One major reason: where and how we produce food. The loss of wildlife is driven most directly by the loss and degradation of their habitats—such as clearing forests, grasslands, and wetlands to make room for pastures, cropland, and fish farms. The production of meat, poultry, dairy, and seafood contributes significantly to habitat loss as well as greenhouse gas emissions and water use. At the same time, some livestock and feed production practices—such as well-managed grazing of cattle on grasslands and the use of cover crops to build soil health—can help mitigate environmental impacts and improve yields.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to solve the issue of renting industrial premises, but each case is unique.
If you want to know how to solve your particular problem, please contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
- Environmental impact of meat production
- Wastewater treatment challenges in food processing and agriculture
- Meat & Dairy Industries Overproduce Despite Plummeting Demand
- Beef and Dairy Industries in “Death Spiral,” Will Collapse by 2030, Report Says
- Florence exposes North Carolina’s livestock industry
- Intensive animal farming
- Food Wise 2025
- Dairy intensification: Drivers, impacts and alternatives
- Industrial Food Animal Production
- Winds of change: Tackling the impact of the cattle industry on climate change
Environmental impact of meat productionVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: If The Meat Industry Was Honest - Honest Ads
We believe this makes the work of APJ more important than ever. We have no corporate, foundation or university angel, so our ability to publish relies on our core supporters. Your support allows us to provide APJ free to our 19, regular readers and thousands of others around the world who access the journal through reprints and other sources.
Enter your email address and an amount and click on Paypal. You can pay by credit card or paypal. Seeking to industrialize its hinterland, and exploit its vast wealth of grazing livestock, China created slaughtering and processing facilities across its northern grasslands during the s. Since the s, much of this infrastructure has been privatized by companies which, like their predecessors, seek efficiency through economies of scale.
Brutal competition over price and constant arrival of new domestic and foreign players have encouraged the integration of processing chains, but also sidelined small operators, and created gaps in safety best epitomized by the tainted milk scandal. China is also the second largest producer of beef, outperforming traditional producers like Argentina.
From the 24 th largest producer of milk in , China has recently grown to the fourth largest, following only the EU, the US and India. As figure 1 shows, meat production of all sorts has expanded significantly since the s. Figure 1: Breakdown of Chinese meat production by four major types, and 3. China's beef, mutton and dairy industries are massive—and they are growing. Video introduction to the Baotou beef and mutton producers trade and industry fair.
From fair website. Click image to view. But beyond absolute market size, a new generation of Chinese enterprises is also changing and developing the industry as it integrates with global partners, and seeks efficiencies in mass production. Much of the industry today is inhabited by two different worlds, one of an abundance of small peasant household production and another of large concentrated modern farms.
Although small household farms that raise less than 10 cows or 30 sheep have the largest proportion of farm ownership, their share of production is declining as intensification rapidly increases see Tables 1 and 2. The northern provinces of Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang have been at the front line of these changes.
While beef production has shifted to agricultural provinces like Shandong and Henan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia remain dominant in dairy, and Inner Mongolia alone accounts for 22 percent of sheep production. Leading the way in the intensification of the industry see Figure 2 , new ventures in these northern provinces are being built on an eye-popping scale. Figure 2: Percentage change between and for the number of Chinese beef farms with an annual inventory of over head 8. The rise of large-scale sheep and cattle industries in China follows a worldwide trend in the growth of factory farming, and in China is both policy- and market-led.
The party-state has sought to hasten industry development through a particular bias towards consolidation to large-scale farms as a means of promoting both quality food safety and quantity food security of meat and dairy production, and of addressing environmental concerns.
Yet even as the number of household farms is decreasing, small farms those with under 50 head still produce the majority of livestock, and the increasing integration of production chains over long distances has in many cases created new roles for small farmers as specialist contractors. This complex and ongoing transformation of both production and consumption has commercial, ecological and dietary implications. Trade in grazing animals has a long history in China.
Centuries-old distance trade routes connected the grasslands of what is now Inner Mongolia to consumers within the Chinese provinces. Well into the twentieth century, there were lucrative annual drives of sheep into the northern cities, and a brisk trade in Chinese cattle to buyers in Hong Kong, Vladivostok, Osaka and beyond.
A brief process of pastoral reform muqu gaige , followed by willing or unwilling organization of newly sedentarized pastoralists into herding communes muqu gongshe gradually brought sheep and cattle into the command economy.
Although much of this product was destined for overseas markets, especially the Soviet Union and the Arab world, local consumption of meat and dairy in cities adjacent to herding regions remained high, even during periods of great privation such as the Great Leap Forward. At a national level, however, per capita consumption of both meat and dairy remained very low throughout the first three decades.
