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The subject of preferments is one that can cause immense confusion among bakers. The variety of terminology can bewilder even the most experienced among us. Words from foreign languages add their contribution to the complexity. A preferment is a preparation of a portion of a bread dough that is made several hours or more in advance of mixing the final dough. The preferment can be of a stiff texture, it can be quite loose in texture, or it can simply be a piece of mixed bread dough.
Some preferments contain salt, others do not. Some are generated with commercial yeast, some with naturally occurring wild yeasts. After discussing the specific attributes of a number of common preferments, we will list the benefits gained from their use. Over the course of several hours or overnight, the removed piece would ferment and ripen, and would bring certain desired qualities to the next day's dough. Biga is an Italian term that generically means preferment.
It is made with flour, water, and a small amount of yeast the yeast can be as little as 0. Once mixed, it is left to ripen for at least several hours, and for as much as 12 to 16 hours. Note that there is no salt in the biga.
Poolish is a preferment with Polish origins. It initially was used in pastry production. As its use spread throughout Europe it became common in bread. Note again the absence of salt. It is appropriate here to discuss the quantity of yeast used. The intention is not to be vague, but it must be kept in mind that the baker will manipulate the quantity of yeast in his or her preferment to suit required production needs.
For example, in a bakery with two or three shifts, it might be suitable to make a poolish or any other preferment and allow only 8 hours of ripening.
In such a case, a slightly higher percentage of yeast would be indicated in the preferment. On the other hand, in a one-shift shop, the preferment might have 14 to 16 hours of maturing before the mixing of the final dough. In this case the baker would decrease the quantity of yeast used. Similarly, ambient temperature must be considered.
The words sourdough and levain tend to have the same meaning in the United States, and are often used interchangeably. This however is not the case in Europe. In Germany, the word sourdough sauerteig always refers to a culture of rye flour and water. While outwardly these two methods are different, there are a number of similarities between sourdough and levain. Most important is that each is a culture of naturally occurring yeasts and bacteria that have the capacity to both leaven and flavor bread.
A German-style culture is made using all rye flour and water. A levain culture may begin with a high percentage of rye flour, or with all white flour.
In any case, it eventually is maintained with all or almost all white flour. With either method, the principle is the same. In order to retain the purity of the culture, a small portion of ripe starter is taken off before the mixing of the final dough. This portion is held back, uncontaminated by yeast, salt, or other additions to the final dough, and used to begin the next batch of bread. When we make a preferment using commercial yeast, it is baked off the next day.
This is not actually the case. During the initial stages in the development of a sourdough or levain culture, it is common to see the addition of grapes, potato water, grated onions, and so on. While these can provide an extra nutritional boost, they are not required for success. The flour should supply the needed nutrients for the growing colony. Vital nutrients are lost during the bleaching process, making bleached flour unsuitable.
How does the baker know when his or her preferment has matured sufficiently and is ready to use? There are a number of signs that can guide us. Most important, it should show signs of having risen. If the preferment is dense and seems not to have moved, in all likelihood it has not ripened sufficiently. Poor temperature control, insufficient time allowed for proper maturing, or a starter that has lost its viability can all account for the problem.
When the preferment has ripened sufficiently, it should be fully risen and just beginning to recede in the center. This is the best sign that correct development has been attained.
It is somewhat harder to detect this quality in a loose preferment such as a poolish. In this case, ripeness is indicated when the surface of the poolish is covered with small fermentation bubbles. Often CO2bubbles are seen breaking through the surface. There should be a pleasing aroma that has a perceptible tang to it. Take a small taste. If the preferment has ripened properly, we should taste a slight tang, sometimes with a subtle sweetness present as well.
The baker should keep in mind that a sluggish and undeveloped preferment, or one that has gone beyond ripeness, will yield bread that lacks luster, and suffers a deficiency in volume and flavor. There are a number of important benefits to the correct use of preferments, and they all result from the gradual, slow fermentation that is occurring during the maturing of the preferment:. Biga Biga is an Italian term that generically means preferment.
