project seeks to convert trash into biofuels, which can then be used in transportation. In a neat twist, the trash left over from the sugar refining process could soon be fuelling the trucks and machines that help carry the process out. While the industry is already diversifying, producing enough renewable energy to supply surplus electricity to the grid, it is also a significant consumer of fossil fuels which produce greenhouse gas emissions in the growing, harvesting and transport of cane. The QUT project aims to reduce, if not eliminate entirely the use of fossil fuels in cane production by turning the trash into biomethane.
Management of Sugar Industrial Wastes through Vermitechnology
The Guatemala sugar industry is fully committed to both food security and climate change mitigation through collaboration with various stakeholders to protect land, air and water quality. The industry continues to develop and implement methods for the sustainable use of natural resources, such as the production of cogeneration of clean energy and the restoration of forest cover, that will protect and promote ongoing sustainable and responsible cultivation and production for the future. The Guatemalan sugar industry is committed to responsible and sustainable sugarcane cultivation and processing, and has created independent organizations to develop more climate resilient agriculture. In , Guatemalan sugar producers promoted its creation with the purpose of contributing to Guatemala and the region in scientific research to reduce vulnerability with strategies for mitigation and adaptation to climate change.
Paturau 1. This gloomy prospect explains, to a large degree, the renewed interest in the byproducts of the sugarcane industry which has developed in the last ten years and which has shown that the optimal use of byproducts can provide a non-negligible support to the sugarcane industry, although it could not, by itself, completely redress the difficult situation sugar is presently experiencing. The four main byproducts of the sugarcane industry are cane tops, bagasse, filter muds and molasses Figure 1. If we accept that the present world production of sugarcane has reached the 60 million tonnes level, then the quantities of these byproducts produced yearly are approximately the following:. Reliable statistics are not available to show the detailed end uses of these byproducts on a world basis, but although their utilization will be considered later in more detail, as a very rough picture of their trade we can say that at present cane tops and filter muds are largely ignored; that bagasse is used internally mainly as fuel to generate steam in the sugarcane factories and a small fraction to produce pulp and board; and that molasses is exported either as such for animal feed or after transformation as rum, potable alcohol or industrial alcohol. There are many end uses to which the byproducts of the sugarcane industry can be put - probably more than But many of them, under present technological and marketing conditions would be of negligible economic interest. Figure 1 presents about 38 end-products which we consider as potentially important or which have proved, under normal circumstances, of economic interest. It should be pointed out that, as a general rule, maximum value upgrading goes with more complex processing characterized by capital intensity, sophisticated technical know how and competitive markets. Maximization of profits is not automatically linked with process complexity and depends much more often on advantages local conditions or the proximity of a remunerative export market.
Use of sugarcane industrial by-products for improving sugarcane productivity and soil health
Sugarcane industries are age-old industrial practices in India which contribute a significant amount of by-products as waste. Handling and management of these by-products are huge task, because those require lot of space for storage. However, it provides opportunity to utilize these by-products in agricultural crop production as organic nutrient source.
Account Options Sign in. Conseguir libro impreso. Allen V. Kneese , Blair T. The analysis in this classic study ranges from basic economic and political theory to engineering and institutional practices, and encompasses case studies in England, France, and West Germany, as well as in the Ohio, Potomac, and Delaware river basins in the United States. Originally published in Contenido ing Waters. Domestic Water Use. Managing Waste Loads and the Assimilative Capacity. Increasing the Assimilative Capacity of Receiving Waters. Technological External Diseconomies.
In the global sugar industry, total sugar production in is million metric tons. Throughout the worldwide sugar industry, sugar production is increasing with the development of countries. The development of sugar industry certainly boosts the production of sugarcane. In , the worldwide sugarcane production has reached about 1, million metric tons. Brazil was the largest sugarcane producer, which produced million metric tons. India was the second largest producer with million metric tons, and the third largest producer, China produced with million metric tons. Handling and after-treatment of these sugarcane waste by-products has become a huge task for worldwide sugar factories.
Courtesy of The World Bank. Pollution Prevention Guidelines to provide technical advice and guidance to staff and consultants involved in pollution-related projects. The guidelines represent state-of-the-art thinking on how to reduce pollution emissions from the production process. In many cases, the guidelines provide numerical targets for reducing pollution, as well as maximum emissions levels that are normally achievable through a combination of cleaner production and end-of-pipe treatment. The guidelines are designed to protect human health; reduce mass loadings to the environment; draw on commercially proven technologies; be cost-effective; follow current regulatory trends; and promote good industrial practices, which offer greater productivity and increased energy efficiency. The sugar industry processes sugar cane and sugar beet to manufacture edible sugar.
It will be clear soon how the processes devised for the production of bio-aromatics from organic waste and domestic waste are progressing on the laboratory scale. The first calculation of the returns and the cost can also be made at that stage.
Sugarcane is a water-intensive crop that remains in the soil all year long. Historic planting of sugarcane around the world has led to significant impacts on biodiversity. A vast global market for sugarcane derivatives keeps the industry booming.
Biovalorisation of Wastes to Renewable Chemicals and Biofuels addresses advanced technologies for converting waste to biofuels and value-added products. Biovalorisation has several advantages over conventional bioremediation processes as it helps reduce the costs of bioprocesses. Examples are provided of several successfully commercialized technologies, giving insight into developing, potential processes for biovalorisation of different wastes. Different bioprocess strategies are discussed for valorising the wastes coming from the leather industry, olive oil industry, pulp and paper, winery, textile, and food industries, as well as aquaculture.
Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers! Full Text PDF. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Rao, Comparative performance of cane sugar industry in seven countries.