The product line of the aerospace industry is, by necessity, broad because its primary products— flight vehicles —require up to millions of individual parts. In addition, many support systems are needed to operate and maintain the vehicles. In terms of sales, military aircraft have the largest market share, followed by space systems and civil aircraft, with missiles still a modest grouping. Because of enormous financial and technological demands, the number of manufacturers in the industry has become increasingly limited, while the average size of aerospace firms has grown through acquisition or merger. Builders of civil aircraft comprise two categories: producers of general aviation aircraft and producers of heavy aircraft.
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- Aerospace industry
- The Evolution of the Composite Fuselage: A Manufacturing Perspective
- Airbus BelugaXL enters service, adding XL capacity to the fleet
- The breakthrough Grob 120TP trainer
- The Evolution of the Composite Fuselage: A Manufacturing Perspective
- Composite Manufacturing Aerospace
- Aircraft transparencies
- Edgley Aeronautics takes the floor to build prototype glider
- The History of Aviation
Aerospace industryVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Helicopter tows aerobatic glider
A review of critical technologies and manufacturing advances that have enabled the evolution of the composite fuselage is described. The enabling technologies and current approaches being used for wide body aircraft fuselage fabrication and the potential reasons why are addressed. Some questions about the future of composite fuselage are posed based on the lessons learned from today and yesterday. Aerospace Engineering.
A historical perspective provides an understanding of how the current state-of-practice for composite fuselage manufacturing has evolved. It also provides insight into what the future state of composite fuselage manufacturing might look like.
Figure 1 shows a familiar graph that shows the increase in composites usage in military and commercial aircraft over time. Initial applications of carbon fiber reinforced composites CFRP in both commercial and military aircraft were limited mostly to non-structural applications such as fairings and flight control surfaces.
As the industry continued to mature, material and processes became better understood and cost effectiveness improved to the level that commercial aircraft manufacturers incorporated the technology into the latest generation of wide body and other new aircraft. Research and development of high performance composite materials and processes for aerospace applications in the Unites States was first conducted in the s at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio [ 1 ].
The focus of this early research was primarily for military applications. NASA initiated research devoted to the development of high performance composites for commercial aircraft and space vehicles in the late s. Over the years, NASA has worked collectively with industry and academia to develop affordable technologies to improve safety and performance of aircraft and launch vehicles. In general, programs started at a coupon level and looked at a wide range of samples to down select design approaches, materials of construction, tooling and manufacturing processes to build and test coupons, subcomponents and ultimately full scale components.
The B-2 Stealth Bomber program was also taking place during the s and provided many lessons learned related to the manufacture of large composite primary structure. For the B-2, survivability performance was one of the primary reasons for the extensive use of carbon fiber composites—cost and producibility were not the most critical factors. This program presented the opportunity to demonstrate the productivity that was possible using automated lamination processes such as ATL and AFP.
Another program which derived direct benefit from the ACT program is the V Composites have been used extensively and aggressively in helicopters more than any other type of aircraft because weight is such a critical factor. The V uses composites for the wings, fuselage skins, empennage, side body fairings, doors, and nacelles.
AFP technology is used to fabricate the aft fuselage skin in one piece. Both Bell and Boeing also incorporate cocured, hat stiffened fuselage structures, using solid silicone mandrels, on their portions of the program. The program was part of an effort focused on manufacturing technology for the Linear Manufacturing of Large Aircraft Composite Primary Structure Fuselage.
The multi-phase program was directed toward the definition and demonstration of manufacturing methods for cocuring stringer stiffened fuselage panels using 1 existing, qualified material systems; 2 automated skin fabrication; 3 inner mold line IML controlled tooling; 4 non-autoclave curing technology. The program followed a building-block approach through four phases Figure 2 : Phase I—methods definition.
As the program moved through various phases, lessons learned where documented and applied to the next phase. Phase I lessons learned included: Raw material required tow bad, tape good changes to improve panel quality using automated lamination equipment. Non-autoclave cured panel mechanical properties were equivalent to autoclave cured panels. Phase II lessons learned included: Non-autoclave cure has risks associated with consumable bagging materials.
Automation can be applied but presents reliability risks and potential equipment downtime. Among the lessons learned as a result of Phases III and IV were the economics related to process scale up for both size and rate.