Poolish Poolish is a preferment with Polish origins. Sourdough and Levain The words sourdough and levain tend to have the same meaning in the United States, and are often used interchangeably.
One important way in which a sourdough and levain are different Use and Benefits of Preferments How does the baker know when his or her preferment has matured sufficiently and is ready to use? There are a number of important benefits to the correct use of preferments, and they all result from the gradual, slow fermentation that is occurring during the maturing of the preferment: Dough structure is strengthened.
A characteristic of all preferments is the development of acidity as a result of fermentation activity, and this acidity has a strengthening effect on the gluten structure.
Superior flavor. Breads made with preferments often possess a subtle wheaty aroma, delicate flavor, a pleasing aromatic tang, and a long finish. Organic acids and esters are a natural product of preferments, and they contribute to superior bread flavor. Keeping quality improves. There is a relationship between acidity in bread and keeping quality. Up to a point, the lower the pH of a bread, that is, the higher the acidity, the better the keeping quality of the bread. Historically, Europeans, particularly those in rural areas, baked once every two, three, or even four weeks.
The only breads that could keep that long were breads with high acidity, that is, levain or sourdough breads. Overall production time is reduced. Above all, to attain the best bread we must give sufficient time for its development. Bread that is mixed and two or three hours later is baked will always lack character when compared with bread that contains a well-developed preferment. By taking five or ten minutes today to scale and mix a sourdough or poolish, we significantly reduce the length of the bulk fermentation time required tomorrow.
The preferment immediately incorporates acidity and organic acids into the dough, serving to reduce required floor time after mixing. As a result the baker can divide, shape, and bake in substantially less time than if he or she were using a straight dough. Rye flour offers some specific considerations. When baking bread that contains a high proportion of rye flour, it is necessary to acidify the rye that is, use a portion of it in a sourdough phase in order to stabilize its baking ability.
Rye flour possesses a high level of enzymes compared to wheat flour, and when these are unregulated, they contribute to a gumminess in the crumb. The acidity present in sourdough reduces the activity of the enzymes, thereby promoting good crumb structure and superior flavor.
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Once upon a time, the typical American pantry included a single canister of flour. Today, supermarkets stock myriad milled options—reflecting increased consumer demand for diversity in the baking aisle. Whether exploring health trends, culinary interests or ethnic cuisines, here is some information your clients can use as they foray into the world of flours. Flour is the finely-ground, sifted meal of grains, nuts, seeds, legumes or certain vegetables—and each kind of flour has a different nutrition profile and cooking or baking qualities. Traditionally, the most prevalent flours are milled from wheat. Refined wheat flours are, by law, enriched with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and iron, and fortified with folic acid.
BREAD AND BAKERS IN ANCIENT ROME
What differentiates types of flour and how can you choose the one that's best for your bake? With many types of flour available, and often with varying names, it can be difficult to know. Click here to download our Types of Flour infographic. Before we even begin to mill grain into flour, we must choose the right grain for the job, be it for breadmaking, cakemaking or anything in between. So, what distinguishes one grain from another?
Baking Terms- An Online Glossary
Figure 1. Figure 2. Wheat Figure 1A flour is the product obtained by grinding whole wheat kernels, sometimes called berries Figure 1B. A wheat kernel consists of three parts — the bran, germ, and endosperm Figure 2. During the milling process, these three parts are separated and recombined to make different types of flour. For example, white flour is composed of the finely ground endosperm, while whole wheat flour contains all three parts of the kernel. Other common types of flour include all-purpose, bread, cake, self-rising, pastry, semolina, durum, and gluten flours.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Wheat Flours: All-Purpose, Bread, Cake, Pastry, & Whole Wheat (Home Cooking 101) DiTuro Productions
When it comes to baking healthy bread, the simplest way to boost nutrition is to use whole-grain flours. Bread, like most foods, is generally healthier when made with whole, unprocessed ingredients without a lot of additives. I'll show you how to choose which flours and other ingredients are best for making healthy breads, and how to work with them so your bread turns out just right. I'll also point you to top-rated bread recipes that are packed with nutrients and taste great, too. When whole grains are milled into refined flour, the bran and germ are removed, leaving only the endosperm. The flours are sometimes fortified by adding back vitamins or some amount of bran and germ, but it isn't really the same. Whole-grain flours, on the other hand, are made by grinding the entire kernel. Whole-grain flour keeps most of the nutrients the grains started with. Whole-grain flours also have a lower glycemic index than refined flours, meaning that they don't raise blood sugar as quickly or as much. Foods with a higher glycemic index increase the risk for type 2 diabetes and heart disease, according to reliable sources like Harvard's School of Public Health , so aim for a lower index when possible.
