Handbook of Adhesion Technology pp Cite as. There is a pervading presence of adhesive joints in nature. Adhesive secretions are used by organisms for attachment, construction, obstruction, defense, and predation. Most natural materials are hybrid materials combining organic and inorganic building blocks.
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Uses, Sources and Potential Exposure to Toxic Air PollutantsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: 8 Best Fabric Glues 2018
It is used when stiffness of the label is important. Opacity is high because of its thickness. See also humidity and relative humidity. Inks will also absorb into most paper face stocks. This is a designation for top coating on foil face stock that is acrylic top coated. Acrylic top coatings are compatible with water or solvent based flexo inks, but are not compatible with offset printing.
NC or nitrocellulose coatings are used for offset printing. We test adhesives with accelerated aging techniques to predict shelf life and long term performance. Most test procedures are based on storage of the sample at elevated temperature conditions at a specific humidity. It does not weather well compared to polyesters and vinyls because it has little UV resistance. Normally it is only recommended for indoor applications.
Acetate volume has been largely replaced by polystyrene which is much less expensive. Polystyrene otherwise has similar characteristics. The adhesive or product is neither acidic or alkaline.
This is an important property for labels that need to last forever. Acidic materials tend to yellow with age. Generally acrylic adhesives do not offer as high of quick stick properties as rubber or latex based adhesives, but they have better aging characteristics.
They have excellent UV resistance. Some are used for repositionable label applications. It is a common term used with moistening of water sensitive adhesives and heating of heat sensitive adhesives.
Degree of adhesion is usually affected by the chemical nature of the substrate, surface shape and surface conditions of the material to which a label is applied. Acrylic permanent adhesives offer adhesion build up which enables them to be used for some repositionalble applications. Adhesion build up in a removable adhesive is not a good property. If adhesion builds up too much, the adhesive will become permanent.
In some cases adhesives could bleed so much that they go through the face stock, making it transparent looking. Many rubber based pressure sensitive adhesives will bleed after prolonged contact with a vinyl substrate. This is caused by plasticizer migration through the adhesive. The plasticizer softens the adhesive to a point where it flows through the face stock.
Adhesive migration could cause adhesive contamination for the contents of the labeled package. This can be an important factor in end user selection of removable adhesives.
On one hand they want the adhesive to stick well enough that it does not flag, but on the other hand they want the adhesive to remove cleanly without adhesive residue. Most of Technicote pressure sensitive adhesives are coated on the liner. When the liner and face stock are laminated, the adhesive transfers from the liner to the face stock.
Automotive Industry Action Group. Address: W. Automatic Identification Manufacturers, Inc. The relative position of a scanner or light source to the target of the receiving element. In spite of its name, it will not apply successfully at all temperatures. Generally all temperature adhesives are only used when application is done at a wide variety of temperatures because they are more expensive than permanent adhesives.
See also cold temperature adhesive and freezer adhesive. When alligatoring is fine and incomplete, it is usually called checking. The character set which contains letters, numbers and usually other characters such as special symbols.
Without adequate adhesive anchorage, labels could be easily removed and much of the adhesive would stay on the substrate.
This can also refer to the degree with which the ink or toner is bonded to the surface. It was the original type of strong gum in water remoistenable adhesives. See also strong gum and bone glue.
Bubbles caused by foaming could cause some parts of the surface being coated to have uncoated areas. An anvil cut label would be a sheeted label. It is frequently calculated by dividing the basis weight by the caliper. The numerical value depends on the basis weight system used for the paper. As long as basis weight systems are equal, a paper with a lower number would be less dense. Density of the paper will have a big bearing on how large diameter a 2, pound roll of paper will be.
Most pressure sensitive adhesives have a range of recommended application temperatures. They will vary depending on the type of adhesive. Most general purpose permanent adhesives are designed for application between room temperature and about 50 degrees F. Cold temperature adhesives may be designed for application at temperatures between room temperature and 35 degrees F.