This included ply cutting and kitting time for panel fabrication and backing paper removal and management issues affecting tow placement and stringer laminate preplying Figure 5. Northrop developed hat stiffened fuselage skin manufacturing technology in support of the YF Figure 7. One critical problem to solve was the removal of hat stiffener mandrel tooling from the cured part. The resin system used for the tooling was bismaleimide BMI and the tools were autoclave cured on male, machined monolithic graphite source tools.
The hat stiffeners that run longitudinally along the skin were cocured using a silicone mandrel system developed by Northrop using Rubbercraft as a supplier. The silicone based solid mandrel system included a solid rubber mandrel, a butterfly caul and a resin end dam. The silicone mandrel was designed to be removed from the cured part after pulling and elongating the mandrel to reduce the cross section enough to release from the part.
The butterfly caul was designed to help consistently control the OML of the hat stiffener. It also helped to greatly simplify the bagging process which allows for the use of a broader range of operators instead of relying solely on a highly skilled mechanic.
The end dam was designed to be cheap and disposable and replace much of the inner bagging process complexity of sealing off the hat stiffener to prevent resin bleed during the cure cycle Figure 8. This is not a hard process, but is critical and tedious. Other advantages included minimizing material scrap, simplifying raw material storage, and supporting non-autoclave fabrication processes.
The development of net shape damage-tolerant textile preforms and the development of innovative liquid molding tooling concepts supported this opportunity. The technologies have progressed to state-of-practice processes with both the and the A programs using liquid molding and textile preform technology for fabricating fuselage frame elements.
A large team of industry and university partners also supported the program. The primary objective of the ATCAS program was to develop and demonstrate an integrated technology that enables the cost and weight effective use of composite materials in fuselage structures for future aircraft. The area selected for study was identified as Section 46 on Boeing wide body aircraft Figure This section contains many of the structural details and manufacturing challenges found throughout the fuselage.
This includes variations in design details to address high loads at the forward end and lower portions of the fuselage. The loads decrease toward the aft end and the upper portion of the fuselage, allowing for transitions in the thickness of the structure that are tailored to match the structural loading. A quadrant panel approach was selected for study as shown in Figure The cross section is split into four segments, a crown, keel, and left and right side panels.
The circumferential, four quadrant panel approach was selected with the idea of reducing assembly costs by reducing the number of longitudinal splices.
This built-up assembly approach is baseline to metallic aircraft manufacturing and is similar to the approach Airbus selected for most of the fuselage of the A Manufacturing process development and design trade studies contributed to the development of Cost Optimization Software for Transport Aircraft Design Evaluation COSTADE which allowed for defining and evaluating the cost-effectiveness and producibility of various designs.
Included in the program were assessments of tooling, materials and process controls needed for future full-barrel fabrication like Boeing selected for the The structural concepts studied included stiffened skin structures achieved by stand alone or combinations of cocuring, cobonding, bonding, and mechanical attachment of stringers and frames to monolithic or sandwich panel skins Table 1. The crown section study selected fiber placed skins laminated on an IML controlled layup mandrel with the skin subsequently cut into individual panels and transferred to OML cure tools.
Hat stiffeners used solid silicone mandrels located longitudinally along the IML of the skin panels for cocuring. The recommended optimized panel design included cobonding of cured frame elements while cocuring the hat stiffeners and the skin. The cured frames were demonstrated using braided textile preforms and resin transfer molding RTM. One of the main challenges of the crown panel concept was the bond integrity between the precured frames cobonded to a skin panel that is stiffened with cocured hat stringers.
The mechanically fastened frame approach greatly reduces the complexity of IML tooling needed to cocure the hat stiffeners and cobond the frames. This is especially true at the intersections of the frame and hat. Producibility issues are complicated by the blind nature of the IML of the skin being completely covered by flexible cauls and the reusable bagging system.
The structural arrangement shown in Figure 12 is very similar to the configurations that ended up on both the and A programs. The program studied the pultrusion process for producing skin stringers. Improved process control and reduced waste are among the perceived advantages; process maturity, constant cross-section stringers and costs associated with secondary bonding or cobonding are among the disadvantages.
Airbus has studied automating stringer fabrication using both pultrusion and RTM but felt limited by aspects of both processes. As an answer, Airbus developed their version of pultrusion RTM. Figure 13 shows equipment completed in that is being used to develop and qualify the process [ 4 ]. This hybrid fabrication approach allows the use of preform laminates instead of being limited to unidirectional reinforcements like traditional pultrusion and supports continuous production instead of batch processing associated with the traditional RTM.