How to Bake the Best Healthy Bread From Scratch
In view of the above, the aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant potential and baking quality of grain and flour of primitive rye Secale cereale var. Multicaule Polish: Krzyca , and to compare these parameters with open-pollinated and hybrid cultivars of common rye. The following determinations were made: the morphological and mechanical properties of grain, milling energy and the protein, starch, ash and free phenolic content of the analyzed flours, their amylograph characteristics and antioxidant potential.
The course provides knowledge of and insight into the hygienic design of equipment and …. Rye bread is a regular bread type. It is baked of dough from broken or grinded rye. It used to be eaten as daily bread, but wheaten bread is eaten more these days, because of the light structure. Rye bread contains a lot of fibres and iron. The Frisian- and Brabantine rye are concerning ingredients and process so different that they are almost incomparable. Both production processes will be described. Frisian rye bread is a very dark product with visible rye grains.
Baking Terms- An Online Glossary
I would like to acknowledge that the material presented here is the work of Willie Prejean, a retired professional baker. Wheat flour is essential because it is milled from the only cereal grain known to contain the proteins glutenin and gliadin which when combined with water form gluten, the elastic material which holds the gas produced by the chemical reaction of the yeast enzymes on sugar. As in building a house, the framemust be built. Gluten forms the framework of bread and also thecell structure of the interior of the loaf. Rye flour contains both glutenin and gliadin but is incapable of forming gluten because there are substances in rye flour that interferes with it's ability to form gluten. That is the reason why wheat flour must be included as a large percentage of the flour in rye bread formulas. How to separate the gluten from wheat flour.
Types of Flour
Wholegrain bread is good and good for you, as most people know. But it is not only the fiber-rich bran, the outer shell of the grain, that is healthful. On the contrary, research at the Lund University Faculty of Engineering shows that bread baked with white rye flour, which is flour made from the inner, white part of the rye kernel, leads to better insulin and blood sugar levels compared with wheat bread with rye bran. White rye flour thus leads to much better values than both regular wheat flour and rye bran. At the same time, much of the bread that is sold in stores today in most countries is in fact baked with wheat flour and bran from various grains.
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Whole Wheat Flour Malaysia
Bakers who shorted cheated customers could be punished severely—such as losing a hand to an axe! This allowed that one of the 13 could be lost, eaten, burnt, or ruined in some way, leaving the baker with the original legal dozen. Absorption A characteristic of flour to take up and retain hold water or liquids. It is determined by measuring the amount of liquid needed to make dough of the desired consistency.
Among the foods of ancient Rome bread is one of the most documented in the literary sources, with frescoes and bas-reliefs which represent the stages of preparation and sale; even the carbonized loaves found in the ruins of Pompeii analyzed revealed their secrets. By Plinio the Elder we know that bread was known relatively late by the Romans, accustomed to eating unleavened bread and Polta , a thick soup made of wild grains, legumes and, when available, meat. The most appreciated grain was spelled, while rye and oats were not much esteemed, and barley indeed was considered fit only for slaves and soldiers.
The subject of preferments is one that can cause immense confusion among bakers. The variety of terminology can bewilder even the most experienced among us. Words from foreign languages add their contribution to the complexity. A preferment is a preparation of a portion of a bread dough that is made several hours or more in advance of mixing the final dough.