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- Looking to start your digital journey?
- Introductory Chapter: New Trends in Industrial Automation
- Libelium World
- Manufacturing Process Transfers in the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Best Practice Approach
- FACTORY AUTOMATION AND PLANT MONITORING
- Cobots: How will this new class of robotic technology fare in the modern workplace?
Looking to start your digital journey?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Production Process Overview - Medical Device Manufacturing
Descriptions of manufacturing processes 1. This analysis had to identify the amount, type and quality of energy required so as to identify possible energy savings compatible to the respective cost-benefit analysis. The following process descriptions of the manufacture of sawn timber, plywood and particleboard are of a general nature and should provide the reader with a broad outline of the production processes involved in the mechanical wood-based industry and the role in which energy plays a part.
Sawmilling is a less sophisticated activity of the mechanical forest industries. It implies a certain number of operations from handling and transportation of logs to timber drying, sorting and classification which require different types of energy. Whereas in developing countries most of the processes are highly mechanized and the energy requirements are met basically with the generation of a few kW to drive the main saws.
The rest of the processes are carried out using animal power and low-cost manpower. Nevertheless, independently of the nature of the processes and activities involved, all actions aimed to save energy require a detailed analysis of existing processes and possible solutions. Figure 1 provides a layout of a typical plant and a description of the main processes to familiarize the reader.
Sufficient quantities are stockpiled to ensure the sawmill's continuous operation, particularly during adverse weather conditions when log extraction and supply from the forests may be adversely affected.
Transportation and handling of logs vary from mill to mill and largely depend on the capacity of the sawmill operation and the size of the loss received.
Manual and animal power, as may be used in small portable sawmill units, through to log-carrying front-end loaders and overhead cranes indicate the wide variety of handling equipment currently in use. Figure 1. Sawmilling - A simplied process flow Debarking of logs, whether it be undertaken manually or by mechanical debarkers, in the forests or at the mill site, is now becoming a generally adopted practice. Debarking is to safeguard saws and other equipment from undue wear and damage that would otherwise result from stones, metal and other such contraries embedded in the bark; debarking also facilitates the head sawyer to evaluate the timber.
Log washers may also be used to remove any remaining sand or dirt that may adher to the logs' surface. The pattern of cut is largely determined by the dimension and condition of the log, as well as the market requirements for the widths and thicknesses of the lumber. Sawing of the log is achieved by the use of a bandsaw or a circular saw with a second saw mounted vertically above the first in the event of sawing large diameter logs.
A log carriage conveys the log through the headsaw on which the log may be clamped and turned, so as to enable it to be presented to the headsaw in order to achieve the best sawing pattern. Following the headrig, further breakdown of slabs, flitches and cants takes place in the resaw, which enables the wood to be upgraded; thick slabs being sawn into planks and the flitches and cants sawn into planks and boards.
The rough round edges of the pieces coming from the headrig and resaws are removed by either a circular saw or chipper edger so as to produce standardized widths as required. On leaving the headrig, resaw or edger, the lumber is cut to standardized lengths, edges squared and defects removed by the use of one or more fixed or moveable trimming saws, whereupon the lumber proceeds to be sorted and graded. Grading is a means to segregate the lumber according to the overall quality, direction of grain, presence of knots and defects, as well as general appearance, etc.
To protect the sawntimber against attack from fungi and insects, as well as to inhibit the tendency of air-dried lumber to check and split, the ends may be brushed either manually or mechanically dipped in a suitably prepared chemical solution. Wax or paint is applied to the end-grain of lumber to be air-dried, either by brush or spraying, so as to act as a sealant in order to bring about a slower drying of the extremities and hence, give rise to a more uniform drying of the lumber.
By drying and lowering the moisture content to an acceptable level its value is enhanced by virtue of the fact that the timber is dimensionally stabilized and its strength and colour improved; also a reduction in weight lowers transport costs. Air drying involves the stacking of sawntimber in piles in the open or under sheds on suitably prepared ground, in such a manner that they are exposed to a good flow of air until such time that the required moisture content is attained.
Although air drying involves minimal capital and operating costs it does require a large amount of land, involves large inventories which constitute a fire risk, and the conditions and rate of drying are very much beyond the yard operator's control. Kiln drying, on the other hand, enables the sawntimber to dry in a closed and controlled environment where temperature, air circulation and humidity may be regulated so as to achieve the most economical drying conditions without resulting in degrade.
The two most common kilns are the batch and progressive type. The former dries the timber in chambers as a batch charge, whereas the latter dries the timber whilst it progresses through the length of the kiln on trucks.