Instead of dipping the preform stack through a resin bath, it is pulled into an RTM tool that is open on both ends. The tool entry is cooled so the resin is too viscous to flow out; the middle is heated to obtain resin flow and cure; more heat is added at the end to increase resin viscosity to make sure it does not flow out and reduce cure pressure.
Even in the early days of development, industry leaders believed in the possibility of higher layup rates using AFP than was possible with hand layup, but the capabilities and the scale that the industry has achieved today is astounding. Almost as astounding as how the industry reinvented itself from a raw material cost saving technology to an enabling technology for large aircraft structural components. The technology was in its infancy as ATK was developing tow placement as it was more commonly referred to originally from its roots in filament winding technology.
A wet process of running fiber through a resin bath prior to placement onto the layup mandrel was never able to realize the quality and consistency required by the design. This same process has been used in the large wind blade manufacturing process and it reminds us of how challenging and messy!
While those early blades were built with lower manufacturing costs, the argument can be made that many of those blades failed very early in their lifecycle and required costly repairs or replacement to generate electricity. If the blade cannot turn because it has delaminated, it is not generating any electricity in addition to the cost of repair or replacement. Not only did the technology not realize the cost savings of dry fiber and wet resin, it was forced to adopt prepreg technology into the process—namely dealing with backing paper and ADDING to the cost of unidirectional prepreg tape by requiring it to be slit into prepreg tows.
The process was selected based on several factors including the potential for reduced material cost compared to prepreg tape , the potential to achieve high lay-up rates over contoured surfaces, and the potential to efficiently support a significant amount of ply tailoring.
In addition, the fact that tow material does not require backing paper eliminated a perceived risk of greater machine downtime. When compared with the quality and consistency of parts made with prepreg tape, tow preg and subsequent prepreg tow, was not acceptable.
The variability seen in the quality of the resultant panels would require compensation in the design of the part, resulting in weight penalties. But this did not prove fatal to the technology, instead tow placement reinvented itself Figure But the ACT program allowed Boeing to better understand, study, define and refine the process to guide the technology development based on the needs of the user community.
What has ended up on production on the is not the direct result of that ACT program, but the ACT program created the path for subsequent AFP development to follow and improve upon. One clear thread throughout the development of composite fuselage fabrication processes that was recognized and considered very early on, was tooling.
The fabrication of large composite fuselage structures was also enabled by the tooling required to support it. The ability of industry to produce tools using specified materials and built to the size, scale and accuracy required by aerospace and defense applications were critical factors. The ACT program demonstrated how the producibility of large, integrated, composite fuselage structures depend heavily on the tooling to ensure compatibility of the skin cure tool, the cocured or cobonded stringer tooling and the frame tooling.
Controlling these elements is necessary to minimize gaps and interference fit between cured detail components. Understanding the effect of tolerance accumulations, warpage, liquid and hard shim allowances and fastener pull-up forces creates the ability to calculate the impact on fuselage structural arrangement and weight, part manufacturing cost and risk and fuselage assembly and integration time. These elements become even more critical as the size of the fuselage grows to and A proportions.
These requirements drove the team toward silicone or flexible laminate mandrels—reusability was also a key consideration. While the use of silicone mandrels and the flexible IML tooling proved adequate for controlling hat stiffener shape, quality and location for the demonstration panels, it was also recognized that silicone mandrels presented many challenges in both scale-up and production scenarios.
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The Evolution of the Composite Fuselage: A Manufacturing Perspective
While many feel the history of aviation begins with Orville and Wilbur Wright, the truth is the history of aviation extends more than 2, years, starting with the first manmade kite. These kites, like UAVs unmanned air vehicles of today, found use by the military to help create attack plans against their enemies. At the turn of the second century, the military found use in the implementation of hot air balloons. Interestingly, when a lit oil lamp located within the balloon flew overhead, the enemy did not know what to make of it, frightening them. While there were many attempts at flight between the turn of the second century and the first flight of Flyer 1, the majority of flights were unmanned, employing gases that were lighter than air.