The policies of the Deng Xiaoping era prioritized pastoral production for domestic consumption. The Household Responsibility System, best known for distributing collectively-held agrarian resources to farmers, also incentivized pastoral production by allocating animals and grazing access to herding households.
While the reemergence of household pastoralism incentivized small producers, it also fragmented production. Increasingly during the s and 90s, new policies emerged to promote consolidation and large-scale production. Subsidies, tax incentives and preferential land rental fees encouraged the transition to factory farms.
By the beginning of the new century, meat and dairy production were poised for takeoff. The shift was especially pronounced in dairy. Aided by the lower cost and increased capacity of milk powder processing, as well as the arrival of ultra-high temperature UHT processing technology, dairy producers began to concentrate production in new and ever larger facilities in Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang.
Industry growth was further precipitated by the Animal Husbandry Law which emphasized the importance of industrial modernization through the promotion of large-scale farms.
During this time, the increasing availability of feed changed the way that animals were raised, allowing much of the industry to depend less on pastures including state grass farms and more on farmed crops. Much of this new caloric wealth was Heilongjiang corn moving south for use as animal feed.
The use of more efficient feed, like grain crops or alfalfa hay, is one of the drivers of intensification for meat and dairy production in China. Figure 3 by authors, Figures 4 and 5 from here. The global nature of livestock production, exemplified by the feedstuff trade, expanded in the early s as foreign enterprises were allowed greater involvement in domestic production. It accompanied a generational change in the Chinese industry, as iconic state ventures were one by one either shuttered or sold to new owners.
The Hailar and Gannan dairies went to Chinese buyers, and the Hailar meat processing plant was purchased by investors from Singapore. With proximity to both grain and grassland, places like Hailar and Qiqihar had long been centers of animal trade, and towns like Anda in Heilongjiang had been producing and exporting milk products often as butter for well over a century.
The intensification of production during the early decades of the PRC was centered on these provinces, but the limited ability to ship processed dairy most often as milk powder meant that most production remained near cities. Yet government support alone cannot explain everything. The government of Wuyuan County in Bayannuur offered financial incentives to its first generation of industrial sheep farmers, who nevertheless remained unable to produce at a profit.
Unwilling to relinquish their subsidies, these ventures eventually resorted to renting sheep from local farmers in order to fool visiting government officials. In contrast, while many newer, successful ventures also enjoy good relations with government, and often preferential land and tax policies, they emphasize that the real attraction of a place lies in its productive advantages, which include the iconic value that certain locations have for consumers, who associate beef, mutton and milk with the romantic image of the grasslands.
The most visible change to the industry has been in quantity—the number of producers, and emergence of super-sized enterprises like the sheep producer Green Grassland Qingqing caoyuan , or the dairy giants Mengniu and Yili—but just as important is the increasing integration of supply chains at every stage of the production process.
Eased by cheap transportation costs, longer production chains have also grown more complex. But like agriculture, animal industries are grounded in local realities, and their business factors change from year to year. A practice or relationship that has been discovered to work in one place may not work in another, and one that is economical at one time might not be so the next year.
The result is that even the largest enterprises do not have a single production chain , so much as a production network , with each node presenting choices and opportunities to change practices, mix and match new suppliers, and outsource or insource individual stages of production.
Consider the pastoral production of the mid-twentieth century. In places like Inner Mongolia or Qinghai, where herded animals were abundant, the value of the live animals was relatively low. Rather, the value was in the processed product—wool, hides or meat—and specifically, the ability to get that product to market. It is largely what separated the quick regional development of Hulunbuir, which was crossed in by a railway and subsequently enjoyed a succession of Russian, Japanese and Chinese infrastructural investment, and the lagging development of neighboring Xilingol, which did not.
Large processing complexes such as the sprawling Hailar slaughterhouse became the economic center of entire pastoral regions, and the bottleneck in a linear production chain: until the s, herds of cattle and sheep were driven by nine-man teams into Hailar from as far away as km, a process that was both exhausting, and expensive because the animals lost significant weight along the journey.
While the reforms of the s have shifted the task of conveyance to professional middlemen, who purchase and deliver livestock by truck, the basic mechanism remained the same because choices for slaughtering, and thus for sale, were highly limited.
Changes since the s have introduced an increasing number of choices at all stages of production. One of these choices is in how the animals are raised, meaning that a great deal of primary production now falls somewhere in between pastoralism and farming. The overall lower cost and increasing availability of grass either imported from abroad or trucked in from grass farms in places like Jilin and of different commercial feeds allows farmers to mix different feed styles, for example following one season of grazing with another of farm feeding, or supplementing a grass diet with feed during periods of heavy milking, or before slaughter.
Again, many of these decisions will change year to year, depending on the constantly shifting mix in price factors. Mega-farms like Green Grassland are the most visible manifestation of this new value chain. Founded in , Green Grassland has , sheep at its main facility in Wuyuan, and smaller numbers at production sites in Henan and Xinjiang.