As kiln-drying of sawntimber accounts for some percent of the total energy consumed in the sawmilling process, it is now becoming a widely accepted practice in the sawmilling industry to use its residues as a fuel source, the energy value of which may even be surplus to the mill's requirements.
Further upgrading may be effected by surface planing with the use of rotary knife planers or abrasive belts, according to the needs of the market. In Figure 2, a typical plant layout is provided to illustrate to the readers the processes involved. Handling may be by heavy lift trucks, derricks or cranes, all of which are sized to cater for the logs' dimensions and weight.
Figure 2. Plywood production - A simplified process flow Before peeling, the majority of timbers need to be conditioned so as to soften the wood in order to facilitate peeling and to produce an acceptable quality of veneer. Conditioning involves the exposure of the peeler blocks to both heat and moisture by way of soaking in hot water vats or exposed to live steam or hot water sprays.
Debarking of the logs then takes place so as to facilitate the lathe operator's task and to remove the dirt and debris which would otherwise prove detrimental to the lathe knife, whereupon the logs are cut to length to fit the lathe, which is normally cm.
The veneer sheet is then wound on spools, or led to a multi-tray system, so as to provide storage and surge capacity in the event of fluctuations in the veneer feed from the lathe; speeds of both storage systems are generally synchronized to that of the lathe. The green veneer is then clipped to size, either manually or by high-speed knives, graded and stored in piles ready for drying.
Any defects, such as knots and splits, are then cut out of the sheet. Depending on the location and sophistication of the plywood mill, the veneer sheets may either be left outside to dry in the air or kiln-dried. Kiln-drying involves the drying of stacked veneer in batches or the continuous drying of sheets which are mechanically conveyed either on a continous belt or roller system through the length of the dryer.
Obviously a controlled drying environment, with minimal handling, will result in a more uniformly dried veneer, with the least amount of damage. Veneer drying accounts for some 70 percent of the thermal energy consumed in plywood production and approximately 60 percent of the mill's total energy requirement.
For this reason new and improved drying systems are being constantly developed, as well as the manner in which they are heated. Dryer heating may be by the indirect use of steam or thermic oil, or direct firing with the temperature being controlled by the regulation of the fresh-air make-up. Glue is then applied to the inner plies or core, which in turn, are laid between the outer veneers ready for bonding.
This operation accounts for a large share of the manual labour employed in the production process. Although hand roller spreaders is a widely used method of glue application, developments in alternative systems have led to the adoption of curtain coaters, extruders, spray booths, etc. Heating of the platens is generally by hot water or steam, although thermic oil is used when pressing at higher temperatures.
Cold pre-pressing, at comparatively low pressures, is not being incorporated in the more recent production lines. This is largely due to the fact that veneer stuck together is easier to handle and load into the hot-press, added to which the ply's reduced thickness allows for smaller daylight openings in the hot press resulting in an overall reduction in loading and hot pressing time.
It is carried out at either separate work stations, or, in the case of modern mills, as a combined operation in a continuous semi-automatic line. Trimming saws cut the plywood boards to the required size, which are then sanded in machines fitted with wide-belt or drum sanders so as to obtain the desired surface smoothness. Damage or imperfections to the face veneers are then manually repaired by plugging and the application of patches. Plywood is produced in a wide range of sizes and thicknesses, although the sizes most commonly produced are x mm together with x mm and x mm sized panels.
Thicknesses may range from mm, with the number of plies being between three for boards up to 7. In most cases, particle production involves a certain number of operations as described below see Figure 3 which require different amounts and types of energy. Figure 3. Particleboard production - A simplified process flow 1. In view of the wide assortment of furnish delivered to the mill-yard, segregation as to size, and if possible, species, must be carried out prior to the reduction process.
Bark is removed from logs, if not already done in the forests, so as to avoid blunting chipper knives, and the provision of stone-traps and magnetic separators safeguard other reduction equipment from damage which would otherwise be caused if contraries were introduced with the fibre furnish.
The particle size and geometry, as required for the core and surface layers of the particleboard, are produced by a diverse range of reduction equipment which is matched to the variety and size of wood and wood residues used. Chippers, knife-ring-flakers, hammer mills, disc refiners, etc. Particle drying is a continuous process with the particles moving along the length of rotating horizontal dryers whilst being suspended and exposed to hot gases or heat emitted from tube bundles which convey hot water, steam or thermic oil.