Airbus BelugaXL enters service, adding XL capacity to the fleet
A review of critical technologies and manufacturing advances that have enabled the evolution of the composite fuselage is described. The enabling technologies and current approaches being used for wide body aircraft fuselage fabrication and the potential reasons why are addressed. Some questions about the future of composite fuselage are posed based on the lessons learned from today and yesterday. Aerospace Engineering. A historical perspective provides an understanding of how the current state-of-practice for composite fuselage manufacturing has evolved. It also provides insight into what the future state of composite fuselage manufacturing might look like. Figure 1 shows a familiar graph that shows the increase in composites usage in military and commercial aircraft over time.
The breakthrough Grob 120TP trainer
Composite Manufacturing Aerospace. Aerospace looks to composites for solutions Mark Holmes New materials to reduce weight and speed manufacturing processes are being demanded by the aerospace industry and composites are rising to the challenge. Aerospace Manufacturing and Assembly Position Description The industry employs scientists, engineers, technicians, production workers, and administrative and support activities personnel. Composite materials are expensive.
The term aerospace is derived from the words aeronautics and spaceflight. The aerospace industry is engaged in the research, development, and manufacture of flight vehicles, including unpowered gliders and sailplanes see gliding , lighter-than-air craft see balloon ; airship , heavier-than-air craft both fixed-wing and rotary-wing; see airplane ; military aircraft , missiles see rocket and missile system , space launch vehicles , and spacecraft manned and unmanned. Also included among its concerns are major flight-vehicle subsystems such as propulsion and avionics aviation electronics and key support systems necessary for the testing, operation, and maintenance of flight vehicles. In addition, the industry is engaged in the fabrication of nonaerospace products and systems that make use of aerospace technology. Technological progress is the basis for competitiveness and advancement in the aerospace industry. The industry is, as a result, a world leader in advancing science and technology. Aerospace systems have a very high value per unit weight and are among the most complex, as measured by the number of components in finished products. Consequently, it is economically and politically prestigious for a country to possess an aerospace industry. For the major aerospace countries, their own military establishments and, in some cases, foreign militaries constitute the largest customers. Most general aviation primarily private, business, and nonairline commercial aircraft are sold in the United States , with Europe becoming a growing marketplace and special-use markets developing in the Middle East and Latin America. While some companies are dedicated solely to aerospace, others are more diversified.
The Evolution of the Composite Fuselage: A Manufacturing Perspective
The s aviation world experienced fewer hijackings than the 70s. The actions taken by the International Civil Aviation Organization that required all passengers to pass through metal detectors reduced the number of occurrences in the 80s. As aviation events go, the Iran-Iraq War dominated the aviation timeline with both Iran and Iraq attacks on merchant shipping and oil platforms in the Persian Gulf. United States F Tomcats would see four aerial victories in the s. Two Libyan jets were shot down by Fs on August 19, , and again two Libyan jets were shot down by Fs on January 4, It is not an exhaustive list that includes every event but is a great summary of such a notable aviation decade. Many of the aircraft that operated around the globe in the 80s are still in flight today. Even with tight funding, electronic systems like the Identification Friend or Foe IFF Transponders, radar, communication equipment, and weapons systems must be maintained to ensure mission-critical components are ready to keep those fighters in the air. A qualified Depot Level Maintenance D-Level facility can eliminate the need to scrap repairable equipment by identifying the faults in malfunctioning equipment and repairing them quickly. With aging equipment, supporting technical data can be nonexistent, stopping repairs in their tracks.
Composite Manufacturing Aerospace
A irbus is an international reference in the aerospace sector. We design, manufacture and deliver industry-leading commercial aircraft, helicopters, military transports, satellites and launch vehicles, as well as providing data services, navigation, secure communications, urban mobility and other solutions for customers on a global scale. With a forward-looking strategy based on cutting-edge technologies, digital and scientific excellence, we aim for a better-connected, safer and more prosperous world. Zero-emission flight is taking a giant leap forward. Introducing E-Fan X, a hybrid-electric aircraft demonstrator 30 times more powerful than its predecessor.
Grob Aircraft has its own production plant on site along with its own airfield and testing facilities. The history starts really with the person behind it.
Edgley Aeronautics takes the floor to build prototype glider
In addition to our position on legacy programs GKN Aerospace has been selected to supply cabin windows for all recently launched commercial Engineered for added comfort with cooler cabin temperatures, appearance and the protection of your aircraft interior. Llamas had a wide variety of approvals and complete tool packages for the parts listed below.
The History of Aviation
А как же проваливай и умри. ГЛАВА 36 Ручное отключение. Сьюзан отказывалась что-либо понимать.
Христа ради, Мидж. Ну хватит .