It also maintains its own facilities for feed production, slaughtering, processing and distribution. People at Green Grassland were universal in their conviction that pure pastoralism has no future in China.
While pastoral production is in some ways less expensive, it is also unpredictable, subject to season and weather, and produces a non-standard product that the market no longer wants. By integrating the entire production chain, Green Grassland aims to out-compete pastoral production on quality assurance.
With the efficiencies of large scale operations, they now expect to outcompete on price as well. But even this integrated chain is not an island.
Green Grassland does not breed its own lambs: for that it depends on outside breeders in places like Tongliao, 1, km to the northeast, where it keeps an on-site facility and buying agent. Last year Green Grassland bought over , lambs from these small producers, who have grass and feed in abundance, but no market for their adult animals. Besides outsourcing breeding, Green Grassland also commissions local factories to produce some of its feed a second feed factory is expected to come online in , and rents out use of its slaughtering and packing facilities to other producers.
Even a very highly integrated production chain like Green Grassland depends on the outside for services and supplementary income. Lambs recently arrived from Tongliao to Green Grass farm. A different transformation is taking place within dairy. Like the trade in meat animals, an earlier model of production connected dairy farmers in a linear hierarchy to milking or collection centers shougoudian in the village or county.
The milk itself came from millions of small producers, each with only a few dairy cows, and often run by former farmers who were new to the industry. After the Fuyang milk crisis of , in which nutrient-stripped milk powder was sold by illegal operators, government action further prompted consolidation of production around a few key players who, it was hoped would have sufficient incentive to police quality control.
The melamine crisis revealed in spectacular fashion the weakness of this policy. Later investigations implicated every stage—production, collection and purchasing—of milk production to have been susceptible to quality tampering. The result is a higher cost of operations, but also a much higher sale price for their product. Other companies have variations on this theme: Qingdao-based United Dairy operates industrial dairy plants in Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, but leases milk cows from local farmers, thus maintaining quality control while avoiding large upfront costs.
Conversely, the diversity of production systems does leave options, albeit more limited ones, for those who operate outside of these more demanding chains.
Cattle and sheep producers in Hulunbuir still sell to the larger and smaller slaughterhouses in Hailar, but many of these are lower tech operations that cater primarily to local restaurants and wet markets: cattle and sheep are delivered and slaughtered before sunrise, and the meat is shipped and sold within a day, all without any further processing.
Like the sheep farmers in Tongliao, many large and small cattle farmers in Hulunbuir sell their newly weaned calves to professional buyers, keeping only a portion of the breeding adults. The difference between these tracks of production is more stark in dairy. In the early s, there were dozens of dairy brands, most of which distributed on a provincial or smaller scale. Many of these smaller farms have in reality been wholly or partially bought out by the large producers, who hope to use the name recognition of numerous brand streams.
But others remain more independent and survive by focusing on a niche product such as milk powder or dried yoghurt. Others such as such as Great Wall Dairy near Zhangjiakou, or Clear River, Green Pasture Dairy near Hailar operate exclusively in the less technologically demanding end of the local market, producing chilled fresh milk and yoghurt, but not intending to move into more distant markets.
Emerging digital technologies hold promise for revolutionizing dairy, from management of the herd to management of the individual cow. Compounded by a growing population, the dairy industry will need to produce billion kilograms more milk. The difference between a high and low performing cow can be considerable. In ever larger and more intensive production environments, with fewer people wanting to work on farms, management is emerging as an even more significant challenge. In such a setting, dairy farming has focused on managing the average cow, not the individual. A glaring gap for dairy farmers is data.
Wastewater treatment challenges in food processing and agriculture
In combination with the projected world population of nine billion by , further malnourishment of both humans and animals may occur; therefore, understanding of the current status of food waste and reuse is important. Large amounts of food waste meat, vegetables, fruits, and breads are produced daily. Results of the previous research suggest that food waste can be used successfully in diets of monogastric animals. The poultry industry is growing globally and uses large amounts of corn and soy for poultry diets; therefore, research should be conducted to investigate the partial use of alternative feed ingredients to meet the growing demand for poultry production. We proposed that food waste, occurring in all sectors of the food supply chain, could become a partial substitute for corn and soy in broiler diets. Variations in food production, distribution, and consumption have led to exorbitant food waste around the world.
Meat & Dairy Industries Overproduce Despite Plummeting Demand
Dairy production systems have rapidly intensified over the past several decades. Dairy farms in many world regions are larger and concentrated in fewer hands. Higher productivity can increase overall economic gains but also incurs site-specific social and environmental costs. In this paper, we review the drivers and impacts of dairy intensification. We identify in the literature four prominent concerns about dairy intensification: the environment, animal welfare, socioeconomic well-being, and human health. We then critically assess three frameworks—sustainable intensification, multifunctionality, and agroecology—which promise win—win solutions to these concerns.