Heat is produced by the combustion of oil, gas or process residues. Flash drying is now being considered an acceptable alternative to rotary dryers and requires somewhat lower drying temperatures. Directly after drying, the particles are screened for size in vibrating or gyrating screens, or by way of air classification. Screening normally takes place after the dryers as moist particles tend to stick together, plugging screen plates and lowering the overall efficiency of the screening process.
Particles are separated according to size, for the purpose of grading the furnish for the board face and core layers.
It is essential that the oversized particles be recycled for further reduction and that the fines are screened out, so as to avoid consuming a disproportionate amount of resin binder, and to provide a valued source of fuel. Between three and ten percent by weight of resin, together with other additives used to impart such properties as fire resistance, etc. Blending may either take place in large vats at slow speed, or in small blenders with rapid mixing and shorter blending times. In the more modern particleboard plants mat forming is a wholly mechanical process, whereas the older formers require manual equalizing.
In spite of the wide variety of formers currently available, the underlying principles of mat formation are generally similar, in that a uniform flow of particles are fed to the former from a surge bin, which in turn meters an evenly distributed layer of particles into a frame on a moving belt or caul. The formers may be fitted with single or multiple forming heads, which are either stationary or moving, and are so designed that the finest particles are delivered to form the surface layers of the mat and the coarser materials to form the core.
In all cases it is paramount that an evenly distributed mat of the desired weight be formed. Mats that do not conform to standard are rejected and recycled. Transportation of the mats to the pre-press and hot press is undertaken by either forming the mat on metal plates, called cauls, which are then either manually or mechanically wheeled to the presses, or in the case of caulless systems, by using flexible metal webs, plastic belts and trays that transport the mats through to the hot-press.
This allows for ease of handling and the use of narrower openings in the hot-press, thereby considerably reducing pressing time. Single or multiple opening hot presses may be used with the loading and unloading undertaken manually or mechanically by cable, chain lifts or hydraulics, depending on the age and sophistication of the plant.
Although in the larger modern installations both pressing time and pressures are automatically regulated, hand control is still preferred in many plants as it permits adjustments to be made for the different mat qualities. The cauls are stacked, allowed to cool and then returned to the forming station on push carts or mechanically transported on a fixed return line. The boards in turn, are cooled and conditioned so as to avoid degradation of the urea resins. Trimming saws are used to cut the boards to size, with the edge trimmings being either recycled or used for fuel.
In order to meet set standards as to thickness and surface quality, a combination of knife planers and belt or drum sanders may be used. Once the boards have been surface finished they are cut to size along their length and widths with a combination of saws, according to the dictates of the market. Particleboard is normally produced as x mm panels with thicknesses ranging from mm, 19 mm being the most common. Generally boards are manufactured in the medium-density range of kg per cubic metre, although high-density board of kg per cubic metre is used as core stock.
Smart manufacturing is a powerful disruptive force with the potential to restructure the current competitive landscape and produce a new set of market leaders. Companies that are slow to adopt new technologies and processes could be left behind. Read this article to learn strategic insights into the rise of smart factories, big data, the industrial internet of things IIoT and artificial intelligence. Each of these interconnected trends will help transform manufacturing as we know it.
Introductory Chapter: New Trends in Industrial Automation
The smart factory represents a leap forward from more traditional automation to a fully connected and flexible system—one that can use a constant stream of data from connected operations and production systems to learn and adapt to new demands. Connectivity within the manufacturing process is not new. Yet recent trends such as the rise of the fourth industrial revolution, Industry 4. Shifting from linear, sequential supply chain operations to an interconnected, open system of supply operations—known as the digital supply network —could lay the foundation for how companies compete in the future. To fully realize the digital supply network, however, manufacturers likely need to unlock several capabilities: horizontal integration through the myriad operational systems that power the organization; vertical integration through connected manufacturing systems; and end-to-end, holistic integration through the entire value chain.
We have recently upgraded our technology platform. Due to this change if you are seeing this message for the first time please make sure you reset your password using the Forgot your password Link. Innovations Other Manufacturing Technology. Collaborative robots have the potential to greatly benefit manufacturing processes - but just how important could they be in the future? Collaborative robots, or cobots, are a new class of robots that are bridging the gap between fully manual assemblies and fully automated manufacturing lines. Lightweight, flexible, easily programmable and safe to implement, cobots can meet some of the challenges associated with these processes in an efficient and effective way.