Freezer adhesives may be designed for application between 50 degrees F and degrees F. If application occurs outside the recommended range, the user runs the risk of reduced performance or adhesion failure. In adhesives it refers to the fact that water is used as the adhesive carrier during coating. The artificial aging techniques can also be referred to as accelerated aging. Some common properties that are evaluated are dimensional stability, effect of contact with water, effect of contact with chemicals, light stability and resistance to fatigue.
Ash content can have a bearing on electrical properties of papers. When an adhesive is rolled between the fingers, it can become a small ball. An example would be sock band labels. Usually there is a slight overlap and the adhesive sticks to itself.
An array of parallel rectangular bars and spaces that together represent a single data element or. A single group of bars and spaces which represent an individual number, letter, punctuation mark or other symbol. The number of characters which can be represented in a linear unit of measure. Bar code density is often expressed in characters per inch CPI. The thickness of a bar measured from the edge closest to the symbol start character to the trailing edge of the same bar.
Reduction of the nominal bar width dimension on film masters or printing plates to compensate for printing gain. It is a coating applied to the face stock on the side opposite the printing surface to provide increased opacity to the face stock. It can also be used to reduce adhesive migration through the face stock and to improve anchorage of the adhesive to the face stock. There are a number of different basis weight systems.
Most pressure sensitive label face stocks use a book basis weight. For example, sheets 25 x 38 of a 60 paper will weight Also the weight in pounds of a ream of paper cut to a given size. Most face stocks are on book basis. Bonds and other products for the forms industry is on a bond basis. Release liners and some industrial products are on a kraft basis. Some care is important when quoting to make sure that you are asking for the correct weight.
There are no blank edges. Blisters can be caused by insufficient adhesive coating, inadequate curing, entrapped air, or improper cleaning of the surface. Blocking can also occur with heat or water sensitive papers. If heat sensitive papers are subjected to excessive heat, the adhesive will activate. One layer will stick to the next.
If water sensitive adhesives have too much moisture applied prematurely, they also can block. There are recommendations for storage and processing of both products to reduce blocking. During coating, they are dried chemically with a powder. We remove excessive powder before the product ships, but the powder tends to come out or bloom during aging.
When the dust blooms, the powder transfers to the printing surface which can make clean printing difficult. A common weight is A 20 paper on this system will weigh the same as a 50 paper figured on the book basis weight system.
It was extracted from bones by cooking with steam under pressure. Strong gum was originally an animal glue or bone glue, but now adhesion properties are enhanced chemically. See also animal glue and strong gum. Bits per inch. The linear density of encoded information number of characters encoded per linear inch of the bar code symbol.
The equipment makes small cracks in the adhesive to allow it to expand and contract without causing excessive curl.
There is very little production of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in the U. Any remaining production would likely be for on-site uses as a chemical intermediate, as a trace constituent with other chemicals, or as part of a waste stream in releases to the environment. In the past, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane was used in large amounts to produce trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2,-dichloroethylene. It was also used as a solvent, in cleaning and degreasing metals, in paint removers, varnishes and lacquers, in photographic films, as an extractant for oils and fats, and in pesticides. Limited occupational exposure to 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane may occur. It is also used as a solvent for chlorinated rubbers, fats, oils, waxes, and resins.
Paint and Adhesive Removal
Standard Malaysian Glove Scheme launched. RRIM series latex timber clones released. RRIM's transgenic rubber plants produce a functional recombinant latex enzyme. Research on the use of ethylene gas for latex flow stimulation. Zero burning concept of land clearing for replanting rubber promulgated.
It is used when stiffness of the label is important. Opacity is high because of its thickness. See also humidity and relative humidity. Inks will also absorb into most paper face stocks. This is a designation for top coating on foil face stock that is acrylic top coated.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Polygrip SR 409 – Synthetic rubber based foam adhesive.