With the quota regime now consigned to history, the freedom to realise the full potential of the dairy sector in terms of output, export earnings, rural employment and investment is upon us. This shared vision can in many respects be seen to have been borne out of the cross sector planning and foresight that was invested into preparation for a post quota environment. Underpinning these factors are the kind of resilience and ingenuity that has seen our dairy co- ops build global brands and reputations. Ireland is renowned both for its relatively high productivity and for being an early adopter of new technologies at producer level. While there are undoubted expansionary and growth opportunities for dairy farmers in the post-quota which have brought much welcomed optimism and positivity to the sector, such sentiments needs to be grounded in pragmatism and focus on the important metrics that will bring enhanced profitability at farm level and which also respect the natural environment. Otherwise we risk eroding our competitive advantage as well as damaging the environment. More recent years have been witness to an increased emphasis on adding value, for example as with infant formula production and ingredients for same, higher value premium cheeses and butters as well as nutrition products and ingredients. In this context, an overriding consideration for the dairy sector will be the need to continually improve processing competitiveness, increase scale and improve cost efficiency through consolidation, where feasible, to encourage collaboration between processors to optimise costs and investment.
Beef and Dairy Industries in “Death Spiral,” Will Collapse by 2030, Report Says
The range of food products presents different wastewater challenges. Examples include: fruits and vegetables for canning and preserving, fish, meat and poultry, dairy products, and fats and oils. Wastewater generated from food production and agricultural activities is a major source of environmental pollution.
The environmental impact of meat production varies because of the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. All agricultural practices have been found to have a variety of effects on the environment. Some of the environmental effects that have been associated with meat production are pollution through fossil fuel usage, animal methane, effluent waste, and water and land consumption. Meat is obtained through a variety of methods, including organic farming , free range farming , intensive livestock production , subsistence agriculture , hunting , and fishing. Meat is considered one of the prime factors contributing to the current sixth mass extinction. Globally it is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases GHG and one of the leading causal factors in the loss of biodiversity , and in developed and emerging countries it is perhaps the leading source of water pollution. Livestock have been estimated to provide power for tillage of as much as half of the world's cropland. On August 8, , the IPCC released a summary of the special report which asserted that a shift towards plant-based diets would help to mitigate and adapt to climate change.
Florence exposes North Carolina’s livestock industry
All industry branches produce side streams, with heat and water being the most traditional ones. Industrial processes almost always include heating and cooling stages, but heat is not always recovered and reused. Now is a good time to walk the talk. Water has received even less attention as a side stream than heat. This gives water-efficient industry operators a chance to stand out and build a competitive edge over their competitors. In addition to heat and water, a significant number of other side streams can be recovered and reused.
Intensive animal farming
Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production , also known by its opponents as factory farming ,  is a type of intensive agriculture , specifically an approach to animal husbandry designed to maximize production, while minimizing costs. There is a continuing debate over the benefits, risks and ethics of intensive animal farming. The issues include the efficiency of food production; animal welfare ; health risks and the environmental impact e. Intensive animal farming is a relatively recent development in the history of agriculture , and the result of scientific discoveries and technological advances. Innovations from the late 19th century generally parallel developments in mass production in other industries in the latter part of the Industrial Revolution. The discovery of vitamins and their role in animal nutrition , in the first two decades of the 20th century, led to vitamin supplements, which allowed chickens to be raised indoors. Chemicals developed for use in World War II gave rise to synthetic pesticides. Developments in shipping networks and technology have made long-distance distribution of agricultural produce feasible. Agricultural production across the world doubled four times between and to ; to ; to ; and to to feed a global population of one billion human beings in and 6. In the s, 24 percent of the American population worked in agriculture compared to 1.
Food Wise 2025
So is the grass really greener on the other side? Should you make that cheeseburger a double?
Dairy intensification: Drivers, impacts and alternatives
We believe this makes the work of APJ more important than ever. We have no corporate, foundation or university angel, so our ability to publish relies on our core supporters.
Industrial Food Animal Production
Data Navigator , Smart Forms and Navi-DASH fit seamlessly into the cheese manufacturing process and many large cheese producers rely on our products as the backbone of their cheese manufacturing operations. Our solutions collect real-time and important data throughout the cheese making, cutting, packaging and shipping process and put it in the hands of the people who make the important decisions. We also integrate that data with corporate ERP systems for a seamless link between production and business systems.
Winds of change: Tackling the impact of the cattle industry on climate change
Consolidation in agriculture is the shift toward fewer and larger farms. The number of U. Over the same period, the average number of hogs per farm increased from 37 to 1,