Create a Board. Skip to content Korea Country Commercial Guide. Open Articles. In June , the Manufacturing Industry Innovation 3. Manufacturing 3. The government laid out a roadmap for several areas of RandD projects: design technology, IIoT Industry Internet of Things platforms, technology to sort out defective products, software-integrated operating techniques, smart sensors, data collection and data processing technologies, and industrial standards. In addition, the Smart Factory Standard Research Council was formed within the private sector to effectively respond to international trends and activities and to undertake efforts to standardize locally-developed regulations. Rapid advances in information technology, sensors, and nanomaterials, as well as the application of cyber-physical systems, are dramatically lowering the costs of leading-edge manufacturing processes and improving performance. At the same time, companies are under mounting pressure to improve their productivity and become more responsive to changing customer expectations and needs.
Manufacturing Process Transfers in the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Best Practice Approach
A further implied aspect which is not as evident in the definition, is the possibility that the transfer also includes a scale-up to a larger batch size. This is very common during the different stages of the development of a pharmaceutical product and particularly as the drug development moves through to the manufacture of the first commercial-scale batches. There are a number of activities involved in a tech transfer, including development and manufacturing transfer, the transfer of analytical methods, and necessary skills assessments and training. The planning and management of the transfer is also key—as is the assessment of facilities and equipment, documentation, and, finally, qualification and validation.
Oem Process. Which providers do you prefer to engage? Larger OEMs might already have an idea of at least a few of the EMS manufacturers you want to participate in your bidding process. Our production system and quality management team ensures that products are created in Professional manner under rigid quality control in our factories in Japan and overseas. Making glass for the world's buildings and vehicles. Through the development of guidelines and generic standards for functional safety nationally e. Search a huge inventory and save money today. Exit Money 2. We provide packaging equipment, process machinery, bottling equipment, parts, and services to clients anywhere in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and other points abroad. Three years after massive recalls engulfed the auto industry, the process for finding vehicle owners and completing the necessary repairs remains disjointed at best, with few reforms to protect. Following an established new-product introduction NPI process for complete product lifecycle design, we develop new products through a standardized set of milestones, via state-of-the-art analytical tools.
New Trends in Industrial Automation. As a comprehensive technology, industrial automation is a general term for information processing and process control of measurement, manipulation, etc. Through the application of computer, electronic equipment, control theory, and related process technologies, industrial automation produces the management functions of optimization, detection, control, and regulation of the whole industrial production process to realize the established objectives, achieving industrial production increase, energy saving, consumption reduction, and safe production. The foundation of intelligent manufacturing is digitalization, networking, and integration. Correspondingly, industrial automation in the era of intelligence will transform centralized control into decentralized enhanced control under the original automation technology and architecture, so that the communication between sensors and the Internet can be seamlessly docked, establishing a highly flexible, personalized, and digital production mode that integrates products and services. In this mode, production automation technology can make equipment more intelligent through self-diagnosis, self-correction, and various functional software to better assist workers to complete production. Therefore, the communication and integration capabilities of automation equipment are required to be stronger, while the automation software needs to have a stronger ability of analysis and processing and data sharing with other software systems of enterprises. With the large-scale, continuous, and highly parameterized industrial devices, the requirements for industrial automation systems are constantly increasing.
FACTORY AUTOMATION AND PLANT MONITORING
Bpcs Dcs. This includes measuring,. Seventy-six Every day, thousands of new job vacancies are listed on the award-winning platform from the region's top employers. Asad has 5 jobs listed on their profile. Both the hardware and the software have gone through many upgrades, revisions, and name changes over the years. The second layer of protection is the safety layer typically denoted as an OPS , which must remain separate and independent of the BPCS to provide redundancy. Features Dual Sensor Input means expanded.
Cobots: How will this new class of robotic technology fare in the modern workplace?
Frank Lees. Safety in the process industries is critical for those who work with chemicals and hazardous substances or processes.
It all starts at the edge where manufacturing happens and scales from on-premise to cloud. Imagine supercharging your industrial environment with software that offers cutting edge design, maximizes operational efficiencies, and delivers predictive and augmented maintenance advantages. From process to batch to discrete applications, your most complex challenges are solved with the combination of award-winning Rockwell Automation software, hardware, and services. The core of the FactoryTalk industrial automation software centers on users of software and data — allowing the designer, quality engineer, the business manager to easily interact with the data they need to continually improve your operation.
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LNS research investigates how IIoT technologies are transforming manufacturing operations, and presents framework and good design practice to mitigate safety risk and improve operational performance. Empower your people and understand the profitability of your production assets easily, securely and seamlessly to access meaningful information and turn it into business intelligence. Become an energy-neutral business with optimized supply and consumption through the efficient use of smart digital technologies. EcoStruxure Maintenance Advisor.