A wide variety of natural and synthetic materials is used in the conservation and restoration of stained glass, variously for repair of fractures and edge-bonding, fixing loose paint layers, or as a protective coating for vulnerable areas. These substances, generically referred to as bonding agents, are applied as a solution, emulsion or glaze, and dry out to form a hard and adhesive film. They are mostly polymers, in other words macro-molecules with various chemical components. All such substances, regardless of their various components and functions, should conform to the following requirements. They should ideally be as malleable as possible at room temperature in order to avoid unnecessary thermal stress to the glass, and they should be able to be used in the workshop without recourse to sophisticated equipment or expenditure on technology. Most importantly, in order to achieve success when edge bonding or protecting a surface, they should have and maintain firm adhesion to the surface of the glass, with the minimum of visual disturbance to the latter's appearance. In addition to this, there should be high expectations of the ageing process of conservation materials: they should be chemically stable, retaining their composition and characteristics during the ageing process, so that they are capable of being removed at any time: in other words, their application should be reversible. Within the conservation profession, the principle of reversibility has been defined and assessed in very different ways Petzet In general, bonding agents are considered reversible when they remain removable with organic solvents after a considerable period of time. In practice it is recognised that total removal of such substances may often prove impossible due to the porosity of ancient glass surfaces, whether painted, worn or severely corroded.
When a tree is injured, the fluid that oozes out of the wound is referred to as an exudate. The injury may be deliberate "tapping" or it may be natural or accidental e. In most cases exudates are harvested from the stem or branches of the tree or shrub, but occasionally they are harvested from the roots. Exudation varies greatly amongst genera, and between species within a genus, and the function of the exudate in the plant is not fully understood.
Wet paint thoroughly and cover with plastic to prevent evaporation. Paint will wash off with water after a short time. Latex paint may be removed from clothing by soaking followed by machine washing. The results are gratifying. Remember that alcohol is quite flammable. Detergent and water will remove latex before it dries. These chemicals can be quite harsh and gentler chemicals may be tried first. A light oil such as lamp oil or Kerosene will dissolve the paint also good on grease and tar allowing removal with ordinary detergent. Naphtha lighter fluid is gentle on most finishes and may prove useful as might various alcohols. Lacquer thinner is a combination of petroleum distillates, alcohol, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl acetate which is enough to soften most finishes, waxes, or greases but damage to the underlying surface should be considered. Paint strippers are available which contain highly volatile and extremely effective solvents.
Conservation: Materials and Methods
The business of the chemical industry is to change the chemical structure of natural materials in order to derive products of value to other industries or in daily life. Chemicals are produced from these raw materials-principally minerals, metals and hydrocarbons-in a series of processing steps. Further treatment, such as mixing and blending, is often required to convert them into end-products e. Chemicals fall into two main classes: organic and inorganic. Organic chemicals have a basic structure of carbon atoms, combined with hydrogen and other elements. Inorganic chemicals are derived chiefly from mineral sources. Examples are sulphur, which is mined as such or extracted from ores, and chlorine, which is made from common salt. The products of the chemical industry can be broadly divided into three groups, which correspond to the principal steps in manufacture: base chemicals organic and inorganic are normally manufactured on a large scale and are normally converted to other chemicals; intermediates are derived from base chemicals. Most intermediates require further processing in the chemical industry, but some, such as solvents, are used as they are; finished chemical products are made by further chemical processing. Some of these drugs, cosmetics, soaps are consumed as such; others, such as fibres, plastics, dyes and pigments, are processed still further.
PROSEA, Introduction to Exudates
We get the natural rubber from the latex of rubber tree Heveabrasiliensis. The downside of this caulk is that it is flammable until it cures completely and shrinks significantly after curing. The rubber so formed has all trans- Configuration. There are three types of classification under this category, namely, Natural, Synthetic, and Semi-synthetic Polymers.
Specialty and Industrial Coatings. Inks and Printing.
Environmental Protection Agency. The statements, findings, conclusions, recommendations, and data in this report are not necessarily those of the Agency, nor does mention of commercial products imply endorsement by the U. The principal investigator was Robert J. Valuable suggestions and review advice were provided by Rodney L.
Она тихо плакала, закрыв. В ушах у нее раздавался непрекращающийся звон, а все тело словно онемело. Хаос, царивший в комнате оперативного управления, воспринимался ею как отдаленный гул. Люди на подиуме не отрываясь смотрели на экран.